Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PCBs Epi Hazard ID

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
1,074 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diagnostic utility of penile ultrasound in Peyronie's disease

Authors: Mccauley, JF; Dean, RC (2019) HERO ID: 5836343

[Less] PURPOSE: To review the literature regarding the use of penile ultrasound in the evaluation . . . [More] PURPOSE: To review the literature regarding the use of penile ultrasound in the evaluation and management of Peyronie's disease.

METHODS: A literature review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2018 using the keywords: Peyronie's disease, ultrasound, sonography, calcification, penile fracture, and penile hematoma. Articles were reviewed for study size, image protocols, and findings. In addition, we reviewed images from 227 penile ultrasounds performed on Peyronie's disease patients at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center between 2014 and 2018.

RESULTS: Through extensive urological and radiographic literature review over the last four decades, common patterns and characteristic of Peyronie's plaques were identified. These characteristics are not always delineated by physical examination alone. The ultrasound images often added objective information including etiology of erectile dysfunction and location or plaques, and presence of calcifications which aid in patient counseling and treatment protocols.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of B-mode ultrasound with color Doppler in the evaluation and management of Peyronie's disease is a quick, cost-effective process that provides objective information that can assist the urologist in the treatment of patients with Peyronie's disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human follicular fluid and in vitro fertilization outcomes, a pilot study

Authors: Bloom, MS; Fujimoto, VY; Storm, R; Zhang, L; Butts, CD; Sollohub, D; Jansing, RL (2017) Reproductive Toxicology 67:165-173. HERO ID: 3927056

[Less] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely . . . [More] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely impact human reproduction. These compounds have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), where they directly contact a developing oocyte. As a pilot investigation, we measured 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its persistent metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in residual FF collected from 32 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). We identified significant inverse associations between higher levels of PCB congeners and indicators of ovarian reserve (e.g., antral follicle count), follicular response to administered gonadotropins (e.g., peak estradiol, number of oocytes retrieved, endometrial thickness), intermediate IVF endpoints (e.g., oocyte fertilization and embryo quality), and clinical IVF outcomes (e.g., embryo implantation and live birth), after adjusting for body mass index, cigarette smoking, race, and age. Our results suggest that ongoing exposure to POPs impacts IVF and merit confirmation in a larger and more definitive future study.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Persistent Organic Pollutants Impair Insulin Secretory Function of Pancreatic Beta-Cells: Human and in Vitro Evidence

Authors: Lee, YM; Ha, CM; Kim, SA; Thoudam, T; Yoon, YR; Kim, DJ; Kim, HC; Moon, HB; Park, S; Lee, IK; Lee, DH (2017) Diabetes 66:2669-2680. HERO ID: 3861018

[Less] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated . . . [More] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have emerged as a new risk factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated whether chronic exposure to low-dose POPs affects insulin secretory function of beta-cells in humans and in vitro cells. Serum concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were measured in 200 nondiabetic adults. Mathematical-model-based insulin secretion indices were estimated using a 2-hour 7-sample oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion by INS1E beta-cells was measured after 48-hour treatment with 3 OCPs or a PCB mixture. Static second-phase insulin secretion significantly decreased with increasing serum concentrations of OCPs. Adjusted means were 63.2, 39.3, 44.1, 39.3, 39.7, and 22.3 across six categories of a summary measure of OCPs (Ptrend = 0.02). Dynamic first-phase insulin secretion remarkably decreased only among insulin-sensitive individuals with increasing concentrations of OCPs (Ptrend = 0.02); the insulin levels among subjects with high OCPs were about 30% of those with low OCPs. Compared to OCPs, PCBs showed weaker associations. The decreased insulin secretion by INS1E beta-cells was observed for even 1 pM OCPs. Our data from human subjects and in vitro cell experiments suggest that chronic exposure to low-dose POPs, especially OCPs, can induce pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Persistent environmental toxicants in breast milk and rapid infant growth

Authors: Criswell, R; Lenters, V; Mandal, S; Stigum, H; Iszatt, N; Eggesbø, M (2017) Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. HERO ID: 3841397

[Less] BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through . . . [More] BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity.

METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008. Milk samples collected 1 month after delivery from a subset of 789 women oversampled by overweight were analyzed for toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals, and pesticides. Growth was defined as change in weight-for-age z-score between 0 and 6 months among the HUMIS population, and rapid growth was defined as change in z-score above 0.67. We used a Bayesian variable selection method to determine the exposures that most explained variation in the outcome. Identified toxicants were included in logistic and linear regression models to estimate associations with growth, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, child sex, cumulative breastfeeding, birth weight, gestational age, and preterm status.

