Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxS (355-46-4)


140 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

On the Ability of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (PFHxS) Bioaccumulation by Two Pseudomonas sp. Strains Isolated from PFAS-Contaminated Environmental Matrices

Authors: Presentato, A; Lampis, S; Vantini, A; Manea, F; Daprà, F; Zuccoli, S; Vallini, G (2020) 8. HERO ID: 6320960

[Less] PFASs (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are highly fluorinated, aliphatic, synthetic compounds . . . [More] PFASs (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are highly fluorinated, aliphatic, synthetic compounds with high thermal and chemical stability as well as unique amphiphilic properties which make them ingredients in a range of industrial processes. PFASs have attracted consideration due to their persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation tendency in the environment. Recently, attention has begun to be addressed to shorter-chain PFASs, such as perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS], apparently less toxic to and more easily eliminated from lab animals. However, short-chain PFASs represent end-products from the transformation of fluorotelomers whose biotic breakdown reactions have not been identified to date. This means that such emergent pollutants will tend to accumulate and persist in ecosystems. Since we are just learning about the interaction between short-chain PFASs and microorganisms, this study reports on the response to PFHxS of two Pseudomonas sp. strains isolated from environmental matrices contaminated by PFASs. The PFHxS bioaccumulation potential of these strains was unveiled by exploiting different physiological conditions as either axenic or mixed cultures under alkanothrofic settings. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed nonorthodox features of the bacterial cells, as a consequence of the stress caused by both organic solvents and PFHxS in the culturing substrate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Behavioural effects and bioconcentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

Authors: Menger, F; Pohl, J; Ahrens, L; Carlsson, G; Örn, S (2020) Chemosphere 245:125573. HERO ID: 6311635

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that cause concern . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that cause concern regarding their environmental impact and risk to human health. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PFASs for six days, to investigate behaviour toxicity and bioconcentration factor (BCF). Nine individual PFASs (five C4-C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) (PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA), three C4, C6 and C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and 6:2 fluorotelomersulfonate (6:2 FTSA)) and a mixture of these were investigated at seven concentrations ranging from environmentally relevant to acutely toxic levels. In exposed embryos, significant differences were found in total swimming distance (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFOS, 6:2 FTSA, PFAS mixture), burst activity (PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFOS, PFAS mixture) and startle response (PFNA, PFHxS, PFOS, PFAS mixture). Toxicity was only observed at concentrations well above environmental levels. The toxicity of the PFAS mixture generally followed that of the individual substances, but the mixture reduced the potencies of individual PFASs. BCF was determined for all nine PFASs and ranged between 0.9 (PFPeA) and 2700 (PFOS). Long-chain PFASs (C8) and PFASs with sulfonate as an active group showed the greatest toxic potential, while short-chain PFASs (C6 and C7) also caused significant behaviour alterations and accumulated in the embryos. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the behaviour toxicity of a PFAS mixture with that of the individual PFASs. Follow-up studies are needed to identify the mechanistic responses to PFAS mixtures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Albumin is the major carrier protein for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA in human plasma

Authors: Forsthuber, M; Kaiser, AM; Granitzer, S; Hassl, I; Hengstschläger, M; Stangl, H; Gundacker, C (2020) Environment International 137:105324. HERO ID: 6311640

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl (PFAS) substances are widespread in the environment and in organisms. The fact that exposure . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl (PFAS) substances are widespread in the environment and in organisms. The fact that exposure to PFAS is associated with elevated cholesterol levels is a major concern for human health. Previous investigations, in which bovine serum albumin was frequently studied, indicate that PFOS, PFOA and PFNA bind to serum albumin. However, it is critical to know whether these and other PFAS have a preference for the protein or the lipid fraction in native human blood fractions. For this reason, blood samples from four young healthy volunteers (two women, two men, 23–31 years old) were used for protein size separation and fractionation by the Cohn method in combination with serial ultracentrifugation. The plasma fractions were analyzed for 11 PFAS using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Although the data are based on a small sample, they clearly show that albumin is the most important carrier protein for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA in native human plasma. These five compounds have very little or no affinity for lipoproteins. The confirmation of their transport through albumin is important for the epidemiology of PFAS. The present results must be verified by the examination of a larger number of persons.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and blood pressure in pre-diabetic adults-cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the diabetes prevention program outcomes study

