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Chloroform 2018 Update

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2,846 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of phytochemicals, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extract and fractions from Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae)

Authors: Rashid, U; Khan, MR; Jan, S; Bokhari, J; Shah, NA (In Press) HERO ID: 2283257

[Less] BACKGROUND: In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of conditions like diabetes, cancer, fever, asthma, toothache, stomach troubles and kidney disorders. This study evaluated the crude methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) and its derived fractions for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the classes of phytochemical.

METHODS: Dried powder of whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOM) and the resultant was fractionated to give n-hexane fraction (FOH), chloroform fraction (FOC), ethyl acetate fraction (FOE), n-butanol fraction (FOB) and residual aqueous fraction (FOA). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Also the extract and fractions were assayed for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities using agar well diffusion technique, agar tube dilution method and brine shrimps lethality test, respectively.

RESULTS: The results obtained for phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins and alkaloids in all the tested extract and fractions while anthraquinones were not detected. The results showed that all the bacterial strains tested in this study were susceptible to at least one of the fractions tested. However, FOE and FOB were the best antibacterial fractions and showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial strains. The results showed that Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium while Bordetella bronchiseptica and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible against various fractions. Maximum percent inhibition for growth was recorded for the fungus Aspergillus flavus with FOE whereas growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani was inhibited by FOM and its all derived fractions. Minimum LC50 (24.07 mg/L) for brine shrimp assay was recorded for FOE followed by LC50 of FOC (26.1 mg/L) and FOB (30.05 mg/L) whereas maximum LC50 was exhibited by FOH (1533 mg/L).

CONCLUSION: These results indicated the use of F. olivieri to treat infections with emphasis to isolate and characterize the active principle responsible for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities and its exploitation as therapeutic agent.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

New inhibitor of nitric oxide production from the seeds of Myristica fragrans

Authors: Cao, GY; Yang, XW; Xu, W; Li, F (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology. HERO ID: 1938362

[Less] Six dihydrobenzofuran type neolignans were isolated from the dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans . . . [More] Six dihydrobenzofuran type neolignans were isolated from the dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (family: Myristicaceae) and their chemical structures were identified as licarin B (1), 3'-methoxylicarin B (2), myrisfrageal A (3), isodihydrocainatidin (4), dehydrodiisoeugenol (5), and myrisfrageal B (6), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 3 and 6 are new compounds. Compounds 1-6 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 with IC50 values of 53.6, 48.7, 76.0, 36.0, 33.6, and 45.0μM, respectively. These values were compared to those of the positive controls, indomethacin and L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, which have IC50 values of 65.3 and 27.1μM, respectively. Further compounds 3, 5 and 6 suppressed LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in a does-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Compounds 3, 5 and 6 may inhibit NO overproduction via inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of compounds 1-6 as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

Authors: Billah, MM; Khatun, H; Parvin, S; Islam, E; Islam, SM; Mia, AA; Islam, R (In Press) BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. HERO ID: 1939977

[Less] BACKGROUND: Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. METHODS: The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 mug/disc. Kanamycin (30 mug/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. RESULTS: The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 mug/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 mug/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Ethyl acetate fraction exerted maximum inhibition (51.11%) against defecation, whereas 57.75% inhibition was obtained for loperamide. Moderate cytotoxicity was found for the methanol extract and its three fractions compared with the standard drug vincristine sulfate in the brine shrimp bioassay. In the present study, the LC50 values of the methanol crude extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, pet. ether fractions and vincristine sulfate were 223.87, 281.84, 112.2, 199.53, and 12.59 mug/mL, respectively. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction showed maximum cytotoxicity, whereas minimum cytotoxicity was observed for the chloroform fraction. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction of the C. bonducella leaves has significant antidiarrhoeal properties. The methanol extract and other three fractions of the C. bonducella leaves possess potent antibacterial activities along with moderate cytotoxicities that may lead to new drug development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Performance Tests of Three Types of Air-Sampling Bags on Organic Solvent Vapor Retention

Authors: Fukui, Y; Kanemaru, A; Nagasawa, Y; Kawakami, T; Iwata, T; Murata, K; Ohashi, F; Ikeda, M (In Press) Industrial Health. HERO ID: 1609761

