Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFBA (375-22-4)


767 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Leaching and bioavailability of selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from soil contaminated by firefighting activities

Authors: Bräunig, J; Baduel, C; Barnes, CM; Mueller, JF (2019) Science of the Total Environment 646:471-479. HERO ID: 5079692

[Less] Historical usage of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) at firefighting training grounds (FTGs) is a potential . . . [More] Historical usage of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) at firefighting training grounds (FTGs) is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the surrounding environment. In this study the leaching of PFAAs from field contaminated soil and their uptake into biota was investigated. Soil was sampled from FTGs at two airports and the total as well as the leachable concentration of 12 PFAAs was determined. A greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the uptake of PFAAs from soils into earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and wheat grass (Elymus scaber). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were the most dominant PFAAs in all soils samples, with concentrations of PFOS reaching 13,400 ng/g. Leachable concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS reached up to 550 μg/L and 22 μg/L, respectively. In earthworms concentrations of PFOS reached 65,100 ng/g after a 28-day exposure period, while in wheat grass the highest concentration was measured for uptake of PFHxS (2,800 ng/g) after a 10-week growth-period. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for earthworms ranged from 0.1 for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) to 23 for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and initially showed a decreasing trend with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length, followed by an increase with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). In wheat grass the highest BAF was found for perfluorobutanoic acid (BAF = 70), while the lowest was observed for perfluorononanoic acid (BAF = 0.06). BAFs in wheat grass decreased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length for both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The results show that PFAAs readily leach from impacted soils and are bioaccumulated into earthworms and plants in an analyte dependent way. This shows considerable potential for PFAAs to move away from the original source either by leaching or uptake into ecological receptors, which may be a potential entry route into the terrestrial foodweb.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence, sources and health risk of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil, water and sediment from a drinking water source area

Authors: Cao, X; Wang, C; Lu, Y; Zhang, M; Khan, K; Song, S; Wang, P; Wang, C (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 174:208-217. HERO ID: 5080637

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter into environmental metric via various pathways in the process . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter into environmental metric via various pathways in the process of manufacturing and consuming the products containing PFASs. Yuqiao reservoir (YQR) is a major drinking water source in Tianjin of China, where little attention was given to PFASs. To explore the occurrence, source and risk of 17 PFASs, multi-media environmental including soil, water, and sediment were sampled from this water source area. The ∑PFASs concentrations of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment ranged from 5.839 to 120.885 ng/L, 1.426 to 17.138 ng/L, 0.622 to 5.089 μg/kg dw, and 0.240 to 1.210 μg/kg dw respectively. Some short-chained (C4-C8) PFASs were detected widely such as PFOA, PFBA, PFHxA, PFBS, PFHpA and PFPeA in surface water and groundwater, with the detection frequency of >78%, and PFBA and PFOA dominated in the 17 PFASs. In addition, the correlations between total PFASs and TOC were significant at 0.05 level, especially in surface water with R2 = 0.9165 (p = 0.011). In terms of vertical distribution characteristics of ∑PFASs, the ∑PFASs in four sediment cores showed a decreasing trend at first, and then an increasing trend from the bottom to the top associated with TOC. PFBA/PFOA and PFHpA/PFOA showed better linear correlations with R2 of 0.5541 (p = 0.039), and for PFNA/PFOA and PFHpA/PFOA with R2 of 0.6312 (p = 0.032) at the 0.05 level in the surface water, which indicated that sewage and atmospheric precipitation were the major sources. Though the RQ results based on the measured concentrations and reference values in environmental media revealed lower risks, the potential hazard may occur due to accumulation characteristics and long-distance transmission capability of PFASs. Hence, the corresponding management strategies should be taken, such as control over emission at source, product substitution and strengthening legislation, to eliminate potential risks to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicokinetics of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids Influences Their Toxic Potency in the Zebrafish Embryo ( Danio rerio)

Authors: Vogs, C; Johanson, G; Näslund, M; Wulff, S; Sjödin, M; Hellstrandh, M; Lindberg, J; Wincent, E (2019) Environmental Science and Technology 53:3898-3907. HERO ID: 5080626

