Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxS (355-46-4)


266 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Plasmonic Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy with Au@SiO2@Cu2O/Perfluorohexane Nanocomposites

Authors: Liu, C; Dong, H; Wu, N; Cao, Y; Zhang, X (2018) 10:6991-7002. HERO ID: 4239573

[Less] Reactive oxygen species generation efficiency of photosensitizers and hypoxia microenvironment in solid . . . [More] Reactive oxygen species generation efficiency of photosensitizers and hypoxia microenvironment in solid tumor hamper photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Here, we introduce an efficient inorganic photosensitizer by incorporating plasmonic gold metal nanostructures into Cu2O semiconductors for PDT. By utilizing the plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET) process from Au to Cu2O, Au@SiO2@Cu2O (ASC) demonstrates a high singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.71 under a 670 nm laser irradiation. The ASC is loaded into oxygen self-enriched perfluorohexane (PFH) droplets and coated with liposome (Lip) to form Lip(ASC/PFH) nanocomposites. The achieved Lip(ASC/PFH) shows considerable anticancer efficacy for in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor growth. The proposed oxygen self-enriched PIRET-PDT concept has significant implication in PDT design.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anticancer potentiality of lignan rich fraction of six Flaxseed cultivars

Authors: Ezzat, SM; Shouman, SA; Elkhoely, A; Attia, YM; Elsesy, MS; El Senousy, AS; Choucry, MA; El Gayed, SH; El Sayed, AA; Sattar, EA; El Tanbouly, N (2018) Scientific Reports 8:544. HERO ID: 4240343

[Less] The objective of our study is to highlight the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action by which purified . . . [More] The objective of our study is to highlight the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action by which purified Flaxseed hydrolysate (PFH) which is a lignan rich fraction exerts its anticancer activity on a human breast cancer cell line (T47D) and in mice bearing tumor. HPLC analysis of PFH of six flaxseed cultivars had shown that PFH of the cultivar Giza 9 (PFH-G9) contains the highest concentration of SDG (81.64 mg/g). The in vitro cytotoxic potentiality of PFH's of six flaxseed cultivars was screened against a panel of human cancer cell lines. PFH -G9 showed the most significant cytotoxic activity against ER-receptor positive breast cell lines MCF7 and T47D with IC5013.8 and 15.8 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, PFH-G9 reduced the expression of the metastasis marker, 1-α, metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most potent stimulators of angiogenesis, while it increased the caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. Our study also showed that dietary intake of 10% of Giza 9 Flaxseeds (FS), fixed oil (FSO) or Flax meal (FSM) twice daily for 3 weeks in mice-bearing solid Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) resulted in reducing the tumor volume, the expression of estrogen, insulin growth factor, progesterone, VEGF and MMP-2, but enhanced expression of caspase-3.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biomonitoring PFAAs in blood and semen samples: Investigation of a potential link between PFAAs exposure and semen mobility in China

Authors: Song, X; Tang, S; Zhu, H; Chen, Z; Zang, Z; Zhang, Y; Niu, X; Wang, X; Yin, H; Zeng, F; He, C (2018) Environment International 113:50-54. HERO ID: 4220306

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been suspected to act as endocrine disruptors and adversely affect . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been suspected to act as endocrine disruptors and adversely affect human reproductive health. We aimed to investigate the association between PFAAs in blood and semen, explore a potential link between PFAAs exposure and semen quality in the population of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China, one of the "world factories". The monitoring results demonstrated that the population (103 male participants) from the PRD region in this study had higher PFAAs levels in blood and semen than some other areas in China. PFOS was found at the highest mean concentrations of 118.16 ng/mL in blood and 5.31 ng/mL in semen among the nine PFAAs. Significant associations were found between concentrations of several analytes in blood and semen, including Σ9 PFAAs (r = 0.475, P < .01), PFOA (r = 0.215, P = .029), PFHS (r = 0.458, P < .01) and PFOS (r = 0.981, P < .01). BMI was the most important factor to PFAAs, but there was no significant difference in PFAAs concentrations in blood and semen collected from participants with different smoking and drinking habits, education background and occupations. Negative correlations were significantly observed between sperm motility and PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFBS, PFOA, PFHS, PFOS and Σ9PFAAs in semen. Therefore, exposure to PFAAs may result in a decline in semen mobility in participants from the PRD region.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkylsulfonic and carboxylic acids in earthworms (Eisenia fetida): Accumulation and effects results from spiked soils at PFAS concentrations bracketing environmental relevance

Authors: Karnjanapiboonwong, A; Deb, SK; Subbiah, S; Wang, D; Anderson, TA (2018) Chemosphere 199:168-173. HERO ID: 4234853

[Less] Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic . . . [More] Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 μg kg-1dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg-1wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 μg kg-1and all PFASs at 100,000 μg kg-1. The highest weight loss (29%) was observed for earthworms exposed to PFNA at 100,000 μg kg-1, which was significantly different from all other treatments except PFHpA at 100,000 μg kg-1. These results are expected to fill some data gaps in toxicity of PFASs in terrestrial environments and provide helpful information on the potential for trophic transport of PFASs from soil to higher organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years

Authors: Zhang, H; Yolton, K; Webster, GM; Ye, X; Calafat, AM; Dietrich, KN; Xu, Y; Xie, C; Braun, JM; Lanphear, BP; Chen, A (2018) Environment International 111:224-231. HERO ID: 4238294

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.
[More] BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

METHODS: We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility.

