Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFNA (375-95-1)


1,820 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fatal intoxication by 5F-ADB and diphenidine: Detection, quantification, and investigation of their main metabolic pathways in humans by LC/MS/MS and LC/Q-TOFMS

Authors: Kusano, M; Zaitsu, K; Taki, K; Hisatsune, K; Nakajima, J; Moriyasu, T; Asano, T; Hayashi, Y; Tsuchihashi, H; Ishii, A (2018) Drug Testing and Analysis 10:284-293. HERO ID: 4238723

[Less] Despite the implementation of a new blanket scheduling system in 2013, new psychoactive substance (NPS) . . . [More] Despite the implementation of a new blanket scheduling system in 2013, new psychoactive substance (NPS) abuse remains a serious social concern in Japan. We present a fatal intoxication case involving 5F-ADB (methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) and diphenidine. Postmortem blood screening by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS) in the information-dependent acquisition mode only detected diphenidine. Further urinary screening using an in-house database containing NPS and metabolites detected not only diphenidine but also possible 5F-ADB metabolites; subsequent targeted screening by LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) allowed for the detection of a very low level of unchanged 5F-ADB in postmortem heart blood. Quantification by standard addition resulted in the postmortem blood concentrations being 0.19 ± 0.04 ng/mL for 5F-ADB and 12 ± 2.6 ng/mL for diphenidine. Investigation of the urinary metabolites revealed pathways involving ester hydrolysis (M1) and oxidative defluorination (M2), and further oxidation to the carboxylic acid (M3) for 5F-ADB. Mono- and di-hydroxylated diphenidine metabolites were also found. The present case demonstrates the importance of urinary metabolite screening for drugs with low blood concentration. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) fluorinated at the terminal N-alkyl position are known to show higher cannabinoid receptor affinity relative to their non-fluorinated analogues; 5F-ADB is no exception with high CB1receptor activity and much greater potency than Δ9-THC and other earlier SCs, thus we suspect its acute toxicity to be high compared to other structurally related SC analogues. The low blood concentration of 5F-ADB may be attributed to enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic degradation, and further investigation into these possibilities is underway.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and mid-childhood lipid and alanine aminotransferase levels

Authors: Mora, AM; Fleisch, AF; Rifas-Shiman, SL; Woo Baidal, JA; Pardo, L; Webster, TF; Calafat, AM; Ye, X; Oken, E; Sagiv, SK (2018) Environment International 111:1-13. HERO ID: 4239224

[Less] BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt lipid homeostasis and liver function, but data in children are limited.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of prenatal and mid-childhood PFAS exposure with lipids and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children.

METHODS: We studied 682 mother-child pairs from a Boston-area pre-birth cohort. We quantified PFASs in maternal plasma collected in pregnancy (median 9.7weeks gestation, 1999-2002) and in child plasma collected in mid-childhood (median age 7.7years, 2007-2010). In mid-childhood we also measured fasting total (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and ALT. We then derived low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from TC, HDL-C, and TG using the Friedewald formula.

RESULTS: Median (interquartile range, IQR) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA) concentrations in child plasma were 6.2 (5.5), 4.3 (3.0), and 0.3 (0.3) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, higher child PFOS, PFOA, and PFDeA concentrations were associated with detrimental changes in the lipid profile, including higher TC and/or LDL-C [e.g., β per IQR increment in PFOS=4.0mg/dL (95% CI: 0.3, 7.8) for TC and 2.6mg/dL (-0.5, 5.8) for LDL-C]. However, among both boys and girls, higher plasma concentrations of these child PFASs were also associated with higher HDL-C, which predicts better cardiovascular health, and slightly lower ALT, which may indicate better liver function. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were also modestly associated with improved childhood lipid and ALT levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal and mid-childhood PFAS exposure may be associated with modest, but somewhat conflicting changes in the lipid profile and ALT levels in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of Preoperatively Diagnosed Patent Foramen Ovale With Perioperative Ischemic Stroke

Authors: Ng, PY; Ng, AK; Subramaniam, B; Burns, SM; Herisson, F; Timm, FP; Med, C; Rudolph, MI; Med, C; Scheffenbichler, F; Med, C; Friedrich, S; Med, C; Houle, TT; Bhatt, DL; Eikermann, M (2018) HERO ID: 4239233

[Less] Importance: Perioperative stroke is a major complication for patients undergoing surgery. . . . [More] Importance: Perioperative stroke is a major complication for patients undergoing surgery. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) represents a possible anatomical link between venous thrombosis and stroke.

