Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFNA (375-95-1)


275 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Using 2003-2014 U.S. NHANES data to determine the associations between per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and cholesterol: Trend and implications

Authors: Dong, Z; Wang, H; Yu, YY; Li, YB; Naidu, R; Liu, Y (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 173:461-468. HERO ID: 5080195

[Less] Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a major concern due to their widespread occurrence . . . [More] Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a major concern due to their widespread occurrence and adverse health outcomes. The possible binding of PFASs to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and nuclear receptors raises concerns that PFASs may impact cholesterol levels in human. In this study, the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were employed to address the temporal trend for PFAS concentrations in biomonitoring and associations between cholesterol levels and PFAS exposure. Compared to the PFAS levels in 2003-2004, the median perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) levels in human serum in 2013-2014 decreased from 3.7 to 1.8 ng/mL, 19.2-4.7 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL to 1.3 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL to 0.6 ng/mL, respectively. Also, an estimate of 1.5 ± 0.7 mg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.2 - 2.8) and 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.1 - 0.6) total cholesterol increases for unit PFOA and PFOS increase (ng/mL), respectively. By using hybrid approach, RfDs were estimated to be 2.0 ng PFOS/kg per day and 0.8 ng PFOA/kg per day. However, it should be cautious when using proposed RfDs based on data obtained from cross-sectional datasets, especially evidence based on data originating from experimental or animal studies is still controversial.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution of perfluorinated alkyl substances in marine shellfish along the Chinese Bohai Sea coast

Authors: Guo, M; Zheng, G; Peng, J; Meng, D; Wu, H; Tan, Z; Li, F; Zhai, Y (2019) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 54:1-10. HERO ID: 5080518

[Less] Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants, which pose a threat . . . [More] Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants, which pose a threat to human health primarily by dietary exposure, especially through seafood. Bohai Sea (a semi-closed sea located north of China) is an important shellfish aquaculture area that is possibly highly-polluted with PFASs. In this study, we first evaluated contamination by PFASs in a total of 230 samples of marine shellfish from the Bohai Sea. Samples included five important shellfish species, collected from important aquaculture spots distributed around the Bohai Sea. Samples were analyzed by an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, which could simultaneously detect 23 PFASs in shellfish. Our research verified that PFASs have become a threat to the safety of shellfish products in this area. Furthermore, contamination by PFASs in shellfish changed depending on the components of PFASs, the species of shellfish, and the sampling sites. Many of the 23 target compounds contributed to the high detection ratio (>50%) as follows: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) > perfluorononanoic acid > perfluorodecanesulfonic acid > perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). Compared with other dominant components, PFOA not only had the highest detection percentage in shellfish samples (98.3%), but its detection level contributed to 87.2% of total PFASs concentrations, indicating that PFOA is the major threat to the safety of shellfish products. The highest level of PFAS was found in clams (62.5 ng g-1 wet weight of PFOA). The concentration of total PFAS in different shellfish species showed the following trend: clams > mussels > scallops > whelks > oysters. The maximum concentration of total PFAS or PFOA was found in Shouguang. The total concentration of PFOS and its precursor were highest in Cangzhou, possibly due to local industrial activities. The results presented in this paper provide new data on the contamination of marine shellfish along the Bohai Sea coasts in China, and constitute a reference for future monitoring of contamination by emerging contaminants in Bohai coast.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Field-scale evaluation of the uptake of Perfluoroalkyl substances from soil by rice in paddy fields in South Korea

Authors: Kim, H; Ekpe, OD; Lee, JH; Kim, DH; Oh, JE (2019) Science of the Total Environment 671:714-721. HERO ID: 5080559

