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PFHxS (355-46-4)


517 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Different biotransformation behaviors of perfluorooctane sulfonamide in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

Authors: Zhao, S; Zhou, T; Wang, B; Zhu, L; Chen, M; Li, D; Yang, L (2018) Journal of Hazardous Materials 346:191-198. HERO ID: 4234855

[Less] Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be . . . [More] Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be broken down to PFOS in environment and biota. In the present work, PFOSA was spiked in soil and its biodegradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The results indicated that PFOSA could be biodegraded to highly stable PFOS, which has the same perfluorinated carbon chain length as PFOSA, by microbes in soil. PFOSA could be taken up by wheat root and earthworm from soil with higher bioaccumulation ability than PFOS. In both wheat and earthworms, PFOSA also degraded to PFOS. However, other shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), were observed in wheat, but not in soil and earthworms, suggesting that wheat displayed distinctly different degradation mechanisms to PFOSA from soil microbes and earthworms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water

Authors: Li, Y; Fletcher, T; Mucs, D; Scott, K; Lindh, CH; Tallving, P; Jakobsson, K (2018) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75:46-51. HERO ID: 4238434

[Less] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.

METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).

RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.

CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of perfluoroalkyl acid isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Zhang, H; Wen, B; Wen, W; Ma, Y; Hu, X; Wu, Y; Luo, L; Zhang, S (2018) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1072:25-33. HERO ID: 4238436

[Less] Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental . . . [More] Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental source, fate, and human risks. In this study, a method was developed for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The separation efficiencies of two chromatographic columns and extraction capacities of different methods were tested. Compared with the C18 column (ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column), the column with an alkyl perfluorinated C8 stationary phase (Epic FO LB column), in combination with the distinct MS/MS transitions of analytes, allowed better separation of most isomers. The ion-pair extraction method showed more effective matrix separation than that of the alkaline digestion method, with recoveries ranging from 79.6-105% for biosolids, 80.4-116% for soils, and 68.0-114% for plant tissues. The method detection limits ranged from 10 to 55, 3-13, and 8-58pg/g dry weight for biosolids, soil, and plants, respectively. This method was applied successfully to quantify individual isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants. Six PFOA, eight PFOS, and two PFHxS isomers were found in the samples, with linear isomers being the dominant species. Further analysis revealed that the translocation potentials of branched isomers within plants were higher than those of linear isomers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Time trends in per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in California women: Declining serum levels, 2011-2015

Authors: Hurley, S; Goldberg, D; Wang, M; Park, JS; Petreas, M; Bernstein, L; Anton-Culver, H; Nelson, DO; Reynolds, P (2018) Environmental Science and Technology 52:277-287. HERO ID: 4238317

[Less] After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out . . . [More] After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out of use due to concerns raised by their persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in serum PFAS levels among 1257 middle-aged and older California women (ages 40-94) during a four year period, beginning approximately 5-10 years after these phase-outs began. An online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS was used to measure 10 long-chain PFASs in serum from blood collected cross-sectionally during 2011-2015 from a subset of participants in the California Teachers Study. Results from multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that serum concentrations of nearly all PFASs declined on average 10% to 20% per year. Serum levels of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) did not significantly decline. With the exception of PFHxS, the downward trend in serum concentrations was evident for all PFASs across all ages, although declines were comparatively steeper among the oldest women. These findings suggest that the phase-out of some common PFASs has resulted in reduced human exposures to them. The lack of a decline for PFHxS suggests that these exposures may be ongoing and underscores the importance of continued biomonitoring and research efforts to elucidate current pathways of exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

Authors: Hu, XC; Dassuncao, C; Zhang, X; Grandjean, P; Weihe, P; Webster, GM; Nielsen, F; Sunderland, EM (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:11. HERO ID: 4238355

[Less] BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects.

METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases.

RESULTS: Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carboxylated carbon nanospheres as solid-phase extraction adsorbents for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in water samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Li, FW; Zhao, RS (2018) Talanta 178:129-133. HERO ID: 4238426

[Less] This work demonstrates the extraction potential of carboxylated carbon nanospheres (CNSs-COOH) for solid-phase . . . [More] This work demonstrates the extraction potential of carboxylated carbon nanospheres (CNSs-COOH) for solid-phase extraction of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the first time. Six PFAAs, including perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanoic sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), were quantitatively adsorbed on a CNSs-COOH-packed cartridge; then, the PFAAs retained on the adsorbent were quantitatively eluted with an optimized volume of acetone (pH = 10). Finally, the desorbed PFAAs were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Important relevant factors, such as the eluant and its volume, sample pH, amount of CNSs-COOH, sample flow rate and sample volume were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.01-1.2ngL-1), wide linear range (0.50-200ngL-1) and good repeatability (2.4-5.1%) and good reproducibility (3.7-8.8%) were obtained. The proposed method was applied to analyze the six PFAAs in real environmental water samples, and satisfactory results were achieved. All of these results showed that CNSs-COOH will be a good choice for the pre-concentration and analysis of target PFAAs at trace levels in environmental water samples in the future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Riverine inputs and source tracing of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, China

Authors: Ma, X; Shan, G; Chen, M; Zhao, J; Zhu, L (2018) Science of the Total Environment 612:18-25. HERO ID: 3981684

[Less] The occurrence, riverine inputs and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, one . . . [More] The occurrence, riverine inputs and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, one of the largest lakes in China, were investigated by measuring PFASs including the isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the Lake and its main flow-in rivers. It was found that PFHxS, instead of PFOS or PFOA, was predominant both in the Lake and rivers (45.9-351ng/L), reflecting increasing demand of PFHxS in recent years. The riverine flux of PFASs into the Lake was estimated to be 1255kg/year. The percentage of linear (n-) PFOS and the ratio of 3+5m-/1m-PFOS were combined to indicate indirect source due to biodegradation of PFOS-precursors. The percentage order of n-PFOS was: the Lake (48.7%)the rivers (8.99)>ECF (electrochemical fluorination) product (6.76). These suggested that degradation of PFOS-precursors made distinct contribution to PFOS load in the waters, particularly in the Lake. The Lake and river waters had a consistent proportion of n-PFHxS (89.0%), which was slightly lower than the ECF product (96.0%), indicating it was mainly due to the release from production and application of PFHxS as an active ingredient.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014

Authors: Ye, X; Kato, K; Wong, LY; Jia, T; Kalathil, A; Latremouille, J; Calafat, AM (2018) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 221:9-16. HERO ID: 4238492

[Less] Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition . . . [More] Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth

Authors: Gyllenhammar, I; Diderholm, B; Gustafsson, J; Berger, U; Ridefelt, P; Benskin, JP; Lignell, S; Lampa, E; Glynn, A (2018) Environment International 111:191-199. HERO ID: 4238300

[Less] We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are . . . [More] We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n=381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n=200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of -0.10 to -0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years

Authors: Zhang, H; Yolton, K; Webster, GM; Ye, X; Calafat, AM; Dietrich, KN; Xu, Y; Xie, C; Braun, JM; Lanphear, BP; Chen, A (2018) Environment International 111:224-231. HERO ID: 4238294

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.
[More] BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

METHODS: We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility.

RESULTS: Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with reading scores at age 5years. But PFHxS concentrations, at any exposure windows, were not associated with reading skills.

CONCLUSION: Prenatal and childhood serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations were positively associated with better children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years, but no association was found between serum PFHxS and reading skills.