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PFNA (375-95-1)


126 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells

Authors: Rosenmai, AK; Ahrens, L; le Godec, T; Lundqvist, J; Oskarsson, A (2018) Journal of Applied Toxicology 38:219-226. HERO ID: 4220319

[Less] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg-1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interactions of perfluoroalkyl substances with a phospholipid bilayer studied by neutron reflectometry

Authors: Nouhi, Y; Ahrens, L; Kabayama, HH; Hughes, NAV; Campana, M; Gutfreund, P; Palsson, GK; Vorobiev, AA; Hellsing, MS (2018) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 511:474-481. HERO ID: 4234858

[Less] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) . . . [More] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were investigated at the molecular level using neutron reflectometry. Representative PFASs with different chain length and functional groups were selected in this study including: perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). All PFASs were found to interact with the bilayer by incorporation, indicating PFAS ability to accumulate once ingested or taken up by organisms. The interactions were observed to increase with chain length and vary with the functional group as SO2NH2(FOSA)>SO2O-(PFOS)>COO-(PFNA). The PFAS hydrophobicity, which is strongly correlated with perfluorocarbon chain length, was found to strongly influence the interactions. Longer chain PFASs showed higher tendency to penetrate into the bilayer compared to the short-chain compounds. The incorporated PFASs could for all substances but one (PFNA) be removed from the lipid membrane by gentle rinsing with water (2mLmin-1). Although short-chain PFASs have been suggested to be the potentially less bioaccumulative alternative, we found that in high enough concentrations they can also disturb the bilayer. The roughness and disorder of the bilayer was observed to increase as the concentration of PFASs increased (in particular for the high concentrations of short-chain substances i.e. PFHxA and PFBS), which can be an indication of aggregation of PFASs in the bilayer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Correlation between mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and length of perfluorinated compounds

Authors: Lee, JK; Kim, SH (2018) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 81:1-12. HERO ID: 4238305

[Less] Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) have widely been used in numerous applications including clothing, food . . . [More] Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) have widely been used in numerous applications including clothing, food packaging, and nonstick coating. With the widespread use of PFC, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects in humans and wildlife have increased. In spite of the known PFC-mediated immunotoxiciy, correlation with PFC and allergic inflammation still requires elucidation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of four types of PFC (perfluoroheptanoic acid [PFHpA], perfluorononanoic acid [PFNA], perfluorodecanoic acid [PFDA], and perfluoroundecanoic acid [PFUnA]) on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in the presence of high-affinity immunoglobulin (Ig) E receptor (FcεRI) cross-linking. Among PFC family, long-chain PFDA and PFUnA increased release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by up-regulation of intracellular calcium levels in IgE-stimulated mast cells. In addition, PFDA and PFUnA enhanced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 by activation of nuclear factor-κB in IgE-stimulated mast cells. In ovalbumin (OVA)-induced model of systemic anaphylaxis in the presence of hypothermia, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnA exacerbated allergic symptoms accompanied by elevation in serum histamine, TNF-α, IgE, and IgG1. Our data indicate that some PFC aggravated high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-mediated mast cell degranulation and allergic symptoms. Consequently, the results demonstrated that carbon-chain length of PFC may serve as a factor in allergic inflammation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elevation of intracellular calcium and oxidative stress is involved in perfluorononanoic acid-induced neurotoxicity

Authors: Fang, X; Wu, C; Li, H; Yuan, W; Wang, X (2018) Toxicology and Industrial Health 34:139-145. HERO ID: 4238326

[Less] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the major perfluorinated compounds found in both biological . . . [More] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the major perfluorinated compounds found in both biological and abiotic samples and has recently been demonstrated to cause neurobehavioral defects in mammals. In this study, pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells were exposed to various doses of PFNA to explore the cytotoxicity of PFNA to neurons and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. The results showed that exposure to PFNA dose-dependently decreased the viability of PC12 cells and increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into cell culture media. Exposure to PFNA increased the malondialdehyde content and decreased the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in PC12 cell culture supernatants. Exposure to PFNA increased the intracellular calcium level and upregulated the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) expression in PC12 cells. PFNA also decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased Bax expression in PC12 cells. These results suggested that exposure to PFNA elevated the intracellular calcium level and activated the CaMKII signaling pathway, which may aggravate oxidative stress in PC12 cells and lead to cell damage or cell apoptosis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association among total serum isomers of perfluorinated chemicals, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, serum protein and metabolic syndrome in adults: NHANES, 2013-2014

Authors: Liu, HS; Wen, LL; Chu, PL; Lin, CY (2018) Environmental Pollution 232:73-79. HERO ID: 4238514