[Less] The concentrations of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in paddy soil, void water, . . . [More] The concentrations of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in paddy soil, void water, and brown rice collected from 30 paddy fields to examine the uptake of PFASs from soil by rice. The total concentrations of PFASs ranged from 7.76 to 3020 ng/L (average = 166 ng/L) in void water, 0.120 to 13.9 ng/g dry-weight (dw) (1.92 ng/g dw) in paddy soils, and from not-detected to 1.85 ng/g (0.403 ng/g) in brown rice samples. The highest PFAS concentrations were observed in brown rice cultivated in a paddy field where high levels of PFASs were observed in void water and paddy soil. Among target PFAS compounds, perfluorocarboxylic acids were dominant and detected in all matrices, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the most predominant compound in brown rice and void water. Significant positive correlations were examined for some detected PFASs between each matrix. PFOA in brown rice was positively correlated with PFOA in void water as well as perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in paddy soil (p < 0.01). PFOA in void water also had correlated with PFDA in paddy soil. However, there was no correlation of other compounds between each matrix, except for correlations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and PFDA in paddy soil with those in void water, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, PFOA concentration in brown rice (0.093 ng/g) was much higher than one in white rice detected with a non-detectable level.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking water of China in 2017: Distribution characteristics, influencing factors and potential risks

Authors: Li, Y; Li, J; Zhang, L; Huang, Z; Liu, Y; Wu, N; He, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Niu, Z (2019) Environment International 123:87-95. HERO ID: 5080645

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have been ubiquitously detected in the environmental media. However, national scale investigations on their occurrence and distribution in drinking water are still insufficient. In this study, we detected the 17 priority PFAAs in drinking water from 79 cities of 31 provincial-level administrative regions throughout China, and investigated their occurrence and distribution. Additionally, we also analyzed the influencing factors on their profiles, such as the existence of industrial sources, socioeconomic factors (population density and GDP), and assessed levels of risk associated with contaminated drinking water. On the national scale, the sum concentrations of the 17 PFAAs (∑17PFAAs) in drinking water was in a range of 4.49-174.93 ng/L with a mean value of 35.13 ng/L. Among the 17 individual PFAAs, perfluorobutanoic acids (PFBA) was the most abundant individual PFAAs with the median concentration of 17.87 ng/L, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 0.74 ng/L), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 0.40 ng/L) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 0.25 ng/L). The geographic distribution characteristic of ∑17PFAAs in drinking water was in a descending order of Southwestern China (57.67 ng/L) > Eastern coastal China (32.85 ng/L) > Middle China (29.89 ng/L) > Northwestern China (28.49 ng/L) > Northeastern China (22.03 ng/L), and in general, the existence of the industrial sources could positively affect the contamination levels of PFAAs in drinking water. The pollution level of PFAAs in drinking water also varied among the three different city levels (medium-sized city > big city > town). In towns, the positive correlations were observed between the population density and the ∑17PFAAs (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.01), and the individual concentration of PFHxA, PFBS, and PFOA (p < 0.01). Moreover, besides PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi, concentrations of related PFAAs in drinking water from 28 provinces were less than the suggested drinking water advisories. The relatively higher concentrations of PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi suggest that further studies focusing on their sources and potential health risk to humans are needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Factors associated with exposure of pregnant women to perfluoroalkyl acids in North China and health risk assessment

Authors: Yang, J; Wang, H; Du, H; Xu, L; Liu, S; Yi, J; Qian, X; Chen, Y; Jiang, Q; He, G (2019) Science of the Total Environment 655:356-362. HERO ID: 5080660

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been frequently found in blood of pregnant women, but the predictors . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been frequently found in blood of pregnant women, but the predictors and potential health risk have not been well studied in China. We recruited 534 pregnant women in Tangshan City of Hebei Province in North China between 2013 and 2014 and measured five PFAAs in serum during their early term of pregnancy, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro‑n‑undecanoic acid (PFUdA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). We explored the factors associated with the levels of serum PFAAs and assessed associated health risks. Food consumption information was obtained by food frequency questionnaire covering 100 items. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine the associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, and food factors with the concentrations of serum PFAAs. Some PFAAs in serum were positively associated with age and body mass index (BMI). Consumption of beans, aquatic products, and eggs was positively associated with the concentrations of several PFAAs after adjusting for important covariates. Pregnant women who ate more cereal, vegetables, mushrooms and alga tended to have lower levels of serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA. The Hazard index (HI) for reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity was below 0.8, and the HI for hepatotoxicity beyond 1 was found in 0.37% of pregnant women. These results suggested that age, BMI, and some food consumption were predictors for the exposure to PFAAs in Chinese pregnant women. More attention should be paid to the hepatotoxicity for these exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the blood of two colobine monkey species from China: Occurrence and exposure pathways

