Contact Us

HERO: Health and Environmental Research Online



  Export to EndNote  

  Bibliography Format  

Resolve
Duplicates
Loading...

Chloroform 2018 Update

Plus Sign. Click to show project. Show Project Details
Minus Sign. Click to hide project. Hide Project Details



  • 1.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    68A | Air Pollution & Control

    (2014)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Actions taken under the Montreal Protocol have led to decreases in the atmosphericabundance of controlled . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Actions taken under the Montreal Protocol have led to decreases in the atmosphericabundance of controlled ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), and are enabling thereturn of the ozone layer toward 1980 levels.? The sum of the measured tropospheric abundances of substances controlled under theMontreal Protocol continues to decrease. Most of the major controlled ODSs are decreasinglargely as projected, and hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and halon-1301 are still increasing.Unknown or unreported sources of carbon tetrachloride are needed to explain its abundance.? Measured stratospheric abundances of chlorine- and bromine-containing substancesoriginating from the degradation of ODSs are decreasing. By 2012, combined chlorine andbromine levels (as estimated by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine, EESC) had declinedby about 10?15% from the peak values of ten to fifteen years ago. Decreases in atmosphericabundances of methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) contributed approximately equally to these reductions.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies

    Details
       
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Fabrication of Novel Gastro-Retentive Floating Microcapsules by Utilizing a Combination of HPMC and EC and their Physicochemical Assessment

    Authors: Aamir, MN; Ahmad, M; Khan, SA; Akhtar, N; Murtaza, G; Akhtar, M; Rasool, F
    (2011) 30:1010-1015.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The project was aimed to develop floating microcapsules (FMs) using combination of a hydrophobic (ethyl . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The project was aimed to develop floating microcapsules (FMs) using combination of a hydrophobic (ethyl cellulose, EC) and hydrophilic polymer (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, HPMC), and to evaluate them. An easy and novel phase separation method was adopted to prepare FMs. Chloroform and paraffin oil were employed as solvent and non-solvent respectively. Five kinetic models were applied to assess and describe the mechanism and pattern of tramadol hydrochloride (TmH) release from FMs and they were subjected to FTIR and XRD to evaluate TmH-HPMC-EC interaction. As EC concentration was increased the retardation in drug release, improvement in flow characteristics and decrease in floating time were observed. Kinetics of drug release was followed by Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. It was concluded that the floating microcapsules of TmH can be produced using phase separation method and they have no drug-polymer interaction. The accelerated stability studies also ensured the physicochemical integrity of FMs.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies

    Details
       
  • 3.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Antimicrobial Potentials of Leptolyngbya sp. and Its Synergistic Effects With Antibiotics

    Authors: Abazari, M; Zarrini, G; Rasooli, I
    (2013)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Background: Resistance to antibiotics is a clinical problem. Cyanobacteria have many more antibiotic . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Background: Resistance to antibiotics is a clinical problem. Cyanobacteria have many more antibiotic productions. Nowadays, combinations of antimicrobial compounds are used.

    Objectives: The current research studied antimicrobial properties of Leptolyngbya sp.

    Materials and Methods: Chloroform extracts of Leptolyngbya sp. were prepared. Antimicrobial effects of these extracts were evaluated singly and in combination with antibiotics against various microorganisms. Growth optimization, antimicrobial activity and their correlations were studied.

    Results: Leptolyngbya sp. had antimicrobial activity individually and in synergy with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest activity of the chloroform extract was on Gram positive strains and its effects on fungi were moderate, but it had a little effect against Gram negative ones. Phosphate salt was the most important factor for growth and antibacterial activity in C. leptolyngbya.

    Conclusions: Optimization of medium composition and synergistic antimicrobial activity on the cyanobacteria could lead to production of effective antimicrobials.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    In vitro assessment of relief to oxidative stress by different fractions of Boerhavia procumbens

    Authors: Abbasi, MA; Rubab, K; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Riaz, T; Shahzadi, T; Khalid, M; Ajaib, M
    (2012) Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 25:357-364.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Methanolic extract of Boerhavia procumbens Bank ex Roxb. was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Methanolic extract of Boerhavia procumbens Bank ex Roxb. was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol sequentially after dissolving in distilled water. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fraction. The antioxidant activity of all these fractions and the remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods such as: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, total antioxidant activity and ferric thiocyanate assay. Total phenolics were also determined. Some fractions showed noteworthy antioxidant activity. The results of the antioxidant activity revealed that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the highest value of percent inhibition of DPPH (82.54 +/- 0.62) at the concentration of 125 mu g/ml. The IC50 of this fraction was 37.11 +/- 0.23 mu g/ml, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which have IC50 of 12.1 +/- 0.92 mu g/mL. It also showed the highest FRAP value (251.08 +/- 1.46 mu g of trolox equivalents) as well as the highest value of lipid peroxidation inhibition (57.21 +/- 52%), the highest total antioxidant activity (0.549 +/- 0.08) and also the highest total phenolic contents (77.1 +/- 0.6) as compared to the studied fractions. Phytochemical screening showed high percentage of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in this fraction.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Evaluation of comparative antioxidant potential of aqueous and organic fractions of Ipomoea carnea