Authors: Lin, PD; Cardenas, A; Hauser, R; Gold, DR; Kleinman, KP; Hivert, MF; Calafat, AM; Webster, TF; Horton, ES; Oken, E (2020) Environment International 137:105573. HERO ID: 6311641

[Less] The relationship of plasma concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with blood pressure . . . [More] The relationship of plasma concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with blood pressure (BP) is uncertain. This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of PFAS with BP and hypertension. We quantified plasma PFAS concentrations from 957 participants enrolled in the lifestyle and placebo arms of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized controlled trial with approximately 15 years of follow-up. We used multivariable linear and logistic regressions to test cross-sectional associations of six PFAS, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (EtFOSAA), N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (MeFOSAA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), with BP and hypertension prevalence, respectively, at baseline. We used generalized linear mixed models to estimate longitudinal associations between baseline PFAS and the rate of BP changes, and Cox-Proportional hazard models to estimate risk of developing hypertension relative to baseline PFAS. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, treatment arm, educational attainment, income, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, and diet. We tested for effect modification by the treatment arm and sex, and accounted for multiple comparisons using the False-Discovery Rate (FDR). PFAS concentrations and hypertension prevalence within the study population (65.3% female, 57.7% White, 65.3% aged 40-59 years) were comparable to the general U.S. population. Cross-sectionally, we found small but statistically significant associations of baseline plasma concentrations of PFOA with systolic BP (β per doubling: 1.49 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.29, 2.70); and MeFOSAA with hypertension (RR = 1.09 per doubling, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19). Estimates were not statistically significant after FDR adjustment. Longitudinally, we observed null associations in the placebo arm, but some inverse associations of baseline PFOS and MeFOSAA with systolic BP in the lifestyle arm, perhaps due to regression toward the mean. Baseline PFAS concentrations also were not prospectively associated with hypertension risk. Overall, there were modest and mostly null associations of plasma PFAS concentrations with BP and hypertension.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary characteristics associated with plasma concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances among adults with pre-diabetes: Cross-sectional results from the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial

Authors: Lin, PD; Cardenas, A; Hauser, R; Gold, DR; Kleinman, KP; Hivert, MF; Fleisch, AF; Calafat, AM; Sanchez-Guerra, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Webster, TF; Horton, ES; Oken, E (2020) Environment International 137:105217. HERO ID: 6311651

[Less] Diet is assumed to be the main source of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non-occupationally . . . [More] Diet is assumed to be the main source of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non-occupationally exposed populations, but studies on the diet-PFAS relationship in the United States are scarce. We extracted multiple dietary variables, including daily intakes of food group, diet scores, and dietary patterns, from self-reported dietary data collected at baseline (1996-1999) from adults with pre-diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program, and used linear regression models to evaluate relationships of each dietary variable with plasma concentrations of six PFAS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (EtFOSAA), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (MeFOSAA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) adjusting for covariates. Participants (N = 941, 65% female, 58% Caucasian, 68% married, 75% with higher education, 95% nonsmoker) had similar PFAS concentrations compared to the general U.S. population during 1999-2000. Using a single food group approach, fried fish, other fish/shellfish, meat and poultry had positive associations with most PFAS plasma concentrations. The strongest effect estimate detected was between fried fish and PFNA [13.6% (95% CI: 7.7, 19.9) increase in median concentration per SD increase]. Low-carbohydrate and high protein diet score had positive association with plasma PFHxS. Some food groups, mostly vegetables and fruits, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score had inverse associations with PFOS and MeFOSAA. A vegetable diet pattern was associated with lower plasma concentrations of MeFOSAA, while high-fat meat and low-fiber and high-fat grains diet patterns were associated with higher plasma concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, MeFOSAA and PFNA. We summarized four major dietary characteristics associated with variations in PFAS plasma concentrations in this population. Specifically, consuming more meat/fish/shellfish (especially fried fish, and excluding Omega3-rich fish), low-fiber and high-fat bread/cereal/rice/pasta, and coffee/tea was associated with higher plasma concentrations while dietary patterns of vegetables, fruits and Omega-3 rich fish were associated with lower plasma concentrations of some PFAS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chronic reproductive toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and a simple mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid to northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus)

