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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation

Authors: Schæbel, LK; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, EC; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, S (2017) PLoS ONE 12:e0177781. HERO ID: 3983850

[Less] Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the . . . [More] Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample for measurement of the two markers of inflammation YKL-40 and hsCRP, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one polybrominated biphenyl, and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) adjusted to the serum lipid content. Participants were 50 through 69 years old, living in settlements, town or city (n = 151/173/211; 95% participation rate). ΣOCP, ΣPCB and ΣPBDE serum levels were higher in Inuit than in non-Inuit (p<0.001/ p<0.001/ p<0.001), in older individuals (p<0.001/p<0.001/p = 0.002) and in participants with the highest intake of Greenlandic food items (p<0.001/p<0.001/p<0.001). Both YKL-40 and hsCRP serum levels were higher in Inuit compared to non-Inuit (p<0.001/p = 0.001), and increased with age (p<0.001/p = 0.001) and with the intake of Greenlandic food items (p<0.001/p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis conformed to a marked influence on both YKL-40 and hsCRP by ΣOCP (p<0.001/p<0.001) and ΣPCBs (p<0.001/p = 0.001) after adjusting for age, BMI, vitamin D, alcohol and smoking. POP levels were associated with the intake of the traditional Inuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs to promote chronic diseases common to populations in Greenland. These data inform guidelines on 'the Arctic dilemma' and encourage follow-up on the ageing Arctic populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Common environmental chemicals do not explain atopy contrast in the Finnish and Russian Karelia

Authors: Koskinen, JP; Kiviranta, H; Vartiainen, E; Jousilahti, P; Vlasoff, T; von Hertzen, L; Mäkelä, M; Laatikainen, T; Haahtela, T (2016) Clinical and Translational Allergy 6:14. HERO ID: 3350939

[Less] BACKGROUND: Atopic allergy is much more common in Finnish compared with Russian Karelia, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Atopic allergy is much more common in Finnish compared with Russian Karelia, although these areas are geographically and genetically close. To explore the role of environmental chemicals on the atopy difference a random sample of 200 individuals, 25 atopic and 25 non-atopic school-aged children and their mothers, were studied. Atopy was defined as having at least one positive skin prick test response to 14 common inhalant and food allergens tested. Concentrations of 11 common environmental pollutants were measured in blood samples.

RESULTS: Overall, the chemical levels were much higher in Russia than in Finland, except for 2,2',4,4'-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE47). In Finland but not in Russia, the atopic children had higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) than the non-atopic children. In Russia but not in Finland, the atopic mothers had higher DDE concentrations than the non-atopic mothers.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of common environmental chemicals were measured in Russian compared with Finnish Karelian children and mothers. The chemicals did not explain the higher prevalence of atopy on the Finnish side.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Authors: Haase, H; Fahlenkamp, A; Schettgen, T; Esser, A; Gube, M; Ziegler, P; Kraus, T; Rink, L (2016) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13. HERO ID: 3350987

[Less] The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function . . . [More] The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Internal exposure levels of typical POPs and their associations with childhood asthma in Shanghai, China

Authors: Meng, G; Feng, Y; Nie, Z; Wu, X; Wei, H; Wu, S; Yin, Y; Wang, Y (2016) Environmental Research 146:125-135. HERO ID: 3351109

[Less] Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides . . . [More] Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are common persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that may be associated with childhood asthma. The concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs and OCPs were analyzed in pooled serum samples from both asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. The differences in the internal exposure levels between the case and control groups were tested (p value <0.0012). The associations between the internal exposure concentrations of the POPs and childhood asthma were estimated based on the odds ratios (ORs) calculated using logistic regression models. There were significant differences in three PBDEs, 26 PCBs and seven OCPs between the two groups, with significantly higher levels in the cases. The multiple logistic regression models demonstrated that the internal exposure concentrations of a number of the POPs (23 PCBs, p,p'-DDE and α-HCH) were positively associated with childhood asthma. Some synergistic effects were observed when the children were co-exposed to the chemicals. BDE-209 was positively associated with asthma aggravation. This study indicates the potential relationships between the internal exposure concentrations of particular POPs and the development of childhood asthma.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between selected xenobiotics and antinuclear antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

Authors: Dinse, GE; Jusko, TA; Whitt, IZ; Co, CA; Parks, CG; Satoh, M; Chan, EK; Rose, KM; Walker, NJ; Birnbaum, LS; Zeldin, DC; Weinberg, CR; Miller, FW (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:426-436. HERO ID: 3351518

[Less] BACKGROUND: Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied.