[Less] Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) are highly persistent and bioaccumulative and have been associated . . . [More] Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) are highly persistent and bioaccumulative and have been associated with several adverse health effects. The chemical structure mainly differs in two ways: the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain and the type of hydrophilic end group. Little is known how the chemical structure affects the toxicokinetics (TK) in different organisms. We studied the TK of four PFAA (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFBA) with different chain lengths (4-8 carbons) and functional groups (sulfonic and carboxylic acid) in zebrafish ( Danio rerio) embryo. The time courses of the external (ambient water) and internal concentrations were determined at three exposure concentrations from 2 up to 120 h postfertilization (hpf). Three of the four PFAA showed a biphasic uptake pattern with slow uptake before hatching (around 48 hpf) and faster uptake thereafter. A two-compartment TK model adequately described the biphasic uptake pattern, suggesting that the chorion functions as an uptake barrier until 48 hpf. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) determined at 120 hpf varied widely between PFAA with averages of approximately 4000 (PFOS), 200 (PFHxS), 50 (PFOA), and 0.8 (PFBA) L kg dry weight-1, suggesting that both the alkyl chain length and the functional group influence the TK. The differences in toxic potency were reduced by 3 orders of magnitude when comparing internal effect concentrations instead of effective external concentrations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking water of China in 2017: Distribution characteristics, influencing factors and potential risks

Authors: Li, Y; Li, J; Zhang, L; Huang, Z; Liu, Y; Wu, N; He, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Niu, Z (2019) Environment International 123:87-95. HERO ID: 5080645

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have been ubiquitously detected in the environmental media. However, national scale investigations on their occurrence and distribution in drinking water are still insufficient. In this study, we detected the 17 priority PFAAs in drinking water from 79 cities of 31 provincial-level administrative regions throughout China, and investigated their occurrence and distribution. Additionally, we also analyzed the influencing factors on their profiles, such as the existence of industrial sources, socioeconomic factors (population density and GDP), and assessed levels of risk associated with contaminated drinking water. On the national scale, the sum concentrations of the 17 PFAAs (∑17PFAAs) in drinking water was in a range of 4.49-174.93 ng/L with a mean value of 35.13 ng/L. Among the 17 individual PFAAs, perfluorobutanoic acids (PFBA) was the most abundant individual PFAAs with the median concentration of 17.87 ng/L, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 0.74 ng/L), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 0.40 ng/L) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 0.25 ng/L). The geographic distribution characteristic of ∑17PFAAs in drinking water was in a descending order of Southwestern China (57.67 ng/L) > Eastern coastal China (32.85 ng/L) > Middle China (29.89 ng/L) > Northwestern China (28.49 ng/L) > Northeastern China (22.03 ng/L), and in general, the existence of the industrial sources could positively affect the contamination levels of PFAAs in drinking water. The pollution level of PFAAs in drinking water also varied among the three different city levels (medium-sized city > big city > town). In towns, the positive correlations were observed between the population density and the ∑17PFAAs (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.01), and the individual concentration of PFHxA, PFBS, and PFOA (p < 0.01). Moreover, besides PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi, concentrations of related PFAAs in drinking water from 28 provinces were less than the suggested drinking water advisories. The relatively higher concentrations of PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi suggest that further studies focusing on their sources and potential health risk to humans are needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in an important feed material (fishmeal) and its potential risk through the farm-to-fork pathway to humans

Authors: Li, X; Dong, S; Zhang, W; Fan, X; Wang, R; Wang, P; Su, X (2019) Journal of Hazardous Materials 367:559-567. HERO ID: 5080591

[Less] Few studies have attempted to elucidate the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in animal feeds . . . [More] Few studies have attempted to elucidate the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in animal feeds and how they play a role in human ingestion. Fishmeal was the most important animal-derived feed in global husbandry and may have been subjected to PFAA contamination considering the PFAAs' ubiquitous distribution in aquatic ecosystems. We collected ninety-two commercial fishmeal from the most important fishmeal-producing countries and found that Σ16PFAAs ranged from 0.65 to 85.5 ng/g (average: 18.2 ng/g, 12% moisture). PFOS still predominated, with unexpected high detection of PFUnDA. The wide occurrence of short-chain PFAAs (e.g., PFBA, PFBS) in fishmeal were found for the first time. From a geographical view, PFAA levels in fishmeal that originated from the Northern Hemisphere were significantly higher than those from the Southern Hemisphere (p < 0.01). Higher levels of under-studied long-chain PFAAs (PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA) weighted more in industrialized areas than less industrialized areas, whereas the legacy PFAAs (PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS) were comparable among all regions. The estimated daily intake was calculated from animal feed to humans (via cultured fish) from 20 Chinese provinces by the Monte Carlo Simulation. A proportion of 29.8% of residents from the Fujian Province exceeded the EFSA's suggestion for PFOS ingestion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Protein-specific distribution patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in egg yolk and albumen samples around a fluorochemical facility