[Less] Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products manufacture. Recent in vitro . . . [More] Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products manufacture. Recent in vitro as well as animal studies have found that there are different toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles between isomers of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and/or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). However, the differential effects of linear or branched PFOA/PFOS isomers on human beings have never been reported. Herein, we examined 1871 adult subjects (age older than 18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 to determine the association between the isomers of PFOA/PFOS and serum biochemistry profiles, including glucose, lipids, protein and components of metabolic syndrome (MS). The results showed that for PFOA, increased linear PFOA was associated with increases in total cholesterol, serum albumin and an enhancement of β cell function as well as a decrease in the serum globulin. Increased branched PFOA was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose. All isomers of PFOA were positively associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and negatively associated with glycohemoglobin (HbA1C). The branched PFOS was positively associated with β cell function and inversely associated with serum globulin. Both linear and branched isomers of PFOS were positively associated with the total protein and albumin. The increased branched PFOA was associated with less HDL-C insufficiency defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) MS criteria, whereas the increased concentrations of serum total and linear PFOS were associated with less hypertriglyceridemia by the NCEP-ATP III. In conclusion, serum isomers of PFOA and PFOS were associated with glucose homeostasis, serum protein as well as lipid profiles; they were also indicators of MS. This may suggest that there is a distinct difference in the toxicokinetics of the isomers of PFOA and PFOS. Further clinical and animal studies are warranted to clarify the putative causal relationships between isomers and biochemical alterations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Poly- and perfluorinated compounds activate human pregnane X receptor

Authors: Zhang, YM; Dong, XY; Fan, LJ; Zhang, ZL; Wang, Q; Jiang, N; Yang, XS (2017) Toxicology 380:23-29. HERO ID: 3604013

[Less] Poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which have been detected worldwide in human blood, surface . . . [More] Poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which have been detected worldwide in human blood, surface water and house dust, are suspected to induce potential endocrine-disrupting hormonal effects. In this study, cell-based reporter gene assays were used to determine the activity of a variety of PFCs against the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) to identify the critical structural feature of PFCs related to their hPXR activity. Molecular docking studies combined with site-directed mutagenesis were employed to investigate the mechanism by which PFCs interact with and activate hPXR. We found that all tested PFCs can activate hPXR. The hPXR activity of the PFCs correlates with the carbon chain length and the functional group of the chemicals. Hydrogen bonding was characteristic of the interaction between PFCs and hPXR. We also identified the key residues within the hPXR ligand-binding pocket responsible for PFC-hPXR interaction. The outcome of the present study threw a light on the mechanism by which PFCs activate hPXR. PFCs may pose some potential endocrine-disrupting hormonal effects via activation of hPXR.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Serum perfluoroalkyl substances in children exposed to the world trade center disaster

Authors: Trasande, L; Koshy, TT; Gilbert, J; Burdine, LK; Attina, TM; Ghassabian, A; Honda, M; Marmor, M; Chu, DB; Han, X; Shao, Y; Kannan, K (2017) Environmental Research 154:212-221. HERO ID: 3604103

[Less] The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released large amounts of various chemical substances into the . . . [More] The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released large amounts of various chemical substances into the environment, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Yet, no studies have examined exposures in children living or attending schools near the disaster site. We measured serum PFASs in WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) respondents who were ≤8 years of age on September 11, 2001 and a sociodemographically-matched comparison group. We also examined the relationship of PFASs levels with dust cloud exposure; home dust exposure, and with traumatic exposure, the latter to take into account differences related to possible mental health consequences and associated behavioral problems. Serum samples, collected between 2014 and 2016, were analyzed from 123 WTCHR participants and from 185 participants in the comparison group. In the WTCHR group, median perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) levels were 1.81ng/mL and 3.72ng/mL, respectively. Controlling for sex, caloric intake, race/ethnicity, and date of birth, significant increases among WTCHR participants compared with the matched comparison group were detected for perfluorohexanesulfonate (0.23ng/mL increase or 0.24log unit increase, p=0.006); PFOS (0.86ng/mL increase or 0.16log unit increase, p=0.011); PFOA (0.35ng/mL increase or 0.18log unit increase, p<0.001); perfluorononanoic acid (0.12ng/mL increase or 0.17log unit increase, p=0.003); perfluorodecanoic acid (0.06ng/mL increase or 0.42log unit increase, p<0.001); and perfluoroundecanoic acid (0.03ng/mL increase or 0.32log unit increase, p=0.019). Stronger associations were identified for home dust exposures and traumatic exposures than dust cloud. These findings highlight the importance of conducting longitudinal studies in this population to assess possible cardiometabolic and renal consequences related to these exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

Authors: Oulhote, Y; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, K; Weihe, P; Grandjean, P; Ryder, LP; Heilmann, C (2017) Reproductive Toxicology 68:207-214. HERO ID: 3748921

[Less] BACKGROUND: To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively . . . [More] BACKGROUND: To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5 years.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extended differential count included: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes (includingT cells, NK cells, and B cells), and monocytes. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in maternal (n=56) and children's blood at 18 months (n=42) and 5 years (n=54). We constructed latent functions for exposures at three different ages using factor analyses and applied structural equation models adjusted for covariates.