RESULTS: Of 789 infants, 19.2% displayed rapid growth. The median maternal age was 29.6 years, and the median pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg/m2, with 45.3% of mothers overweight or obese. Rapid growers were more likely to be firstborn. Hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and PCB-74 were identified in the variable selection method. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in β-HCH exposure was associated with a lower odds of rapid growth (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Newborns exposed to high levels of β-HCH showed reduced infant growth (β = -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01 for IQR increase in breast milk concentration). No other significant associations were found.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that early life β-HCH exposure may be linked to slowed growth. Further research is warranted on the potential mechanism behind this association and the longer-term metabolic effects of perinatal β-HCH exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In utero and childhood DDT, DDE, PBDE and PCBs exposure and sex hormones in adolescent boys: The CHAMACOS study

Authors: Eskenazi, B; Rauch, SA; Tenerelli, R; Huen, K; Holland, NT; Lustig, RH; Kogut, K; Bradman, A; Sjödin, A; Harley, KG (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:364-372. HERO ID: 3863005

[Less] Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and polychlorinated . . . [More] Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are believed to be endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans and animals. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of in utero and childhood exposure to these purported EDCs and reproductive hormones in adolescent boys who participated in CHAMACOS, an ongoing birth cohort in California's Salinas Valley. We measured o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, PBDEs and PCBs in serum collected from mothers during pregnancy or at delivery and from their sons at 9 years. We measured concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total testosterone (T) from 234 of their sons at 12 years. In adjusted models, we found that a 10-fold increase in maternal prenatal serum concentrations of BDE-153 was associated with a 22.2% increase (95% CI: 1.0, 47.9) in FSH, a 96.6% increase (95% CI: 35.7, 184.7) in LH, and a 92.4% increase (95% CI: 20.9, 206.2) increase in T. Similarly, BDE-100 concentrations were associated with increases in boys' LH levels. A 10-fold increase in total prenatal ΣPCBs was associated with a 64.5% increase (95% CI: 8.6, 149.0) in FSH, primarily driven by non- dioxin-like congeners. Boys' hormone levels were only marginally associated with prenatal DDT or DDE in primary models, but when boys' Tanner stage at age 12 was added to models, prenatal maternal DDT levels were associated with decreases in LH (adjusted percent change per 10-fold increase=-18.5%, 95% CI: -29.8, -5.4) and T (percent change=-18.2%, 95% CI: -30.2, -4.2) and DDE with LH (percent change=-18.3%, 95% CI: -32.9, -0.6). Exposures measured in the children's serum at 9 years also showed associations between BDE-153 and ΣPCBs. However, there is evidence that these associations appear to be mediated by child BMI. This study suggests associations on male hormones of 12year old boys related to exposure to certain EDC exposure prenatally. The implications on future reproductive function in puberty and adulthood should be determined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a case-control study

Authors: Vinceti, M; Violi, F; Tzatzarakis, M; Mandrioli, J; Malagoli, C; Hatch, EE; Fini, N; Fasano, A; Rakitskii, VN; Kalantzi, OI; Tsatsakis, A (2017) Environmental Research 155:261-267. HERO ID: 3865714

[Less] Neurotoxic chemicals including several pesticides have been suggested to play a role in the etiology . . . [More] Neurotoxic chemicals including several pesticides have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the relation between organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of sporadic ALS, determining for the first time their levels in cerebrospinal fluid as indicator of antecedent exposure. We recruited 38 ALS patients and 38 controls referred to an Italian clinical center for ALS care, who underwent a lumbar puncture for diagnostic purposes between 1994-2013, and had 1mL of cerebrospinal fluid available for the determination of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs. Many chemicals were undetectable in both case and control CSF samples, and we found little evidence of any increased disease risk according to higher levels of exposure. Among males >60 years, we found a slight but statistically very unstable increased ALS risk with higher levels of the congener PCB 28 and the OCP metabolite p,p'-DDE. Overall, these results do not suggest an involvement of the neurotoxic chemicals investigated in this study in disease etiology, although small numbers limited the precision of our results.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of maternal and sociodemographic characteristics on the accumulation of organohalogen compounds in Argentinian women. The EMASAR study

Authors: Bravo, N; Hansen, S; Økland, I; Garí, M; Álvarez, MV; Matiocevich, S; Odland, JØ; Grimalt, JO (2017) Environmental Research 158:759-767. HERO ID: 3925346