OBJECTIVES: Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S.

METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants' serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels.

RESULTS: Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p < 0.00001).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that background levels of most xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time.

CITATION: Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR, Miller FW. 2016. Associations between selected xenobiotics and antinuclear antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. Environ Health Perspect 124:426-436; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409345.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Typical halogenated persistent organic pollutants in indoor dust and the associations with childhood asthma in Shanghai, China

Authors: Meng, G; Nie, Z; Feng, Y; Wu, X; Yin, Y; Wang, Y (2016) Environmental Pollution 211:389-398. HERO ID: 3223108

[Less] Halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs) are significant contaminants in the indoor environment . . . [More] Halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs) are significant contaminants in the indoor environment that are related to many human diseases. Ingestion of indoor dust is considered the major pathway of Hal-POP exposures, especially for children aged 3-6 years. Alongside a retrospective study on the associations between typical Hal-POP exposure and childhood asthma in Shanghai, indoor dust samples from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children's homes (n = 60, each) were collected. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured by GC-MS. BDE-209, PCB-8 and p,p'-DDE were the predominant components in each chemical category. The concentrations of most Hal-POPs were significantly higher in the asthmatic families. The associations between Hal-POP exposure and asthma occurrence were examined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) using a logistic regression model. A positive association was found between p,p'-DDE in indoor dust and childhood asthma (OR = 1.825, 95%CI: 1.004, 3.317; p = 0.048). The average daily doses of Hal-POP intake were calculated using the method provided by the USEPA. Non-carcinogenic health risks were preliminarily assessed. Our study indicated that exposure to p,p'-DDE via indoor dust may contribute to childhood asthma occurrence. Non-carcinogenic health risks were not found with the intake of Hal-POPs via the ingestion of indoor dust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal exposure to metals and persistent pollutants and cord blood immune system biomarkers

Authors: Ashley-Martin, J; Levy, AR; Arbuckle, TE; Platt, RW; Marshall, JS; Dodds, L (2015) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 14:52. HERO ID: 2919769

[Less] BACKGROUND: The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that persistent organic pollutants, pesticides and metals have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects may manifest as an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) may be implicated in the etiology of childhood allergy and are detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to examine the potential relationship between maternal concentrations of metals, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides and elevated umbilical cord blood concentrations of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33 in a Canadian birth cohort.

METHODS: This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2,001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers.

RESULTS: Inverse relationships were observed between lead, DDE, PCB-118, and a summary index of organophosphorous metabolites and jointly elevated concentrations of IL-33 and TSLP. None of the environmental contaminants were associated with increased odds of a high cord blood immune system biomarker concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal blood or urine concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, and metals were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated concentrations of IgE, TSLP or IL-33.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Correlation of Serum Thyroid Hormones Autoantibodies with Self-Reported Exposure to Thyroid Disruptors in a Group of Nonsegmental Vitiligo Patients

Authors: Colucci, R; Lotti, F; Arunachalam, M; Lotti, T; Dragoni, F; Benvenga, S; Moretti, S (2015) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 69:181-190. HERO ID: 2925321

[Less] Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder strongly associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders (ATD). Thyroid . . . [More] Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder strongly associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders (ATD). Thyroid hormones antibodies (THAb) directed toward thyroxine (T3) and triiodothyronine (T4) (T3- and T4-Ab) are rare in the general population but are increased in individuals wit ATD and extrathyroid autoimmune disorders. Because it is known that alcohol, smoke, iodine, and some thyroid disruptors can elicit the appearance of ATD, the aim of our study was to evaluate possible correlation between T3- and T4-Ab expression and past toxic exposures in vitiligo patients. Seventy vitiligo patients were examined and self-reported exposure to thyroid disruptors (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol, perchlorates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, resorcinol, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, alachlor/amitriole, nitrate, thiocyanate, soy isoflavones), iodine intake, smoke, and alcohol consumption were investigated through standardized questionnaires. Immunoglobulin (Ig)M-T3-Ab, IgG-T3-Ab, IgM-T4-Ab,and IgG-T4-Ab were dosed by a radioimmunoprecipitation technique. Seventy-seven (95.7 %) patients had at least one type of THAb. Most of them had contemporarily both T3- and T4-Ab (50/70). We found a significant association between PCBs and T4-IgG-Ab (P = 0.039) and between food intake containing nitrate, thiocyanate, and soy isoflavones with (IgM + IgG)-T3-Ab (P = 0.041). Our study underlines a possible influence of diet and environment in vitiligo patients in eliciting THAb. Therefore, in the event of a positive exposure to thyroid disruptors, an evaluation of thyroid function might be useful to early detect possible associated thyroid autoantibodies such as THAb.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination

Authors: Jusko, TA; De Roos, AJ; Lee, SY; Thevenet-Morrison, K; Schwartz, SM; Verner, MA; Palkovicova Murinova, L; Drobná, B; Kočan, A; Fabišiková, A; Čonka, K; Trnovec, T; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Lawrence, BP (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:813-821. HERO ID: 3061506

[Less] BACKGROUND: Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early life PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) exposure reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response.

METHODS: Data came from families participating in a prospective birth cohort in eastern Slovakia. At birth, maternal and cord blood were collected for chemical analyses, and infants were immunized with BCG. Blood was collected from infants for chemical analyses and to determine 6-month BCG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA levels. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to examine chemical-BCG associations among approximately 500 mother-infant pairs, with adjustment for confounders.

RESULTS: The median 6-month infant concentration of the prevalent congener PCB-153 was 113 ng/g lipid (IQR: 37, 248), and 388 ng/g lipid (IQR: 115, 847) for DDE. Higher 6-month infant concentrations of PCB-153 and DDE were strongly associated with lower 6-month BCG-specific antibody levels. For instance, BCG-specific IgG levels were 37% lower for infants with PCB-153 concentrations at the 75th percentile compared to the 25th percentile (95% CI: -42, -32; p<0.001). Results were similar in magnitude and precision for DDE. There was also evidence of PCB-DDE additivity, where exposure to both compounds reduced anti-BCG levels more than exposure to either compound alone.

CONCLUSIONS: The associations observed in this study indicate that environmental exposures may be overlooked contributors to poorer responses to BCG vaccine. The overall association between these exposures and tuberculosis incidence is unknown.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with parasitism, iron homeostasis, and other health outcomes: Results from a cross-sectional study on recently arrived African immigrants

Authors: Henríquez-Hernández, LA; Boada, LD; Pérez-Arellano, JL; Carranza, C; Ruiz-Suárez, N; Jaén Sánchez, N; Valerón, PF; Zumbado, M; Camacho, M; Luzardo, OP (2015) Environmental Research 150:549-556. HERO ID: 3351517

[Less] Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent chemicals produced between 1930s and 1980s, . . . [More] Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent chemicals produced between 1930s and 1980s, which accumulate in humans and wildlife. Although a decreasing trend of PCB levels in humans has been described in developed countries, mainly as a consequence of strict regulations and remediation plans, an inverse trend has been recently reported in people from developing countries. We had the opportunity of sampling a series of African immigrants recently arrived to the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands, in which high levels of PCBs have been described, and we studied the relationships between their level of contamination and health status. A total of 570 subjects who underwent a complete medical examination and a face-to-face interview were recruited for this study. Hematological and biochemical parameters (blood and urine) were determined in all participants. Serology for the diagnostic of infectious diseases was also performed, and direct identification of parasites was performed in feces, urine or blood samples when appropriate. It is remarkable that up to 26.0% of the population had intestinal parasites, and we found an inverse relationship between PCB levels and parasitism and parasitic diseases: median values of PCBs were lower in parasitized subjects than in subjects without parasites in stool (237.6ng/g fat vs. 154.4ng/g fat for marker PCBs, p=0.015) and median values of dioxin-like PCBs were lower in subjects carrying pathogen parasites than among subjects showing non-pathogen parasites in stool (0.0 ng/g fat vs. 13.1ng/g fat, respectively; p=0.001). Although this inverse association had been described in some vertebrates this is the first study reporting such an association in humans. Furthermore, it has been also recently described that PCBs may disrupt iron metabolism, and we found a direct relationship between serum iron and total PCBs burden (r=0.231, p=0.025), suggesting that PCBs, although at subclinical level, could play a role on iron homeostasis. Although the role of PCBs in parasitism and in the iron metabolism needs future research, our findings may help to understand the adverse health outcomes associated to environmental exposure to PCBs and they might be used in exposed populations as indicators of subtle effects due to environmental insult.