Objective: To determine whether a preoperatively diagnosed PFO is associated with increased risk of perioperative ischemic stroke.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study from Massachusetts General Hospital and 2 affiliated community hospitals between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015. Participants were 182 393 consecutive adults undergoing noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia.

Exposures: Preoperatively diagnosed PFO.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Perioperative ischemic stroke occurring within 30 days of surgery; stroke subtype by Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification and stroke severity by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS).

Results: Among the 150 198 patient cases analyzed (median [SD] age, 55 [16] years), 1540 (1.0%) had a diagnosis of PFO before surgery. A total of 850 (0.6%) ischemic strokes occurred within 30 days of surgery (49 [3.2%] among patients with PFO and 801 [0.5%] among patients without PFO). In adjusted analyses, patients with PFO had an increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with patients without PFO (odds ratio, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.96-3.63]; P < .001). The estimated risks of stroke were 5.9 for every 1000 patients with PFO and 2.2 for every 1000 patients without PFO (adjusted absolute risk difference, 0.4% [95% CI, 0.2%-0.6%). Patients with PFO also had an increased risk of large vessel territory stroke (relative risk ratio, 3.14 [95% CI, 2.21-4.48]; P < .001) and a more severe stroke-related neurologic deficit measured by NIHSS (median, 4 [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-10] vs median, 3 [IQR, 1-6] for those without PFO; P = .02).

Conclusions and Relevance: Among adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery at 3 hospitals, having a preoperatively diagnosed PFO was significantly associated with increased risk of perioperative ischemic stroke within 30 days after surgery. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether interventions would decrease this risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics

Authors: Schellenberger, S; Gillgard, P; Stare, A; Hanning, A; Levenstam, O; Roos, S; Cousins, IT (2018) HERO ID: 4239332

[Less] Fluorinated durable water repellent (DWR) agents are used to obtain water and stain repellent textiles. . . . [More] Fluorinated durable water repellent (DWR) agents are used to obtain water and stain repellent textiles. Due to the on-going phase-out of DWRs based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFP) with "long" perfluoroalkyl chains, the textile industry lacks suitable alternatives with comparable material characteristics. The constant development and optimization of SFPs for textile applications initiated more than half a century ago has resulted in a robust and very efficient DWR-technology and textiles with exceptional hydro- and oleo-phobic properties. The industry is now in the predicament that the long-chain SFPs with the best technical performance have undesirable toxicological and environmental behaviour. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the technical performance of presently available fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs as part of a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). The results are based on a study with synthetic outdoor fabrics treated with alternative DWRs and tested for repellency using industrial standard and complementary methods. Using this approach, the complex structure-property relationships of DWR-polymers could be explained on a molecular level. Both short-chain SFPs and non-fluorinated DWRs showed excellent water repellency and durability in some cases while short-chain SFPs were the more robust of the alternatives to long-chain SFPs. A strong decline in oil repellency and durability with perfluoroalkyl chain length was shown for SFP DWRs. Non-fluorinated alternatives were unable to repel oil, which might limit their potential for substitution in textile application that require repellency towards non-polar liquids.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anaerobic biotransformation of N-methyl perfluorobutanesulfonamido ethanol and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido ethanol

Author: Lange, CC (2018) HERO ID: 4239353

[Less] Some fluorochemical products are manufactured using N-methyl perfluorobutanesulfonamido ethanol (MeFBSE), . . . [More] Some fluorochemical products are manufactured using N-methyl perfluorobutanesulfonamido ethanol (MeFBSE), a short-chain replacement for perfluorooctyl-based chemistries N-methyl and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido ethanols (EtFOSE). The present study shows for the first time the anaerobic biodegradation of MeFBSE and EtFOSE in municipal digester sludge under methanogenic conditions. Both MeFBSE and EtFOSE were incubated for 108 d with anaerobic digester sludge. Although sterile controls did not remove MeFBSE, it was degraded in live sludge. The loss of MeFBSE coincided with production of N-methyl perfluorobutanesulfonamido acetate (MeFBSAA) and perfluorobutane sulfinate (PFBSI). The biodegradation appeared biphasic, with pseudo first-order loss between days 0 and 70, resulting in approximately 75% removal but no further depletion of MeFBSE between days 70 and 108. By day 108 MeFBSAA and PFBSI accounted for 57 and 40 mol% of initial dose, respectively. Mass balance values in live cultures on days 0, 10, 21, 29, 70, and 108 were 103, 92, 94, 100, 93, and 122%, respectively. The apparent first-order biodegradation rate constant for MeFBSE over the first 70 d was 0.0194 d-1, and the apparent half-life was 35.8 d. Incubation of EtFOSE with live digester sludge resulted in low-level formation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane-sulfonamido acetate and perfluorooctane sulfinate, which did not form in sterile controls. Although it was not measurably lost, 2 to 3% loss of EtFOSE was calculated based on product concentrations. The total product formation rate constant was determined by first-order kinetic evaluation over the first 72 d to estimate a first-order biodegradation rate constant for EtFOSE at 0.000374 d-1, and the apparent half-life time was 1860 d. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:768-779. © 2017 SETAC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances affects leukocyte telomere length in female newborns