RESULTS: Prenatal mercury exposure was associated with depleted total WBC, especially for lymphocytes, where a one standard deviation (SD) increase in the exposure was associated with a decrease by 23% SD (95% CI: -43, -4) in the cell count. Prenatal exposure to OCs was marginally associated with decreases in neutrophil counts. In contrast, the 5-year PFASs concentrations were associated with higher basophil counts (B=46% SD, 95% CI: 13, 79). Significantly reduced subpopulations of lymphocytes such as B cells, CD4-positive T helper cells and CD4 positive recent thymic emigrants may suggest cellular immunity effects and dysregulation of T-cell mediated immunity.

CONCLUSION: Developmental exposure to environmental immunotoxicants appears to have different impacts on WBC counts in childhood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental exposure to human carcinogens in teenagers and the association with DNA damage

Authors: Franken, C; Koppen, G; Lambrechts, N; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Den Hond, E; Loots, I; Nelen, V; Sioen, I; Nawrot, TS; Baeyens, W; Van Larebeke, N; Boonen, F; Ooms, D; Wevers, M; Jacobs, G; Covaci, A; Schettgen, T; Schoeters, G (2017) Environmental Research 152:165-174. HERO ID: 3789256

[Less] BACKGROUND: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) . . . [More] BACKGROUND: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Personal exposure to potentially carcinogenic compounds was measured in urine, namely: chromium, cadmium, nickel, 1-hydroxypyrene as a proxy for exposure to other carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), t,t-muconic acid as a metabolite of benzene, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), organophosphate pesticide metabolites, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. In blood, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 118 and 156, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were analyzed. Levels of methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in hair. Multiple linear regression models were used to establish exposure-response relationships.

RESULTS: Biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and urinary chromium were associated with higher levels of both 8-OHdG in urine and DNA damage detected by the alkaline comet assay. Concentrations of 8-OHdG in urine increased in relation with increasing concentrations of urinary t,t-muconic acid, cadmium, nickel, 2,5-DCP, and DEHP metabolites. Increased concentrations of PFOA in blood were associated with higher levels of DNA damage measured by the alkaline comet assay, whereas DDT was associated in the same direction with the Fpg-modified comet assay. Inverse associations were observed between blood arsenic, hair MeHg, PCB 156 and HCB, and urinary 8-OHdG. The latter exposure biomarkers were also associated with higher fish intake. Urinary nickel and t,t-muconic acid were inversely associated with the alkaline comet assay.

CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study found associations between current environmental exposure to (potential) human carcinogens in 14-15-year-old Flemish adolescents and short-term (oxidative) damage to DNA. Prospective follow-up will be required to investigate whether long-term effects may occur due to complex environmental exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2015

Authors: Olsen, GW; Mair, DC; Lange, CC; Harrington, LM; Church, TR; Goldberg, CL; Herron, RM; Hanna, H; Nobiletti, JB; Rios, JA; Reagen, WK; Ley, CA (2017) Environmental Research 157:87-95. HERO ID: 3856451

[Less] In 2015, thirteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), . . . [More] In 2015, thirteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) were analyzed in human plasma that were collected from a total of 616 American Red Cross male and female blood donors (ages 20-69) at 6 regional blood collection centers. Plasma samples were analyzed using a validated solvent precipitation-isotope dilution direction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The data were analyzed in conjunction with prior cross-sectional investigations [2000-2001 (n =645), 2006 (n =600), and 2010 (n =600)] to determine PFAS trends. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean serum (2000-2001) and plasma (2006, 2010, 2015) concentrations (ng/mL) were, respectively: PFHxS (2.3, 1.5, 1.3, 0.9); PFOS (35.1, 14.5, 8.4, 4.3); PFOA (4.7, 3.4, 2.4, 1.1); PFNA (0.6, 1.0, 0.8, 0.4); and PFDA (0.2, 0.3, 0.3, 0.1). The percentage decline in these geometric mean concentrations from 2000-2001 to 2015 were: PFHxS (61%); PFOS (88%); PFOA (77%); PFNA (33%); and PFDA (50%). The results indicate a continued decline of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors. For the remaining PFAS measured in 2015, including the shorter chain perfluoroalkyls perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), the majority of samples were below the lower limit of quantitation.