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PFNA (375-95-1)


401 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring sex differences in human health risk assessment for PFNA and PFDA using a PBPK model

Authors: Kim, SJ; Choi, EJ; Choi, GW; Lee, YB; Cho, HY (2019) Archives of Toxicology 93:311-330. HERO ID: 5063958

[Less] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference. A PBPK model of PFNA and PFDA was established based on an in vivo study in male and female rats. Analytes in biological samples (plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces) were determined by ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. PFNA and PFDA showed a gender differences in the elimination half-life and volume of distribution. The tissue-plasma partition coefficients were the highest in the liver in both male and female rats. The predicted rat plasma and urine concentrations simulated and fitted were in good agreement with the observed values. The PBPK models of PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats were then extrapolated to a human PBPK model based on human physiological parameters. The external doses were calculated at 3.35 ng/kg/day (male) and 17.0 ng/kg/day (female) for PFNA and 0.530 ng/kg/day (male) and 0.661 ng/kg/day (female) for PFDA. Human risk assessment was estimated using Korean biomonitoring values considering the gender differences. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFNA and PFDA exposure.

Technical Report
Technical Report

28-day evaluation of the toxicity (C04049) of perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA) (375-95-1) on Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via gavage

Author: NTP (2018) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [NTP] HERO ID: 4309103


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water

Authors: Li, Y; Fletcher, T; Mucs, D; Scott, K; Lindh, CH; Tallving, P; Jakobsson, K (2018) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75:46-51. HERO ID: 4238434

[Less] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.

METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).

RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.

CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorohexadecanoic acid increases paracellular permeability in endothelial cells through the activation of plasma kallikrein-kinin system

Authors: Liu, QS; Hao, F; Sun, Z; Long, Y; Zhou, Q; Jiang, G (2018) Chemosphere 190:191-200. HERO ID: 4238499

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous and high persistent in human blood, thus . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous and high persistent in human blood, thus potentially inducing a myriad of deleterious consequences. Plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), which physiologically regulates vascular permeability, is vulnerable to exogenous stimulators, like PFASs with long-chain alkyl backbone substituted by electronegative fluorine. The study on the interactions of PFASs with the KKS and the subsequent effects on vascular permeability would be helpful to illustrate how the chemicals penetrate the biological vascular barriers to reach different tissues. In present study, three representative PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), were investigated for their effects on the activation of the KKS, paracellular permeability in human retina endothelial cells (HRECs) and integrity of the adherens junctions. In contrast to either PFOS or PFOA, PFHxDA efficiently triggered KKS activation in a concentration-dependent manner based on protease activity assays. The plasma activated by PFHxDA significantly increased paracellular permeability of HRECs through the degradation of adherens junctions. As evidenced by the antagonistic effect of aprotinin, PFHxDA-involved effects on vascular permeability were mediated by KKS activation. The results herein firstly revealed the mechanistic pathway for PFHxDA induced effects on vascular endothelial cells. Regarding the possible structure-related activities of the chemicals, this finding would be of great help in the risk assessment of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorooctane sulfonate impairs rat Leydig cell development during puberty

Authors: Li, L; Li, X; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Liu, J; Chen, F; Ge, F; Ye, L; Lian, Q; Ge, RS (2018) Chemosphere 190:43-53. HERO ID: 4241058

[Less] Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) possibly delays male sexual development. However, its effects on pubertal . . . [More] Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) possibly delays male sexual development. However, its effects on pubertal Leydig cell development are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of in vivo PFOS exposure on rat Leydig cell development during puberty. Immature male Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged 5 or 10 mg/kg PFOS on postnatal day 35 for 21 days. Compared to the control (0 mg/kg), PFOS lowered serum testosterone levels without altering luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels on postnatal day 56. PFOS in vivo downregulated mRNA or protein levels of Leydig cells (Lhcgr, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1). PFOS in vitro inhibited androgen secretion in immature Leydig cells at ≥ 50 nM, most possibly via downregulating Hsd17b3 mRNA level. At ≥ 500 nM, PFOS downregulated Lhcgr, inhibited BCL-2 and increased BAX levels to cause Leydig cell apoptosis. In conclusion, PFOS at a lower dose directly inhibited pubertal development of Leydig cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biomonitoring of perfluorinated compounds in adults exposed to contaminated drinking water in the Veneto Region, Italy