Authors: Liu, H; Chen, Q; Lei, L; Zhou, W; Huang, L; Zhang, J; Chen, D (2018) Environmental Pollution 235:446-452. HERO ID: 4239494

[Less] Evidence has shown that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth is related to the susceptibility to . . . [More] Evidence has shown that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth is related to the susceptibility to various diseases in later life and the setting of newborn LTL is influenced by the intrauterine environment. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as a kind of persistent organic pollutants, are commonly used in commercial and domestic applications and are capable of crossing the maternal-fetal barrier during pregnancy. We hypothesized that intrauterine exposure to PFASs may affect fetal LTL by increasing oxidative stress. To verify this hypothesis, LTL, concentrations of PFASs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in umbilical cord blood of 581 newborns from a prospective cohort. Our results showed that there were interactions between PFOS/PFDA and sex on LTL and ROS. The LTL was significantly shorter (0.926 ± 0.053 vs 0.945 ± 0.054, P = .023 for PFOS; 0.919 ± 0.063 vs 0.940 ± 0.059, P = .011 for PFDA) and the ROS levels were extremely higher (252.9 ± 60.5 [M] vs 233.5 ± 53.6 [M], P = .031 for PFOS; 255.2 ± 62.9 [M] vs 232.9 ± 58.3 [M], P = .011 for PFDA) in the female newborns whose PFOS or PFDA concentrations fell in the upmost quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for potential confounders. ROS levels were inversely associated with LTL in female newborns (β = -1.42 × 10-4, P = .022). 13% of the effect of PFOS on female LTL was mediated through ROS approximately by the mediation analyses. However, in male newborns, no relationships among PFASs, ROS and LTL were observed. Our findings suggest a "programming" role of PFASs on fetal telomere biology system in females in intrauterine stage.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB), a novel perfluorooctane sulfonate alternative, induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos

Authors: Shi, G; Xie, Y; Guo, Y; Dai, J (2018) HERO ID: 4239512

[Less] 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) is a major component of Forafac®1157, a novel . . . [More] 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) is a major component of Forafac®1157, a novel perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternative used globally in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs). Although 6:2 FTAB has been recently detected in the aquatic environment, its toxic effects on aquatic organisms remain unclear. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of 6:2 FTAB (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) from 6 to 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) to investigate its developmental toxicity and possible mechanism of action. Results showed that exposure to 40 mg/L or higher concentrations of 6:2 FTAB significantly decreased the survival percentage and increased the malformation percentage. The median lethal concentration (LC50) at 120 hpf was 43.73 ± 3.24 mg/L, and the corresponding benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL) of lethal effect was 33.79 mg/L. These values were both higher than those for PFOS, supporting the notion that 6:2 FTAB is less toxic than PFOS to zebrafish embryos. The most common developmental defect in 6:2 FTAB-treated embryos was rough-edged skin/fins. TUNEL assay showed that 6:2 FTAB exposure induced cell apoptosis in the tail region compared with that of the control, which might explain the rough-edged skin/fins. The increased transcriptional levels of p53, bax, and apaf1 and the increased activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 provided further evidence of 6:2 FTAB-induced apoptosis. We also analyzed the effects of 6:2 FTAB on oxidative stress and the immune system. Results showed that reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde accumulated in concentration-dependent manners after exposure to 6:2 FTAB, and antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and glutathione peroxidase) also changed. Exposure to 6:2 FTAB also altered the transcriptional levels of ccl1, il-1β, il-8, tnfα, ifn, and cxcl-c1c, which play important roles in the innate immune system. Collectively, our data suggest that 6:2 FTAB exposure can induce cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and immunotoxicity, thus highlighting the developmental toxicity of 6:2 FTAB in zebrafish embryos.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Potential effects of changes in climate and emissions on distribution and fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate in the Bohai Rim, China