RESULTS: Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with reading scores at age 5years. But PFHxS concentrations, at any exposure windows, were not associated with reading skills.

CONCLUSION: Prenatal and childhood serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations were positively associated with better children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years, but no association was found between serum PFHxS and reading skills.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Time trends in per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in California women: Declining serum levels, 2011-2015

Authors: Hurley, S; Goldberg, D; Wang, M; Park, JS; Petreas, M; Bernstein, L; Anton-Culver, H; Nelson, DO; Reynolds, P (2018) Environmental Science and Technology 52:277-287. HERO ID: 4238317

[Less] After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out . . . [More] After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out of use due to concerns raised by their persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in serum PFAS levels among 1257 middle-aged and older California women (ages 40-94) during a four year period, beginning approximately 5-10 years after these phase-outs began. An online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS was used to measure 10 long-chain PFASs in serum from blood collected cross-sectionally during 2011-2015 from a subset of participants in the California Teachers Study. Results from multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that serum concentrations of nearly all PFASs declined on average 10% to 20% per year. Serum levels of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) did not significantly decline. With the exception of PFHxS, the downward trend in serum concentrations was evident for all PFASs across all ages, although declines were comparatively steeper among the oldest women. These findings suggest that the phase-out of some common PFASs has resulted in reduced human exposures to them. The lack of a decline for PFHxS suggests that these exposures may be ongoing and underscores the importance of continued biomonitoring and research efforts to elucidate current pathways of exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

Authors: Hu, XC; Dassuncao, C; Zhang, X; Grandjean, P; Weihe, P; Webster, GM; Nielsen, F; Sunderland, EM (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:11. HERO ID: 4238355

[Less] BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects.

METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases.

RESULTS: Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water

Authors: Li, Y; Fletcher, T; Mucs, D; Scott, K; Lindh, CH; Tallving, P; Jakobsson, K (2018) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75:46-51. HERO ID: 4238434

[Less] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.

METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).

RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.

CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of perfluoroalkyl acid isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Zhang, H; Wen, B; Wen, W; Ma, Y; Hu, X; Wu, Y; Luo, L; Zhang, S (2018) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1072:25-33. HERO ID: 4238436

[Less] Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental . . . [More] Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental source, fate, and human risks. In this study, a method was developed for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The separation efficiencies of two chromatographic columns and extraction capacities of different methods were tested. Compared with the C18 column (ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column), the column with an alkyl perfluorinated C8 stationary phase (Epic FO LB column), in combination with the distinct MS/MS transitions of analytes, allowed better separation of most isomers. The ion-pair extraction method showed more effective matrix separation than that of the alkaline digestion method, with recoveries ranging from 79.6-105% for biosolids, 80.4-116% for soils, and 68.0-114% for plant tissues. The method detection limits ranged from 10 to 55, 3-13, and 8-58pg/g dry weight for biosolids, soil, and plants, respectively. This method was applied successfully to quantify individual isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants. Six PFOA, eight PFOS, and two PFHxS isomers were found in the samples, with linear isomers being the dominant species. Further analysis revealed that the translocation potentials of branched isomers within plants were higher than those of linear isomers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) associated with respiratory tract infections but not allergy- and asthma-related health outcomes in childhood

Authors: Impinen, A; Nygaard, UC; Lødrup Carlsen, KC; Mowinckel, P; Carlsen, KH; Haug, LS; Granum, B (2018) Environmental Research 160:518-523. HERO ID: 4238440

[Less] BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported to be associated with immunosuppression in early childhood, but with contradictory findings related to atopic and lung diseases.

AIM: We aimed to determine if prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with asthma or other allergic diseases or respiratory tract infections in childhood.

METHODS: Nineteen PFASs were measured in cord blood available from 641 infants in the Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) prospective birth cohort study. The six most abundant PFASs were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Health outcomes were assessed at two and ten years of age, and included reported obstructive airways disease (wheeze by 10 years; asthma by 2 and 10 years; reduced lung function at birth; allergic rhinitis by 10 years), atopic dermatitis (AD) by 2 and 10 years, allergic sensitization by 10 years, and episodes of common respiratory tract infections (common cold by 2 years, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by 10 years). The associations between exposure and health outcomes were examined using logistic and Poisson regression.

RESULTS: The number of reported airways infections were significantly associated with cord blood concentrations of PFAS; common colds by two years with PFUnDA (β = 0.11 (0.08-0.14)) and LRTIs from 0 to 10 years of age with PFOS (β = 0.50 (0.42-0.57)), PFOA (β = 0.28 (0.22-0.35)), PFOSA (β = 0.10 (0.06-0.14)), PFNA (β = 0.09 (0.03-0.14)) and PFUnDA (β = 0.18 (0.13-0.23)) concentrations. Neither reduced lung function at birth, asthma, allergic rhinitis, AD nor allergic sensitization were significantly associated with any of the PFASs.

CONCLUSION: Although prenatal exposure to PFASs was not associated with atopic or lung manifestations by 10 years of age, several PFASs were associated with an increased number of respiratory tract infections in the first 10 years of life, suggesting immunosuppressive effects of PFASs.