Authors: Cui, Q; Shi, F; Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Dai, J (2019) Science of the Total Environment 674:524-531. HERO ID: 5097957

[Less] Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are widely used in industrial and commercial products, . . . [More] Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are widely used in industrial and commercial products, have been identified as global and ubiquitous pollutants. Despite this, limited data are available regarding the impacts of PFAS exposure and intake in non-human primates. Here, we report for the first time on the occurrence of PFASs in the blood and dietary sources of two rare and endangered primate species, namely, the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) and Francois' leaf monkey (Trachypithecus francoisi). Results showed that perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were dominant and found at the highest proportions in the blood of both species at the four study sites. The ∑PFAS levels in blood samples from captive golden snub-nosed monkeys in Tongling Zoo (mean: 2.51 ng/mL) and Shanghai Wild Zoo (3.52 ng/mL) near urbanized areas were one order of magnitude higher than the levels in wild monkeys from Shennongjia Nature Reserve (0.27 ng/mL). Furthermore, significant age positive relationships for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (6:2 Cl-PFESA) were observed in both golden snub-nosed monkeys at Shanghai Wild Zoo and Francois' leaf monkeys at Wuzhou Breeding Center. In addition, PFAS levels in frequently consumed food and drinking water were analyzed for Francois' leaf monkeys. Results showed that tree leaves accounted for the highest percentage of total daily intake of PFASs, especially PFOA, thus highlighting tree leaf consumption as a primary PFAS exposure route for this species. Overall, however, dietary exposure to PFASs was of relatively low risk to Francois' leaf monkey health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of perfluoroalkyl substances in sediment cores from High and Low Arctic lakes in Canada

Authors: Macinnis, JJ; Lehnherr, I; Muir, DCG; Quinlan, R; De Silva, AO (2019) Science of the Total Environment 666:414-422. HERO ID: 5024202

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic environmentally-persistent pollutants that are amenable . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic environmentally-persistent pollutants that are amenable to long-range transport and accumulation in remote Arctic ecosystems. In this study, historical inventories of twenty-three PFASs (i.e. C4-C14, C16 perfluoroalkane carboxylic acids (PFCAs); C4, C6-C8, C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs); perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexane sulfonic acid (PFECHS); dodecafluoro-3H-4,8-dioxanonanoic acid (ADONA); 8-chloro-perfluoro-1-octane sulfonic acid (8-Cl-PFOS); chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) including 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and 11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic acid (8:2 Cl-PFESA); as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)) are determined in two intact sediment cores collected from Lake Hazen, located in northern Ellesmere Island at 82° N in 2012 and Lake B35, located in central Nunavut at 64° N in 2009. In Lake Hazen, fluxes of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) increased during 1963-2011. In Lake B35, fluxes of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) increased during 1952-2009. The temporal trends for PFASs in Lake Hazen and Lake B35 sediments are consistent with the continuous annual delivery of PFASs to the Arctic of Canada. Temporal trends in sediment cores appear to follow historical market changes in PFAS manufacturing inventory. The doubling time of PFAS fluxes are faster in Lake Hazen sediments than Lake B35 sediments. In Lake Hazen, this may be attributed to the enhanced delivery of sediment and historically-archived PFASs promoted by climate-induced glacier melting in the Lake Hazen watershed post-2005. Exponentially increasing PFAS temporal trends in High and Low Arctic lakes in Canada stress the importance of developing effective global regulatory policies for PFAS manufacturing and highlights the potential for climate change-induced contaminant release from melting glaciers in the Arctic.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Early-life exposome and lung function in children in Europe: an analysis of data from the longitudinal, population-based HELIX cohort

