Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxS (355-46-4)


476 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biomonitoring PFAAs in blood and semen samples: Investigation of a potential link between PFAAs exposure and semen mobility in China

Authors: Song, X; Tang, S; Zhu, H; Chen, Z; Zang, Z; Zhang, Y; Niu, X; Wang, X; Yin, H; Zeng, F; He, C (2018) Environment International 113:50-54. HERO ID: 4220306

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been suspected to act as endocrine disruptors and adversely affect . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been suspected to act as endocrine disruptors and adversely affect human reproductive health. We aimed to investigate the association between PFAAs in blood and semen, explore a potential link between PFAAs exposure and semen quality in the population of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China, one of the "world factories". The monitoring results demonstrated that the population (103 male participants) from the PRD region in this study had higher PFAAs levels in blood and semen than some other areas in China. PFOS was found at the highest mean concentrations of 118.16 ng/mL in blood and 5.31 ng/mL in semen among the nine PFAAs. Significant associations were found between concentrations of several analytes in blood and semen, including Σ9 PFAAs (r = 0.475, P < .01), PFOA (r = 0.215, P = .029), PFHS (r = 0.458, P < .01) and PFOS (r = 0.981, P < .01). BMI was the most important factor to PFAAs, but there was no significant difference in PFAAs concentrations in blood and semen collected from participants with different smoking and drinking habits, education background and occupations. Negative correlations were significantly observed between sperm motility and PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFBS, PFOA, PFHS, PFOS and Σ9PFAAs in semen. Therefore, exposure to PFAAs may result in a decline in semen mobility in participants from the PRD region.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkylsulfonic and carboxylic acids in earthworms (Eisenia fetida): Accumulation and effects results from spiked soils at PFAS concentrations bracketing environmental relevance

Authors: Karnjanapiboonwong, A; Deb, SK; Subbiah, S; Wang, D; Anderson, TA (2018) Chemosphere 199:168-173. HERO ID: 4234853

[Less] Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic . . . [More] Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 μg kg-1dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg-1wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 μg kg-1and all PFASs at 100,000 μg kg-1. The highest weight loss (29%) was observed for earthworms exposed to PFNA at 100,000 μg kg-1, which was significantly different from all other treatments except PFHpA at 100,000 μg kg-1. These results are expected to fill some data gaps in toxicity of PFASs in terrestrial environments and provide helpful information on the potential for trophic transport of PFASs from soil to higher organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Uptake, translocation and biotransformation of N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) by hydroponically grown plants

Authors: Zhao, S; Zhou, T; Zhu, L; Wang, B; Li, Z; Yang, L; Liu, L (2018) Environmental Pollution 235:404-410. HERO ID: 4234854

[Less] N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor . . . [More] N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor (PreFOS) which is used in sulfluramid. The present work studied the uptake, translocation and metabolism of N-EtFOSA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) by hydroponic exposure. Except for parent N-EtFOSA, its metabolites of perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in the roots and shoots of all the three plant species examined. This suggested that plant roots could take up N-EtFOSA from solutions efficiently, and translocate to shoots. A positive correlation was found between root concentration factors (RCFs) of N-EtFOSA and root lipid content. Much higher proportion of N-EtFOSA transformation products in plant tissues than in the solutions suggested that N-EtFOSA could be in vivo metabolized in plant roots and shoots to FOSAA, PFOSA and PFOS, and other additional shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including PFHxS and PFBS. The results suggested that plants had biotransformation pathways to N-EtFOSA that were different than those from microorganisms and animals. This study provides important information about the uptake and metabolism of PreFOSs in plants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Different biotransformation behaviors of perfluorooctane sulfonamide in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

Authors: Zhao, S; Zhou, T; Wang, B; Zhu, L; Chen, M; Li, D; Yang, L (2018) Journal of Hazardous Materials 346:191-198. HERO ID: 4234855

[Less] Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be . . . [More] Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be broken down to PFOS in environment and biota. In the present work, PFOSA was spiked in soil and its biodegradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The results indicated that PFOSA could be biodegraded to highly stable PFOS, which has the same perfluorinated carbon chain length as PFOSA, by microbes in soil. PFOSA could be taken up by wheat root and earthworm from soil with higher bioaccumulation ability than PFOS. In both wheat and earthworms, PFOSA also degraded to PFOS. However, other shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), were observed in wheat, but not in soil and earthworms, suggesting that wheat displayed distinctly different degradation mechanisms to PFOSA from soil microbes and earthworms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interactions of perfluoroalkyl substances with a phospholipid bilayer studied by neutron reflectometry

Authors: Nouhi, S; Ahrens, L; Campos Pereira, H; Hughes, AV; Campana, M; Gutfreund, P; Palsson, GK; Vorobiev, A; Hellsing, MS (2018) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 511:474-481. HERO ID: 4234858