Authors: Ingelido, AM; Abballe, A; Gemma, S; Dellatte, E; Iacovella, N; De Angelis, G; Zampaglioni, F; Marra, V; Miniero, R; Valentini, S; Russo, F; Vazzoler, M; Testai, E; De Felip, E (2018) Environment International 110:149-159. HERO ID: 4354081

[Less] In 2013 a contamination of drinking water by perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) was discovered in . . . [More] In 2013 a contamination of drinking water by perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) was discovered in areas of the Veneto Region (northern Italy). In this study the exposure to PFASs of people living in the aforesaid areas was characterized: contaminant serum concentrations were measured and compared with those of a control population group living in neighboring areas at background exposure (based on available drinking water data). The enrolled population was also genotyped for the OATP1A2*3 allelic variant, possibly affecting PFAS excretion and hence the internal dose. The difference in PFAS concentrations between exposed and not exposed subjects was significantly larger for nine of the 12 substances analyzed, and confirmed that water contamination had resulted in an appreciable high exposure of the residing population over time. Within the group of exposed subjects, subgroups at different exposure levels were identified. The contamination of drinking water of the residence area was found to be the main factor influencing PFAS serum levels; in addition to water contamination, other relevant influencing factors were sex, the years of residence and raising own livestock. No relationship with the genetic trait for the studied renal transporter was evidenced. These results provide a baseline characterization of PFAS exposure of the monitored population groups for further studies, planned to be carried out in the near future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and mid-childhood lipid and alanine aminotransferase levels

Authors: Mora, AM; Fleisch, AF; Rifas-Shiman, SL; Woo Baidal, JA; Pardo, L; Webster, TF; Calafat, AM; Ye, X; Oken, E; Sagiv, SK (2018) Environment International 111:1-13. HERO ID: 4239224

[Less] BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt lipid homeostasis and liver function, but data in children are limited.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of prenatal and mid-childhood PFAS exposure with lipids and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children.

METHODS: We studied 682 mother-child pairs from a Boston-area pre-birth cohort. We quantified PFASs in maternal plasma collected in pregnancy (median 9.7weeks gestation, 1999-2002) and in child plasma collected in mid-childhood (median age 7.7years, 2007-2010). In mid-childhood we also measured fasting total (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and ALT. We then derived low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from TC, HDL-C, and TG using the Friedewald formula.

RESULTS: Median (interquartile range, IQR) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA) concentrations in child plasma were 6.2 (5.5), 4.3 (3.0), and 0.3 (0.3) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, higher child PFOS, PFOA, and PFDeA concentrations were associated with detrimental changes in the lipid profile, including higher TC and/or LDL-C [e.g., β per IQR increment in PFOS=4.0mg/dL (95% CI: 0.3, 7.8) for TC and 2.6mg/dL (-0.5, 5.8) for LDL-C]. However, among both boys and girls, higher plasma concentrations of these child PFASs were also associated with higher HDL-C, which predicts better cardiovascular health, and slightly lower ALT, which may indicate better liver function. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were also modestly associated with improved childhood lipid and ALT levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal and mid-childhood PFAS exposure may be associated with modest, but somewhat conflicting changes in the lipid profile and ALT levels in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and child overweight/obesity at 5-year follow-up: a prospective cohort study

Authors: Lauritzen, HB; Larose, TL; Øien, T; Sandanger, TM; Odland, JØ; van de Bor, M; Jacobsen, GW (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:9. HERO ID: 4217244

[Less] BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), may influence . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), may influence offspring weight gain. More prospective epidemiological studies are needed to compliment the growing body of evidence from animal studies.

METHODS: Serum from 412 pregnant Norwegian and Swedish women participating in a Scandinavian prospective cohort study were collected in 1986-88, and analyses of two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and five organochlorines (OCs) were conducted. We used linear and logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the associations between maternal serum POP concentrations at 17-20 weeks of gestation and child overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile) at 5-year follow-up. Results were further stratified by country after testing for effect modification. We also assessed potential non-monotonic dose-response (NMDR) relationships.