Authors: Wang, F; Zhao, C; Gao, Y; Fu, J; Gao, K; Lv, K; Wang, K; Yue, H; Lan, X; Liang, Y; Wang, Y; Jiang, G (2019) Science of the Total Environment 650:2697-2704. HERO ID: 5080187

[Less] In this study, eggs from free-range and barn chickens in farms around a fluorochemical facility were . . . [More] In this study, eggs from free-range and barn chickens in farms around a fluorochemical facility were collected to assess the distribution profiles of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), in egg yolk and albumen. The results revealed that the concentrations of PFAAs in yolks were significantly higher than those in albumen. All 17 PFAAs examined could be detected in yolks, showing decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the fluorochemical facility. The three predominant compounds in yolks were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA, mean concentration 81.4 ng/g ww), PFOS (28.0 ng/g ww), and PFOA (4.83 ng/g ww), and this result is consistent with the product structure of the facility. Moreover, n-PFOA, n-PFOS, and n-PFHxS were the dominant contaminants in yolk, with mean concentrations of 4.75, 25.7, and 4.29 ng/g ww, respectively. In albumen, PFBA was still the predominant PFAA congener (mean concentration = 3.93 ng/g ww), followed by PFOA. Docking analysis indicated that the PFAAs presented higher binding abilities with the low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and vitellin proteins in yolk than that with ovalbumin albumen proteins, which might be the main factor influencing the possible difference in distributions of PFAAs in yolk and albumen.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Length-specific occurrence and profile of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in animal protein feeds

Authors: Li, X; Gao, K; Dong, S; Liu, X; Fu, K; Wang, P; Zhang, A; Su, X; Fu, J (2019) HERO ID: 5097892

[Less] Animal protein supplement feeds (APFs) are susceptible to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and could be . . . [More] Animal protein supplement feeds (APFs) are susceptible to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and could be the main sources for raised animals, thereafter causing further human exposure through the farm-to-fork pathway. However, the occurrence of PFAAs has been rarely evaluated in various APFs, especially for emerging short-chain PFAAs. In the present study, we collected the most prevalent APFs (blood meal, meat meal, feather meal, soybean meal and DDGS) and found that Σ16PFAAs ranged from undetectable to 37.1 ng/g dry weight (dw) (average: 7.23 ng/g dw). Blood meal contained the highest PFAA levels, and results revealed that some terrestrial-derived APFs might be present at levels on par with the marine-derived feed. Animal-derived APFs (mean 10.9 ng/g dw) possessed higher ∑PFAAs than plant-derived APFs (0.75 ng/g dw). Length-specific PFAA profiles were specified between terrestrial-origin and marine-origin feeds in addition to animal-derived and plant-derived feeds. Short-chain PFAAs (PFBA, PFBS and PFHxS) were primarily found in blood meal, meat meal, soybean meal and DDGS, while the long-chain counterparts dominated in feather meal. It is of great concern that feed exposure to emerging contaminants has not drawn enough attention.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Levels, spatial distribution and isomer profiles of perfluoroalkyl acids in soil, groundwater and tap water around a manufactory in China

Authors: Gao, Y; Liang, Y; Gao, K; Wang, Y; Wang, C; Fu, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, G; Jiang, Y (2019) HERO ID: 5097911