    Authors: Abbasi, MA; Zafar, A; Riaz, T; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Arshad, S; Shahwar, D; Jahangir, M; Siddiqui, SZ; Shahzadi, T; Ajaib, M
    (2010)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The methanolic extract of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. was dissolved in distilled water and partitioned with . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The methanolic extract of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. was dissolved in distilled water and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, FRAP assay and ferric thiocyanate assay and total phonolics were also determined. All the fractions showed significant antioxidant potential. The results revealed that n-butanol fraction showed highest value of % inhibition of DPPH radical (91.11% +/- 0.68), IC(50) of n-butanol fraction was 74.65 +/- 1.4 mu g/ml, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), having IC(50) of 12.1 +/- 0.92 mu g/mL. The chloroform soluble fraction showed highest total antioxidant activity (0.9096 +/- 0.1) and highest total phenolic contents (113.05 +/- 1.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents) as compared to other fractions. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited highest FRAP value (511.99 +/- 1.8 mu g of trolox equivalents) as well as highest value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation (61.87% +/- 1.2) as compared to other fractions.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies

    Details
       
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Antimicrobial activity of fruits of Solanum nigrum and Solanum xanthocarpum

    Authors: Abbas, K; Niaz, U; Hussain, T; Saeed, MA; Javaid, Z; Idrees, A; Rasool, S
    (2014) Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica 71:415-421.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Current study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts of two Solanaceous . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Current study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts of two Solanaceous plants (Solanum nigrum and Solanum xanthocarpum) found in Pakistan. Petroleum ether, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water were utilized for extraction. The highest percentages of polar components of both the species were extracted by water; little amount of non-polar components by petroleum ether while very low quantities by other solvents. Antimicrobial activities were estimated by measuring zones of inhibition through hole-plate diffusion method, against three species of Gram positive bacteria, five species of Gram negative bacteria and three species of fungi selected for this study. Doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL prepared through methanolic extracts of each plant's powdered fruit material displayed significant zones of inhibition against all three Gram positive bacteria, three of the Gram negative bacteria out of five and against all three fungi. Although these doses exhibited significant zones of inhibition but they are not as potent as standards: ampicillin or amphotericin B. The present study assures the possible potential of antimicrobial as well as antifungal activity of fruit extracts of these plants.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Chloroform-induced oxidative stress in rat liver: Implication of metallothionein

    Authors: Abbassi, R; Chamkhia, N; Sakly, M
    (2010)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Current studies evaluated the effect of acute and subacute exposure to chloroform (CHCl(3)) on rat liver . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Current studies evaluated the effect of acute and subacute exposure to chloroform (CHCl(3)) on rat liver and the implication of oxidative stress. For this purpose, different doses of CHCl(3) (150, 300 and 450 mg/kg bw) were administered intraperitoneally (ip) to male Wistar rats. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), reduced cytochrome c and metallothioneins (MTs) levels as well as the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the activities of the biochemical markers of hepatic injury (alanine transaminase [ALT] and aspartate transaminase [AST]) were determined. CHCl(3) did not cause a significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation. However, dose-dependant and/or time dependant effects of CHCl(3) were demonstrated on most of the oxidative stress parameters measured, namely the GSH depletion and the superoxide anion production. Acute exposure CHCl(3) increased the aminotransferase and GPx activities and reduced cytochrome c levels in a dose-dependant pattern. A well-combined dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of CHCl(3) on MT levels after acute and subacute exposure was noticed. Moreover, the increase of MT levels seems to be associated with the GSH depletion, indicating a possible role of the latter in MT synthesis. In conclusion, the superoxide anion production and the GSH depletion could be implicated in the mechanism of hepatotoxity of CHCl(3) and MTs seem to be a part of the antioxidant defense system against the oxidative damage caused by CHCl(3) in liver.
    Tagged With: Excluded, Excluded, Excluded, FULL-TEXT REVIEW, Included Studies, TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of drinking water in Guelma region, Algeria