RESULTS: In adjusted linear models, we observed increased BMI-for-age-and-sex z-score (β = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.01-0.35), and increased triceps skinfold z-score (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.02-0.27) in children at 5-year follow-up per ln-unit increase in maternal serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations. We observed increased odds for child overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) for each ln-unit increase in maternal serum PFOS levels (adjusted OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.11-3.74), with stronger odds among Norwegian children (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.42-6.15). We found similar associations between maternal serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations and child overweight/obesity. We found indications of NMDR relationships between PFOS and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and child overweight/obesity among Swedish children.

CONCLUSION: We found positive associations between maternal serum PFAS concentrations and child overweight/obesity at 5-year follow-up, particularly among Norwegian participants. We observed some evidence for NMDR relationships among Swedish participants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sex-specific risk assessment of PFHxS using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

Authors: Kim, SJ; Shin, H; Lee, YB; Cho, HY (2018) Archives of Toxicology 92:1113-1131. HERO ID: 4239569

[Less] Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), which belongs to the group of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), which belongs to the group of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), has been extensively used in industry and subsequently detected in the environment. Its use may be problematic, as PFHxS is known to induce neuronal cell death, and has been associated with early onset menopause in women and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Due to these impending issues, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PFHxS in male and female rats, and apply this to a human health risk assessment. We conducted this study in vivo after the oral or intravenous administration of PFHxS in male (dose of 10 mg/kg) and female rats (dose of 0.5-10 mg/kg). The biological samples consisted of plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces. We analyzed the sample using ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Our findings showed the tissue-plasma partition coefficients for PFHxS were highest in the liver. The predicted rat plasma and tissue concentrations using a simulation fitted well with the observed values. We extrapolated the PBPK model in male and female rats to a human PBPK model of PFHxS based on human physiological parameters. The reference doses of 0.711 µg/kg/day (male) and 0.159 µg/kg/day (female) and external doses of 0.007 µg/kg/day (male) and 0.006 µg/kg/day (female) for human risk assessment were estimated using Korean biomonitoring values. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFHxS exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cellular accumulation and lipid binding of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) - A comparison with lysosomotropic drugs

Authors: Sanchez Garcia, D; Sjödin, M; Hellstrandh, M; Norinder, U; Nikiforova, V; Lindberg, J; Wincent, E; Bergman, Å; Cotgreave, I; Munic Kos, V (2018) Chemico-Biological Interactions 281:1-10. HERO ID: 4234856

[Less] Many chemicals accumulate in organisms through a variety of different mechanisms. Cationic amphiphilic . . . [More] Many chemicals accumulate in organisms through a variety of different mechanisms. Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) accumulate in lysosomes and bind to membranes causing phospholipidosis, whereas many lipophilic chemicals target adipose tissue. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used as surfactants, but many of them are highly bioaccumulating and persistent in the environment, making them notorious environmental toxicants. Understanding the mechanisms of their bioaccumulation is, therefore, important for their regulation and substitution with new, less harmful chemicals. We compared the highly bioaccumulative perfluorooctanesulfonic acid PFOS to its three less bioaccumulative alternatives perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), in their ability to accumulate and remain in lung epithelial cells (NCI-H292) and adipocytes (3T3-L1K) in vitro. As a reference point we tested a set of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs), known to highly accumulate in cells and strongly bind to phospholipids, together with their respective non-CAD controls. Finally, all compounds were examined for their ability to bind to neutral lipids and phospholipids in cell-free systems. Cellular accumulation and retention of the test compounds were highly correlated between the lung epithelial cells and adipocytes. Interestingly, although an anion itself, intensities of PFOS accumulation and retention in cells were comparable to those of CAD compounds, but PFOS failed to induce phospholipidosis or alter lysosomal volume. Compared to other lipophilicity measures, phospholipophilicity shows the highest correlation (Rˆ2 = 0.75) to cellular accumulation data in both cell types and best distinguishes between high and low accumulating compounds. This indicates that binding to phospholipids may be the most important component in driving high cellular accumulation in lung epithelial cells, as well as in adipocytes, and for both CADs and bioaccumulating PFASs. Obtained continuous PLS models based on compound's affinity for phospholipids and neutral lipids can be used as good prediction models of cellular accumulation and retention of PFASs and CADs.