Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxS (355-46-4)


710 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Mouse Models for Atherosclerosis Research-Which Is My Line?

Authors: Oppi, S; Lüscher, TF; Stein, S (2019) Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 6:46. [Review] HERO ID: 5926372

[Less] Atherosclerosis is one of the primary causes of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This chronic immunometabolic . . . [More] Atherosclerosis is one of the primary causes of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This chronic immunometabolic disease evolves during decades in humans and encompasses different organs and immune cell types, as well as local and systemic processes that promote the progression of the disease. The most frequently used animal model to study these atherogenic processes and inter-organ crosstalk in a short time frame are genetically modified mouse models. Some models have been used throughout the last decades, and some others been developed recently. These models have important differences in cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport pathway, obesity and diabetes as well as inflammatory processes. Therefore, the disease develops and progresses differently in the various mouse models. Since atherosclerosis is a multifaceted disease and many processes contribute to its progression, the choice of the right mouse model is important to study specific aspects of the disease. We will describe the different mouse models and provide a roadmap to facilitate current and future atherosclerosis researchers to choose the right model depending on their scientific question.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mechanisms of environmental contributions to fatty liver disease

Authors: Wahlang, B; Jin, J; Beier, JI; Hardesty, JE; Daly, EF; Schnegelberger, RD; Falkner, KC; Prough, RA; Kirpich, IA; Cave, MC (2019) Current Environmental Health Reports 6:80-94. [Review] HERO ID: 5935661

[Less] PURPOSE: Fatty liver disease (FLD) affects over 25% of the global population and may . . . [More] PURPOSE: Fatty liver disease (FLD) affects over 25% of the global population and may lead to liver-related mortality due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. FLD caused by occupational and environmental chemical exposures is termed "toxicant-associated steatohepatitis" (TASH). The current review addresses the scientific progress made in the mechanistic understanding of TASH since its initial description in 2010.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recently discovered modes of actions for volatile organic compounds and persistent organic pollutants include the following: (i) the endocrine-, metabolism-, and signaling-disrupting chemical hypotheses; (ii) chemical-nutrient interactions and the "two-hit" hypothesis. These key hypotheses were then reviewed in the context of the steatosis adverse outcome pathway (AOP) proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The conceptual understanding of the contribution of environmental exposures to FLD has progressed significantly. However, because this is a new research area, more studies including mechanistic human data are required to address current knowledge gaps.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: basic pathogenetic mechanisms in the progression from NAFLD to NASH

Author: Pierantonelli I., Svegliati-Baroni G. (2019) 103:e1-e13. HERO ID: 5160096

[Less] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially . . . [More] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially in western countries, where it is becoming the most frequent indication for liver transplantation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of diseases that from simple steatosis (pure NAFLD) can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the mechanisms behind its progression to NASH have been extensively studied. However, although the processes that determine fat accumulation are mostly clear, the mechanisms associated with the progression of the disease are not fully characterized. In predisposed patients, lipid accumulation can promote lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, thus triggering hepatocyte death, inflammation and fibrosis. The specific role of different lipids has been identified and free fatty acids as well as free cholesterol have been identified as toxic species. To make the picture more complex, the pathogenesis of NAFLD involves pathological connections between several organs, including the adipose tissue and the gut, with the liver. The "inflamed" adipose tissue plays a key role in the release of toxic lipids, whereas alterations in the gut-liver axis have been associated with the progression from NAFLD to NASH mediated by dysbiosis, alteration of intestinal barrier, and finally bacterial translocation, which can trigger proinflammatory and profibrogenetic pathways, finally leading to cirrhosis development.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 11 - Urinary system

Authors: Khan, KNM; Hard, GC; Li, X; Alden, CL (2018) In Fundamentals of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition) (pp. 213-271). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press. HERO ID: 6296171