Authors: Dennis, NM; Karnjanapiboonwong, A; Subbiah, S; Rewerts, JN; Field, JA; Mccarthy, C; Salice, CM; Anderson, TA (2020) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry etc.4703:1101-1111. HERO ID: 6315697

[Less] Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a broad class of environmentally persistent chemicals . . . [More] Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a broad class of environmentally persistent chemicals that include thousands of potentially toxic synthetic organic molecules. Some PFAS have been shown to cause adverse health effects including decreased total cholesterol, birth weight, and reproductive success in laboratory animals; however, a lack of chronic toxicity data exists for PFAS in avian ecological receptors. The present study reports the chronic toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and a mixture of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) to Northern Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) via oral exposure from drinking water. Female weight gain was significantly adversely affected at an average daily intake (ADI) of 3.10x10-3 ± 0.15x10-3 mg PFOS:PFHxS (1.2:1) mixture x kg-1 body weight x day-1 . Successful liberation from shell once pipped was significantly adversely affected at an ADI of 2.45x10-3 ± 0.01x10-3 mg PFOS x kg-1 body weight x day-1 . These values are comparatively much lower than the current dietary avian toxicity reference value (TRV) where birds were exposed via the feed suggesting the need for updated avian TRVs. Relationships between test chemical (PFOS) and test substance (PFOS:PFHxS) showed that PFOS and PFHxS have possible interacting effects in avian receptors and likely differing mechanisms of toxicity depending on chemical co-occurrence and dose. Both the single chemical and mixture exposures produced similar and possibly additive toxicity values. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatiotemporal distribution, sources and ecological risks of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the Guanlan River from the rapidly urbanizing areas of Shenzhen, China

Authors: Wu, J; Junaid, M; Wang, Z; Sun, W; Xu, N (2020) Chemosphere 245:125637. HERO ID: 6320589

[Less] Limited studies have demonstrated the environmental concerns of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the . . . [More] Limited studies have demonstrated the environmental concerns of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the rivers flowing through the rapidly urbanizing areas. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution, major sources and ecological risks of PFCs in the surface water samples, collecting from the Guanlan River, Shenzhen, China. The concentrations of ∑PFCs ranged from 11.3 to 384 ng/L, with a mean value of 81.8 ng/L in the dry season, and ranged from 6.90 to 619 ng/L, with a mean value of 339 ng/L in the wet season. Short-chain PFCs such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected as the predominant compounds. Further, the spatiotemporal distribution revealed significantly higher levels of PFCs in the wet season than those in the dry season, and relatively higher levels in the tributaries than those in the mainstream. Source apportionment highlighted the industrial discharges, domestic wastewater, precipitation, and wastewater treatment plants as the major sources of PFCs. Moreover, the population density and associated urban sewage emissions observed as important indicators for PFCs uneven distribution in the area. The ecological risk assessment revealed perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA, C14) posed high ecological risks to the aquatic organisms (especially for mysid) in the Guanlan River. Taken all together, this study not only unveiled the characteristics of PFCs contamination in the rapidly urbanizing catchment, but also provided the baseline data for policy makers to protect the ecological environment of the urban rivers in the rapidly growing area.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sorption behaviour of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) as affected by the properties of coastal estuarine sediments

Authors: Oliver, DP; Navarro, DA; Baldock, J; Simpson, SL; Kookana, RS (2020) Science of the Total Environment 720:137263. HERO ID: 6315683

[Less] The sorption of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), namely perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), . . . [More] The sorption of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), namely perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), was determined in 19 coastal sediments. There are currently limited data on the sorption behaviour of these chemicals in marine or estuarine sediments and the properties controlling their sorption have not been well established. The median average PFOS Kd value (30.4 L/kg) was >8 times that for PFOA (3.3 L/kg) and PFHxS (2.8 L/kg). Highly significant (P < .001) linear relationships were found between values for sorption coefficients (Kd) for all three chemicals (PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS) to the estuarine sediments and organic carbon (OC) content with r2 values ranging from 0.87 to 0.91. The nature of the constituents of OC was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for a subset (10) of the sediments to assess whether the strong relationship between sorption and OC was due solely to an increasing amount of OC or to particular OC fractions. The NMR analysis could not provide strong evidence for one OC fraction type explaining the variation in sorption of the three PFASs. Further investigation using partial least squares of the whole spectra also did not show any particular OC components could explain the Kd variation. This data suggests that variation in sorption in these sediments was primarily due to the varying OC content and not its chemistry.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in water and soil in wastewater-irrigated farmland in Jordan