Authors: Agier, L; Basagaña, X; Maitre, L; Granum, B; Bird, PK; Casas, M; Oftedal, B; Wright, J; Andrusaityte, S; de Castro, M; Cequier, E; Chatzi, L; Donaire-Gonzalez, D; Grazuleviciene, R; Haug, LS; Sakhi, AK; Leventakou, V; Mceachan, R; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Petraviciene, I; Robinson, O; Roumeliotaki, T; Sunyer, J; Tamayo-Uria, I; Thomsen, C; Urquiza, J; Valentin, A; Slama, R; Vrijheid, M; Siroux, V (2019) The Lancet Planetary Health 3:e81-e92. HERO ID: 5043613

[Less] BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children.

METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures.

FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions.

INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease.

FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation behavior and spatiotemporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from the Pearl River Estuary, China

Authors: Gui, D; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, B; Lin, W; Sun, X; Yu, X; Liu, W; Wu, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 658:1029-1038. HERO ID: 5024213

[Less] Sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in liver (n = 52) and kidney (n = 18) . . . [More] Sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in liver (n = 52) and kidney (n = 18) tissues of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) of China between 2004 and 2016. The average concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and most of other PFASs in the liver samples were respectively greater than any records previously reported in cetaceans globally. PFOS levels in 46% of dolphin liver samples exceeded the hepatic toxicity threshold in cetaceans. For the first time, we found a U-shaped trend for the distribution pattern of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) between liver and kidney with increasing carbon chain lengths (C5-C16), whereas a descending trend (C4-C10) was found for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFASs), which may be explained by binding efficiencies of PFAS analogues to proteins. Dolphins with the highest levels of ∑PFASs (age-corrected) were clustered near the river outlets in Lingdingyang area, which agrees with the spatial distribution of PFASs in the environment. Significant temporal trends were observed for many PFASs. Concentrations of PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) all peaked in year 2011, followed by a decreasing trend, while a consistently descending trend was shown for perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS). Our findings contribute to the knowledge of tissue distribution and spatiotemporal trends of PFASs in the PRE dolphins, which are valuable for us to understand the PFASs exposure risk and their industrial emission in Southern China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of age-based trends to identify chemical biomarkers of higher levels in children

Authors: Nguyen, VK; Colacino, JA; Arnot, JA; Kvasnicka, J; Jolliet, O (2019) Environment International 122:117-129. HERO ID: 5043339

[Less] BACKGROUND: Chemical biomarker concentrations are driven by complex interactions between . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Chemical biomarker concentrations are driven by complex interactions between chemical use patterns, exposure pathways, and toxicokinetic parameters such as biological half-lives. Criteria to differentiate legacy from current exposures are helpful for interpreting variation in age-based and time trends of chemical exposure and identifying chemicals to which children are highly exposed. A systematic approach is needed to study temporal trends for a wide range of chemicals in the US population.

OBJECTIVES: Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data on measured biomarker concentrations for 141 chemicals from 1999 to 2014, we aim to 1) understand the influence of temporal determinants, in particular time trends, biological half-lives, and restriction dates on age-based trends, 2) systematically define an age-based pattern to identify chemicals with ongoing and high exposure in children, and 3) characterize how age-based trends for six Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) are changing over time.

METHODS: We performed an integrated analysis of biological half-lives and restriction dates, compared distributions of chemical biomarker concentrations by age group, and then applied a series of regression models to evaluate the linear (βage) and nonlinear (βage2) relationships between age and chemical biomarker levels.

RESULTS: For restricted chemicals, a minimum persistence of 1 year in the human body is needed to observe substantial differences between the less exposed young population and historically exposed adults. We define a metric ( [Formula: see text] ) that identifies several phthalates, brominated flame retardants, pesticides, and metals such as lead and tungsten as elevated and ongoing exposures in children. While a substantial reduction in children's exposures was reflected in PFOS and PFOA, levels of PFNA and PFHxS in children were higher in 2013-2014 compared to those in 1999-2000.

CONCLUSIONS: Integrating a series of regression models with systemized stratified analyses by age group enabled us to define an age-based pattern to identify chemicals that are of higher levels in children.