[Less] The urinary system is a common target site for toxicity of drugs and environmental chemicals. The kidney . . . [More] The urinary system is a common target site for toxicity of drugs and environmental chemicals. The kidney is particularly susceptible because of the high blood flow to this organ relative to its mass and the unique property of renal tubular epithelium in concentrating urine and its constituents including drugs and chemicals. Three main clinical entities in humans associated with drug effects on kidney are the nephrotic syndrome, acute renal failure (ARF), and chronic renal failure. It is estimated that about 20% of all ARF cases in humans are related to pharmaceutical agents and that 2% to 5% of patients admitted to the hospital will develop drug-induced acute renal insufficiency. An estimated 500,000 new patients exposed to drugs on a worldwide basis each year develop end-stage renal disease. The estimated annual costs of dialysis and transplants are substantial, representing a major challenge to the pharmaceutical and chemical industries for developing safer molecules.

The gold standard method for identification of toxicity to the urinary system is light microscopic examination, supplemented with renal function tests and biochemical markers of cell injury in blood and urine. To refine the risk assessment, establishment of the cellular and subcellular organelle targets of xenobiotic injury by the pathologist forms a cornerstone in expanding the mechanistic understanding of the injury process. Through identification of cellular and subcellular targets, the most sensitive biomarkers can be identified to noninvasively monitor for the presence of a specific xenobiotic insult in laboratory animals and eventually in humans. This chapter emphasizes the structural and biochemical changes and the potential mechanisms involved in urinary tract toxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The role of macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Authors: Kazankov, K; Jørgensen, S; Thomsen, K.L.; Møller, HJ; Vilstrup, H; George, J; Schuppan, D; Grønbæk, H (2018) Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology 16:145-159. HERO ID: 5932818

[Less] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its inflammatory and often progressive subtype nonalcoholic . . . [More] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its inflammatory and often progressive subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are becoming the leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a primary indication for liver transplantation. The pathophysiology of NASH is multifactorial and not yet completely understood; however, innate immunity is a major contributing factor in which liver-resident macrophages (Kupffer cells) and recruited macrophages play a central part in disease progression. In this Review, we assess the evidence for macrophage involvement in the development of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in NASH. In this process, not only the polarization of liver macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype is important, but adipose tissue macrophages, especially in the visceral compartment, also contribute to disease severity and insulin resistance. Macrophage activation is mediated by factors such as endotoxins and translocated bacteria owing to increased intestinal permeability, factors released from damaged or lipoapoptotic hepatocytes, as well as alterations in gut microbiota and defined nutritional components, including certain free fatty acids, cholesterol and their metabolites. Reflecting the important role of macrophages in NASH, we also review studies investigating drugs that target macrophage recruitment to the liver, macrophage polarization and their inflammatory effects as potential treatment options for patients with NASH.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (PFHxS) and a Mixture of Endocrine Disrupters Reduce Thyroxine Levels and Cause Anti-Androgenic Effects in Rats

Authors: Ramhøj, L; Hass, U; Boberg, J; Scholze, M; Christiansen, S; Nielsen, F; Axelstad, M (2018) Toxicological Sciences 163:579-591. HERO ID: 4442260

[Less] The developmental toxicity of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is largely unknown despite widespread . . . [More] The developmental toxicity of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is largely unknown despite widespread environmental contamination and presence in human serum, tissues and milk.To thoroughly investigate PFHxS toxicity in developing rats and to mimic a realistic human exposure situation, we examined a low dose close to human relevant PFHxS exposure, and combined the dose-response studies of PFHxS with a fixed dose of twelve environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDmix).Two reproductive toxicity studies in time-mated Wistar rats exposed throughout gestation and lactation were performed. Study 1 included control, two doses of PFHxS and two doses of PFHxS+EDmix (n = 5-7). Study 2 included control, 0.05, 5 or 25 mg/kg body weight/day PFHxS, EDmix-only, 0.05, 5 or 25 mg PFHxS/kg plus EDmix (n = 13-20).PFHxS caused no overt toxicity in dams and offspring but decreased male pup birth weight and slightly increased liver weights at high doses and in combination with the EDmix. A marked effect on T4 levels was seen in both dams and offspring, with significant reductions from 5 mg/kg/day. The EDmix caused anti-androgenic effects in male offspring, manifested as slight decreases in anogenital distance, increased nipple retention and reductions of the weight of epididymides, ventral prostrate and vesicular seminalis.PFHxS can induce developmental toxicity and in addition results of the co-exposure studies indicated that PFHxS and the EDmix potentiate the effect of each other on various endpoints, despite their different modes of action. Hence, risk assessment may underestimate toxicity when mixture toxicity and background exposures are not taken into account.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Different biotransformation behaviors of perfluorooctane sulfonamide in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