Authors: Shigei, M; Ahrens, L; Hazaymeh, A; Dalahmeh, SS (2020) Science of the Total Environment 716:137057. HERO ID: 6315689

[Less] The Zarqa river (ZR) in Jordan receives >300,000 m3 day -1 of wastewater effluent from Assamra wastewater . . . [More] The Zarqa river (ZR) in Jordan receives >300,000 m3 day -1 of wastewater effluent from Assamra wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is a major source of irrigation water for vegetable crops and fodder downstream. ZR water quality is therefore highly important and directly influences crop and soil quality in irrigated fields. This study investigated the occurrence and concentration of 20 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Assamra wastewater, ZR water, soils and crop plants (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), mint (Mentha spicata) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)) along the ZR flow path between Assamra WWTP and Jerash spring. The combined PFAS concentration (∑PFASs) in Assamra WWTP effluent (14-24 ng L-1) was comparable to that in influent (10-15 ng L-1), indicating poor removal of PFASs. The dominant PFAS in influent was perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), while perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) dominated in effluent. ∑PFASs in an unaffected upstream tributary (Sukhna station) was 4.7-5.4 ng L-1. Farther downstream, ZR water contained 16-27 ng L-1, with PFPeA, PFOA and PFDA dominating, and these levels did not change along the flow path to Jerash spring. ∑PFASs in soil was generally low, 340 ± 150 pg g-1 dry weight (dw) in alfalfa soil (mainly PFOA and PFDA) and 710 ± 420 pg g-1 dw in mint soil and 970 ± 800 pg g-1 dw in lettuce soil (mainly linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) in both cases). Soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) was generally low in all soils (range 24-62 L kg-1, 20-46 L kg-1 and 28 L kg-1 for PFOA, PFDA and L-PFHxS, respectively). No PFASs were detected in alfalfa and mint plants. Overall, this investigation demonstrated that PFAS contamination in wastewater, surface water and soil in the ZR basin is very low in a global comparison, and that there is no accumulation of PFASs in the food and feed crops studied.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Application of zero-valent iron coupled with biochar for removal of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic and sulfonic acids from water under ambient environmental conditions

Authors: Liu, Y; Ptacek, CJ; Baldwin, RJ; Cooper, JM; Blowes, DW (2020) Science of the Total Environment 719:137372. HERO ID: 6315690

[Less] Advanced oxidation and reduction processes have been intensively investigated as potential methods to . . . [More] Advanced oxidation and reduction processes have been intensively investigated as potential methods to promote the decomposition of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, extreme operational conditions such as highly acidic pH, high temperature, and high pressure are required to promote degradation reactions, which makes these technologies costly and less feasible for full-scale applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zero-valent iron (ZVI) alone and a mixture of ZVI and biochar (ZVI + BC) for removal of seven target PFASs from water under ambient environmental conditions. Target PFASs included three perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8-PFCA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (C7-PFCA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (C6-PFCA)] and four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, C8-PFSA), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (C7-PFSA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (C6-PFSA), and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (C4-PFSA)]. Batch test results show that PFSAs (up to 94% removal) were more effectively removed than PFCAs (up to 60% removal) when utilizing either ZVI or (ZVI + BC). About 20-60% of input PFOA (~18,550 μg L-1) and 90-94% of input PFOS (~18,580 μg L-1) were removed by ZVI alone or the mixture of (ZVI + BC). The removal efficiencies of PFCAs and PFSAs by reactive media increased with increasing chain length, from 0 to 17% for short-chain PFCAs (C6-C7) and 20 to 70% for short-chain PFSAs (C4-C7). About 5-10% of input PFOA and PFOS was partially defluorinated by ZVI alone as indicated by F- release; however, the defluorination efficiency may be underestimated due to the sorption of F- by the reactive media. Overall, the reactive mixture (ZVI + BC) may be an effective and environmentally sustainable material for removing PFASs from water under ambient environmental conditions.