[Less] The occurrence of organohalogen compounds in venous serum from post-partum mothers from two Argentinian . . . [More] The occurrence of organohalogen compounds in venous serum from post-partum mothers from two Argentinian cities, Salta and Ushuaia, has been investigated (n = 698). 4,4'-DDE was the most abundant compound in these cities, with geometric means of 33 and 67ng/g lipid weight, respectively. City of residence, age and parity were the main determinants of the accumulation of these compounds. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was the second most abundant pollutant in Ushuaia, 8.7ng/g lipid, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) in Salta, 7.8ng/g lipid. Decabromodiphenyl ether was higher in Ushuaia than Salta, 8.2 and 4.1ng/g lipid, respectively. The predominance of β-HCH, 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT in Salta was related with higher use of pesticides for agricultural applications. The observed higher concentrations of 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT in the mothers from rural+semi-urban sites than in urban areas were consistent with this agricultural origin. In addition, the most volatile organochlorine compounds included in this study, HCB and α-HCH, were mainly found in Ushuaia. The concentrations of the studied organohalogen pollutants in Argentina were lower than those found in other similar studies which is consistent with the location of these cities in the southern hemisphere. Age, mainly for 4,4'-DDE and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners 138, 153 and 180, and parity, mainly for HCB, β-HCH, 4,4'-DDT and PCB congener 118, were the second main determinants of the concentrations of these compounds. Gestational weight gain also influenced on the maternal levels of HCB, β-HCH, 4,4'-DDT and PCB congeners 118, 138 and 153. Higher weight accumulation during pregnancy involved dilution of these persistent pollutants. Body mass index (BMI) was a statistically significant determinant for 4,4'-DDT, α-HCH and PCB congeners 153 and 180. The observed direct correspondence between higher BMI and 4,4'-DDT concentrations was in agreement with the above reported inputs related with agricultural applications. The reverse correspondence of BMI with α-HCH and the PCB congeners indicated higher dilution at higher weight increase.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania

Authors: Müller, MH; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, OB; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, WB; Mdegela, RH; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, HE; Skaare, JU; Lyche, JL (2017) Environmental Research 154:425-434. HERO ID: 3925562

[Less] This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and . . . [More] This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Tanzania. The main aims of this study were to assess the level of contamination and the possible health risks related to OC exposure in nursing infants from the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five healthy mother-infant couples attending Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha, Tanzania, were assessed for associations between maternal/infant characteristics, i.e. mother's age, BMI, gestational weight gain, occupation, residence and fetal growth parameters and breast milk levels of OCPs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dieldrin and PCBs. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 100% and 75% of the breast milk samples, respectively, and ranged between 24 and 2400ng/g lipid weight (lw) and <LOD and 133ng/g lw, respectively. Dieldrin was detected in 66% of the samples in levels up to 937ng/g lw. ∑7PCBs ranged between <LOD and 157ng/g lw. Other OCPs were detected in low levels. For assessment of health risks, the Hazard Quotient (HQ) was calculated by comparing estimated daily intakes of OCPs and PCBs with health based guidance values. The estimated daily intake (ng/kg body weight/day) of ∑DDTs, dieldrin and nondioxin-like PCBs (∑6PCBs) exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) in two, six and forty-eight of the nursing infants, respectively, suggesting potential health risks. In addition, head circumference were negatively associated with p,p´-DDE in female infants, suggesting that OC exposure during pregnancy may influence fetal growth.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada

Authors: Marushka, L; Batal, M; David, W; Schwartz, H; Ing, A; Fediuk, K; Sharp, D; Black, A; Tikhonov, C; Chan, HM (2017) Environmental Research 156:725-737. HERO ID: 3926063

[Less] BACKGROUND: First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally . . . [More] BACKGROUND: First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario.

DESIGN: Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed.

RESULTS: The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals (OR=0.86 (95% CI: 0.46-0.99).

CONCLUSION: Our results support previous findings that exposure to DDE and PCBs may increase the risk of T2D. Elevated levels of contaminants in fish may counteract with potentially beneficial effects of n-3FAs from fish consumption. However, the overall health benefits of high consumption of fish with a high n-3 FAs content may outweigh the adverse effect of contaminants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between persistent organic pollutants, type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and mortality

Authors: Grice, BA; Nelson, RG; Williams, DE; Knowler, WC; Mason, C; Hanson, RL; Bullard, KM; Pavkov, ME (2017) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 74:521-527. HERO ID: 3926303

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Relationships were examined between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Relationships were examined between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and incident type 2 diabetes, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality.

METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 300 persons without diabetes had baseline examinations between 1969 and 1974; 149 developed diabetes (cases) and 151 remained non-diabetic (controls) during 8.0 and 23.1 years of follow-up, respectively. POPs were measured at baseline. ORs for diabetes were computed by logistic regression analysis. The cases were followed from diabetes onset to ESRD, death or 2013. HRs for ESRD and mortality were computed by cause-specific hazard models. Patterns of association were explored using principal components analysis.

RESULTS: PCB151 increased the odds for incident diabetes, whereas hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was protective after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, sample storage characteristics, glucose and lipid levels. Associations between incident diabetes and polychlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB) or persistent pesticide (PST) components were mostly positive but non-significant. Among the cases, 29 developed ESRD and 48 died without ESRD. PCB28, PCB49 and PCB44 increased the risk of ESRD after adjusting for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Several PCBs and PSTs increased the risk of death without ESRD. The principal components analysis identified PCBs with low-chlorine load positively associated with ESRD and death without ESRD, and several PSTs associated with death without ESRD.

CONCLUSIONS: Most POPs were positively but not significantly associated with incident diabetes. PCB151 was significantly predictive and HCB was significantly protective for diabetes. Among participants with diabetes, low-chlorine PCBs increase the risk of ESRD and death without ESRD, whereas several PSTs predict death without ESRD.