[Less] In this study, 32 surface soil samples, 24 groundwater samples, and 6 tap water samples were collected . . . [More] In this study, 32 surface soil samples, 24 groundwater samples, and 6 tap water samples were collected around a perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) manufactory in China to analyze the distributions of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including linear and branched isomers. The total concentrations of PFAAs (∑PFAAs) ranged from 1.30 to 913 ng/g on a dry weight basis (dw), 31.4-15656 ng/L, and 11.8-59.7 ng/L in soil, groundwater and tap water samples respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) were the predominant PFAAs in the soil whereas PFBA was the predominant congener in groundwater. PFAA concentrations in the soil and groundwater decreased with increasing distance from the manufactory. Shorter-chain PFAAs showed higher proportions in groundwater than in soil samples and that shorter-chain PFAAs exhibited faster decreasing rates in soil samples, which may be due to the differences in the polarity and hydrophobicity of these molecules. For isomer profiles, n-PFHxS, n-PFOS, and n-PFOA were the main isomer in soil samples and groundwater samples. Direct exposure to PFOS and PFOA via the soil and tap water posed relatively low risk to the residents' health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in microbial community structure in surface seawater from Pearl River Delta: Discerning the influencing factors

Authors: Chen, L; Tsui, MMP; Lam, JCW; Hu, C; Wang, Q; Zhou, B; Lam, PKS (2019) Science of the Total Environment 660:136-144. HERO ID: 5024203

[Less] Contamination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is ubiquitously detected in various environments. However, . . . [More] Contamination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is ubiquitously detected in various environments. However, their potential effects on microbial communities remain largely unknown. In this study, surface seawater of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is sampled to measure PFAA concentrations and profile the structure of free-living microbial community. Total PFAAs concentrations range from 131 to 1563 pg L-1 in surface seawater. PFOS (16-470 pg L-1), PFOA (27-272 pg L-1), PFHpA (18-201 pg L-1) and PFBA (25-152 pg L-1) are the major homologues, indicating continued industrial application or release of PFOS and a gradual shift towards using shorter-chain PFAAs. Concentrations of PFAAs from this recent cruise are much lower than previous reports, which may be due to the effective management of PFAA usage around PRD region. In addition, the microbial community in PRD surface seawater is predominantly colonized by the Proteobacteria phylum (27.2 to 61.5%) and the Synechococcus genus (5.6 to 38.6%). The structure of the microbial communities varies among stations, mainly resulting from different abundances of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and Nitrosopumilus. Geochemical parameters (e.g., nutrients and salinity) and phytoplankton are significantly associated with the microbial community dynamics in surface seawater. In the interactive network of microbiota, a subset of bacteria (i.e., Fluviicola, Nitrosopumilus, Limnohabitans, Sediminibacterium, C39 and Polynucleobacter) shows significantly positive correlations with PFAAs (R > 0.6; P < 0.001). Overall, this study gives a timely monitoring of PFAA pollution around PRD area. Shift in environmental microbiota by geochemical factors and phytoplankton is also observed, which may affect biogeochemical cycling.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in agricultural environment, vegetables, and fruits in regions influenced by a fluorine-chemical industrial park in China

Authors: Li, P; Oyang, X; Zhao, Y; Tu, T; Tian, X; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Li, J; Xiao, Z (2019) HERO ID: 5079816

[Less] The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in vegetables and fruits, as well as agricultural . . . [More] The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in vegetables and fruits, as well as agricultural environment, was investigated in the downstream regions of Changshu fluorine-chemical industrial park (CFCIP) in China. Twenty-one PFCs were analyzed in irrigation water, agricultural soil, typical vegetables, and fruits, with the maximum total PFC concentrations of 369.9 ng/L, 64.7 ng/g dw, 11.5 ng/g ww, and 10.5 ng/g ww, respectively. Short-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), and perfluorohexanoic acid were the dominant PFCs in terms of their concentrations and detection frequency. PFCs in irrigation water and agricultural soils showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from CFCIP, while this pattern was not observed in agricultural products. The predominant compounds varied in different vegetables and fruits. Simultaneous bioaccumulation of PFBA and PFOA was found in melons and solanaceous species and pears. Leafy vegetables and grapes exhibited high bioaccumulation of PFOA and PFBA, respectively. Health risk assessment by calculating estimated daily intake showed that no direct risk was caused by the consumption of vegetables and fruits for the residents in the investigated regions. However, the tolerable weekly intake of PFOA exceeded the established thresholds for the adult residents. A comprehensive health assessment of the dietary exposure of PFCs, including all exposure pathways, in fluorine-chemical industrial park-impacted regions is needed.