Authors: Zhao, S; Zhou, T; Wang, B; Zhu, L; Chen, M; Li, D; Yang, L (2018) Journal of Hazardous Materials 346:191-198. HERO ID: 4234855

[Less] Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be . . . [More] Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be broken down to PFOS in environment and biota. In the present work, PFOSA was spiked in soil and its biodegradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The results indicated that PFOSA could be biodegraded to highly stable PFOS, which has the same perfluorinated carbon chain length as PFOSA, by microbes in soil. PFOSA could be taken up by wheat root and earthworm from soil with higher bioaccumulation ability than PFOS. In both wheat and earthworms, PFOSA also degraded to PFOS. However, other shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), were observed in wheat, but not in soil and earthworms, suggesting that wheat displayed distinctly different degradation mechanisms to PFOSA from soil microbes and earthworms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water

Authors: Li, Y; Fletcher, T; Mucs, D; Scott, K; Lindh, CH; Tallving, P; Jakobsson, K (2018) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75:46-51. HERO ID: 4238434

[Less] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.

METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).

RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.

CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of perfluoroalkyl acid isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Zhang, H; Wen, B; Wen, W; Ma, Y; Hu, X; Wu, Y; Luo, L; Zhang, S (2018) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1072:25-33. HERO ID: 4238436

[Less] Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental . . . [More] Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental source, fate, and human risks. In this study, a method was developed for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The separation efficiencies of two chromatographic columns and extraction capacities of different methods were tested. Compared with the C18 column (ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column), the column with an alkyl perfluorinated C8 stationary phase (Epic FO LB column), in combination with the distinct MS/MS transitions of analytes, allowed better separation of most isomers. The ion-pair extraction method showed more effective matrix separation than that of the alkaline digestion method, with recoveries ranging from 79.6-105% for biosolids, 80.4-116% for soils, and 68.0-114% for plant tissues. The method detection limits ranged from 10 to 55, 3-13, and 8-58pg/g dry weight for biosolids, soil, and plants, respectively. This method was applied successfully to quantify individual isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants. Six PFOA, eight PFOS, and two PFHxS isomers were found in the samples, with linear isomers being the dominant species. Further analysis revealed that the translocation potentials of branched isomers within plants were higher than those of linear isomers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plasmonic Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy with Au@SiO2@Cu2O/Perfluorohexane Nanocomposites

Authors: Liu, C; Dong, H; Wu, N; Cao, Y; Zhang, X (2018) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10:6991-7002. HERO ID: 4239573

[Less] Reactive oxygen species generation efficiency of photosensitizers and hypoxia microenvironment in solid . . . [More] Reactive oxygen species generation efficiency of photosensitizers and hypoxia microenvironment in solid tumor hamper photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Here, we introduce an efficient inorganic photosensitizer by incorporating plasmonic gold metal nanostructures into Cu2O semiconductors for PDT. By utilizing the plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET) process from Au to Cu2O, Au@SiO2@Cu2O (ASC) demonstrates a high singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.71 under a 670 nm laser irradiation. The ASC is loaded into oxygen self-enriched perfluorohexane (PFH) droplets and coated with liposome (Lip) to form Lip(ASC/PFH) nanocomposites. The achieved Lip(ASC/PFH) shows considerable anticancer efficacy for in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor growth. The proposed oxygen self-enriched PIRET-PDT concept has significant implication in PDT design.