Authors: Su, C; Song, S; Lu, Y; Liu, S; Giesy, JP; Chen, D; Jenkins, A; Sweetman, AJ; Yvette, B (2018) HERO ID: 4239541

[Less] Climate change and emissions rates of contaminants are expected to affect distribution and fate of Persistent . . . [More] Climate change and emissions rates of contaminants are expected to affect distribution and fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the environment, however, studies on these combined factors are rare. In this study, Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is used as an example to assess how those two factors synthetically affect fate and disposition of POPs in the Bohai Rim of China by using the Berkeley-Trent-Urban-Rural (BETR-Urban-Rural) model. We set up three climate change scenarios and four emission scenarios to conduct the simulations. The results show that climate change could have significant effects on the transport and fate of PFOS mainly including advection, inter-compartmental transfer under the "worst case" emission scenario. For most grids, a remarkable decrease in concentrations of PFOS are predicted for fresh water and urban soil in the future, with precipitation and temperature being predominant factors, whilst for coastal water and rural soil, an increasing trend is predicted. Additionally, predicted sum of sources to the Bohai Sea increases greater than removals from the Bohai Sea in the future, adding evidence that concentrations of PFOS in coastal water will increase more in the future. Under scenarios of reduced emissions and climate change, concentrations of PFOS in each compartment decreased more rapidly over time. We suggest that assessment of future climate change impacts on fate of PFOS could take emission reductions into consideration.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Plasmonic Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy with Au@SiO2@Cu2O/Perfluorohexane Nanocomposites

Authors: Liu, C; Dong, H; Wu, N; Cao, Y; Zhang, X (2018) 10:6991-7002. HERO ID: 4239573

[Less] Reactive oxygen species generation efficiency of photosensitizers and hypoxia microenvironment in solid . . . [More] Reactive oxygen species generation efficiency of photosensitizers and hypoxia microenvironment in solid tumor hamper photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Here, we introduce an efficient inorganic photosensitizer by incorporating plasmonic gold metal nanostructures into Cu2O semiconductors for PDT. By utilizing the plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET) process from Au to Cu2O, Au@SiO2@Cu2O (ASC) demonstrates a high singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.71 under a 670 nm laser irradiation. The ASC is loaded into oxygen self-enriched perfluorohexane (PFH) droplets and coated with liposome (Lip) to form Lip(ASC/PFH) nanocomposites. The achieved Lip(ASC/PFH) shows considerable anticancer efficacy for in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor growth. The proposed oxygen self-enriched PIRET-PDT concept has significant implication in PDT design.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation and effects of novel chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate in freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus

Authors: Liu, W; Li, J; Gao, L; Zhang, Z; Zhao, J; He, X; Zhang, X (2018) HERO ID: 4239595

[Less] Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane . . . [More] Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with its environmental risk not well known. The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of Cl-PFESA in the freshwater alga is crucial for the understanding of its potential hazards to the aquatic environment. Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Cl-PFESA at ng L-1to mg L-1, with the exposure regime beginning at the environmentally relevant level. The total log BAF of Cl-PFESA in S. obliquus was 4.66, higher than the reported log BAF of PFOS in the freshwater plankton (2.2-3.2). Cl-PFESA adsorbed to the cell surface accounted for 33.5-68.3% of the total concentrations. The IC50 of Cl-PFESA to algal growth was estimated to be 40.3 mg L-1. Significant changes in algal growth rate and chlorophyll a/b contents were observed at 11.6 mg L-1and 13.4 mg L-1of Cl-PFESA, respectively. The sample cell membrane permeability, measured by the fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzation, was increased by Cl-PFESA at 5.42 mg L-1. The mitochondrial membrane potential, measured by Rh123 staining, was also increased, indicating the hyperpolarization induced by Cl-PFESA. The increasing ROS and MDA contents, along with the enhanced SOD, CAT activity, and GSH contents, suggested that Cl-PFESA caused oxidative damage in the algal cells. It is less possible that current Cl-PFESA pollution in surface water posed obvious toxic effects on the green algae. However, the bioaccumulation of Cl-PFESA in algae would contribute to its biomagnification in the aquatic food chain and its effects on membrane property could potentially increase the accessibility and toxicity of other coexisting pollutants.