[Less] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) . . . [More] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were investigated at the molecular level using neutron reflectometry. Representative PFASs with different chain length and functional groups were selected in this study including: perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). All PFASs were found to interact with the bilayer by incorporation, indicating PFAS ability to accumulate once ingested or taken up by organisms. The interactions were observed to increase with chain length and vary with the functional group as SO2NH2(FOSA)>SO2O-(PFOS)>COO-(PFNA). The PFAS hydrophobicity, which is strongly correlated with perfluorocarbon chain length, was found to strongly influence the interactions. Longer chain PFASs showed higher tendency to penetrate into the bilayer compared to the short-chain compounds. The incorporated PFASs could for all substances but one (PFNA) be removed from the lipid membrane by gentle rinsing with water (2mLmin-1). Although short-chain PFASs have been suggested to be the potentially less bioaccumulative alternative, we found that in high enough concentrations they can also disturb the bilayer. The roughness and disorder of the bilayer was observed to increase as the concentration of PFASs increased (in particular for the high concentrations of short-chain substances i.e. PFHxA and PFBS), which can be an indication of aggregation of PFASs in the bilayer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years

Authors: Zhang, H; Yolton, K; Webster, GM; Ye, X; Calafat, AM; Dietrich, KN; Xu, Y; Xie, C; Braun, JM; Lanphear, BP; Chen, A (2018) Environment International 111:224-231. HERO ID: 4238294

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.
[More] BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

METHODS: We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility.

RESULTS: Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with reading scores at age 5years. But PFHxS concentrations, at any exposure windows, were not associated with reading skills.

CONCLUSION: Prenatal and childhood serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations were positively associated with better children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years, but no association was found between serum PFHxS and reading skills.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Time trends in per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in California women: Declining serum levels, 2011-2015

Authors: Hurley, S; Goldberg, D; Wang, M; Park, JS; Petreas, M; Bernstein, L; Anton-Culver, H; Nelson, DO; Reynolds, P (2018) Environmental Science and Technology 52:277-287. HERO ID: 4238317

[Less] After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out . . . [More] After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out of use due to concerns raised by their persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in serum PFAS levels among 1257 middle-aged and older California women (ages 40-94) during a four year period, beginning approximately 5-10 years after these phase-outs began. An online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS was used to measure 10 long-chain PFASs in serum from blood collected cross-sectionally during 2011-2015 from a subset of participants in the California Teachers Study. Results from multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that serum concentrations of nearly all PFASs declined on average 10% to 20% per year. Serum levels of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) did not significantly decline. With the exception of PFHxS, the downward trend in serum concentrations was evident for all PFASs across all ages, although declines were comparatively steeper among the oldest women. These findings suggest that the phase-out of some common PFASs has resulted in reduced human exposures to them. The lack of a decline for PFHxS suggests that these exposures may be ongoing and underscores the importance of continued biomonitoring and research efforts to elucidate current pathways of exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

Authors: Hu, XC; Dassuncao, C; Zhang, X; Grandjean, P; Weihe, P; Webster, GM; Nielsen, F; Sunderland, EM (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:11. HERO ID: 4238355

[Less] BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects.

METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases.

RESULTS: Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PFOA is associated with diabetes and metabolic alteration in US men: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012

Authors: He, X; Liu, Y; Xu, B; Gu, L; Tang, W (2018) Science of the Total Environment 625:566-574. HERO ID: 4238388

[Less] Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is associated with a range of adverse health effects. However, . . . [More] Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is associated with a range of adverse health effects. However, it remains unclear whether PFAS at environmentally relevant exposure levels are related to diabetes and metabolite concentrations in adults. Using cross-sectional data from 7904 adults (age≥20years) in the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined the association of PFAS with the prevalence of diabetes and metabolite concentrations. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of diabetes prevalence with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) levels. A multivariate generalised linear regression was further performed to investigate the associations between PFAS exposure and some metabolites. We identified a strong positive association between serum PFOA and diabetes prevalence in men with an adjusted model (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.63-4.35; P for trend=0.001). No significant association between serum PFOA and diabetes prevalence was observed in women (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.88-2.46; P for trend=0.737). Furthermore, diabetes was not related to PFOS, PFHxS and PFNA, regardless of gender. In the gender-stratified generalised linear models, men and women with the highest PFOA levels demonstrated a 1.43% (95% CI: 0.62%-2.34%) and a 1.07% (95% CI: 0.27%-1.97%) greater increase in serum total cholesterol (P for trend=0.006 and 0.001) compared to those with the lowest PFOA levels. There were no significant associations between serum PFOA and other metabolites. These results provide epidemiological evidence that environment-related levels of serum PFOA may be positively associated with the prevalence of diabetes in men and with total cholesterol in adults. Further clinical and animal studies are urgently needed to elucidate putative causal relationships and shed light on the potential mode of action involved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water

Authors: Li, Y; Fletcher, T; Mucs, D; Scott, K; Lindh, CH; Tallving, P; Jakobsson, K (2018) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75:46-51. HERO ID: 4238434

[Less] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.

METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).

RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.

CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.