    Authors: Abda, A; Benouareth, DE; Tabet, M; Liman, R; Konuk, M; Khallef, M; Taher, A
    (2015) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187:21.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In this study, a battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking water was performed to assess . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In this study, a battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking water was performed to assess the quality of the water resulting from the treatment plants. Five different types of samples were collected: raw water (P1), treated after pre-chlorination (P2), treated after decantation (P3), treated post-chlorination (P4), and consumers' taps (P5-P12). This study aims to evaluate the formation/occurrence of mutagenic and/or genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with chlorine disinfectant, during four seasonal experiments: summer, autumn, winter, and spring between 2012 and 2013 by bacterial reverse mutation assay in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. All of water samples, except at P1, P2, and P5 in summer; P1 in autumn; and P1 and P3-P12 in spring without S9 mix, and at P1 and P2 in summer and P6 and P8-P12 in spring with S9 mix, were found to be mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA98. However, only P11 and P12 in winter were found to be mutagenic for TA100 without S9 mix. The tested preparations in Allium anaphase-telophase test revealed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and a simultaneous increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs) compared to the control. The bridge, stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, and disturbed chromosome aberrations were observed in anaphase-telophase cells. Physicochemical analysis, trihalomethanes (THMs), romoform (CHBr3), chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) levels in water samples were also determined. The results show also that this short-term battery tests are applicable in the routine monitoring of drinking water quality before and after distribution.
    Tagged With: Excluded Studies, TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW
  • 9.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Mechanistic Evidence of Viscum schimperi (Viscaceae) Antihyperglycemic Activity: From a Bioactivity-guided Approach to Comprehensive Metabolite Profiling

    Authors: Abdallah, HM; Farag, MA; Abdel-Naim, AB; Ghareib, SA; Abdel-Sattar, EA
    (2015)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Diabetes mellitus is possibly the world's largest growing metabolic disorder. Effective treatment of . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Diabetes mellitus is possibly the world's largest growing metabolic disorder. Effective treatment of diabetes is increasingly dependent on active constituents of medicinal plants capable of controlling hyperglycemia as well as its secondary complications. Viscum schimperi Engl. is a plant growing in Saudi Arabia and known for its antidiabetic activity. The potential antidiabetic activity of its methanol extract as well as its chloroform, n-butanol, and the remaining water fractions was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at two dose levels. The antidiabetic activity was assessed through the determination of fasting blood glucose level, insulin levels, area under the curve (AUC) in oral glucose tolerance test, glucose absorption in isolated rat gut assay, and glucose uptake by psoas muscle. Moreover, large-scale untargeted metabolite profiling of methanol extract was performed via UPLC-PDA and qTOF-MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) respectively, to explore its chemical composition and standardization of its extract. Multivariate statistical analysis including principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis was used to determine bioactives in its fractions. In conclusion, oleanane triterpenes and O-caffeoyl quinic acid conjugates were the major compounds that might account for antihyperglycemic effect of the plant.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Acylated pregnane glycosides from Caralluma quadrangula

    Authors: Abdallah, HM; Osman, AM; Almehdar, H; Abdel-Sattar, E
    (2013) Phytochemistry 88:54-60.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In a previous study, the methanolic extract as well as the chloroform fraction of the aerial parts of . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In a previous study, the methanolic extract as well as the chloroform fraction of the aerial parts of Caralluma quadrangula (Forssk.) N.E.Br. indigenous to Saudi Arabia showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against breast cancer (MCF7) cell line. In a biologically-guided fractionation approach, four acylated pregnane glycosides were isolated from the chloroform fraction of C. quadrangula. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the analysis of their MS and NMR data. The compounds were identified as 12,20-di-O-benzoylboucerin 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (1), 12,20-di-O-benzoylboucerin 3-O-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (2), 12,20-di-O-benzoylboucerin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (3) and 12,20-di-O-benzoyl-3β,5α,12β,14β,20-pentahydroxy-(20R)-pregn-6-ene 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (4). The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity against breast cancer (MCF7) cell line.
    Tagged With: TITLE AND ABSTRACT REVIEW, Excluded Studies
To filter this reference list by specific tags, turn the LitScreener view OFF, check the boxes for the desired tags and then click the "Update" button
Change View & Sort

Current View: All References For Chloroform 2018 Update

Results: 2,827

 Page of 283  

View as Grid

Sort By:

Refine Results

Search:

Publication Years:
Published In
Or Between
And

Options:


Select Criteria:

All References
 
SUPPLEMENTAL REFERENCES (1)