[Less] Performance of two new air sampling bags [the transparent bag (TP bag) and the semi-transparent bag . . . [More] Performance of two new air sampling bags [the transparent bag (TP bag) and the semi-transparent bag (ST bag)] was examined as possible surrogates for the traditional PVF bag (the Ref bag). Solvent vapor mixture of butyl acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene at administrative control levels were introduced to each bag (n=5 for each of the three types), and the decay in the concentrations (by %) was followed by use of a gas auto-sampler - FID-GC system. A trend of time-dependent decay was noted for all types including the Ref bag. When the performance was compared, the TP bag was equal to or even better than the Ref bag. In contrast, the performance of the ST bag was comparable to that of the other two types of bags with regard to toluene and chloroform when the storage time was short, but poorer than others for the other three solvents throughout the test period. The TP bag may be a bag of choice when the storage time is extended (e.g., up to 48 h) although this bag is physically less robust and requires careful handling. The ST bag may be used when analysis will be completed within 24 h.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Predominance of Biotic over Abiotic Formation of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Hypersaline Sediments in Western Australia

Authors: Ruecker, A; Weigold, P; Behrens, S; Jochmann, M; Laaks, J; Kappler, A (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 2369490

[Less] Volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOX) contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. There . . . [More] Volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOX) contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. There is evidence of natural VOX formation in many environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Laboratory studies have suggested that VOX formation can be chemically stimulated by reactive Fe species while field studies have provided evidence for direct biological (enzymatic) VOX formation. However, the relative contribution of abiotic and biotic processes to global VOX budgets is still unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify VOX release from sediments from a hypersaline lake in Western Australia (Lake Strawbridge) and to distinguish between the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic VOX formation in microbially active and sterilized microcosms. Our experiments demonstrated that the release of organochlorines from Lake Strawbridge sediments was mainly biotic. Among the organochlorines detected were monochlorinated, e.g., chloromethane (CH3Cl), and higher chlorinated VOX compounds such as trichloromethane (CHCl3). Amendment of sediments with either Fe(III) oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite) or a mixture of lactate/acetate or both ferrihydrite and lactate/acetate did not stimulate VOX formation. This suggests that although microbial Fe(III) reduction took place, there was no stimulation of VOX formation via Fe redox transformations or the formation of reactive Fe species under our experimental conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Cystoseira sedoides

Authors: Mhadhebi, L; Laroche-Clary, A; Robert, J; Bouraoui, A (In Press) Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1039356

[Less] The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative . . . [More] The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines) C. Agardh . Various fractions of C. sedoides (chloroform (F-CHCl(3)), ethyl acetate (F-AcOEt), and methanol (F-MeOH)) were screened for total phenol content, as well as antioxidant activity, using the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and assays for determining the reducing power of these fractions. The anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The antiproliferative activity of C. sedoides fractions was evaluated on normal Madin-Darby canine kiney (MDCK), and fibroblast cells and on cancer cell lines (A549, MCF7, and HCT15), using the ability of the cells to metabolically reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan dyes. The F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions showed significant total phenolic content at 55.09 and 61.30 mg gallic-acid equivalent/g dried sample, respectively. Using the DPPH method, the F-CHCl(3) and the F-AcOEt fractions exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity, with IC(50) 120 µg/mL for F-CHCl(3) and 121 µg/mL for F-AcOEt, which approaches the activity of the powerful antioxidant standard, Trolox (IC(50) = 90 µg/mL). The reducing power of the samples was in the following order: F-AcOEt > F-CHCl(3 ) > F-MeOH fraction. The F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions of C. sedoides tested at different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p)), exhibited a dose-dependent reduction of rat paw oedema. The percentage of inhibition of oedema, 3 h after carrageenan injection, ranged from 67.71% to 73.49% and from 67.74% to 74.58%, for F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt, respectively. Their effects are comparable with that of lysine acetylsalicylate (300 mg/kg body mass; i.p.), which is used as a reference drug with the ability to inhibit oedema by 66.14%. Our results revealed that the F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions from C. sedoides showed important antiproliferative properties towards all of the cancer cell lines studied here, as judged by their IC(50) values, which ranged from 52.6 to 66.5 µg/mL for A549; 22.4 to 70.2 µg/mL for MCF7, and 250.6 to 255.3 µg/mL for HCT15. Moreover, no visible destruction or alteration of normal cells was observed, even at 500 µg/mL F-CHCl(3) or F-AcOEt. These results suggest that C. sedoides fractions might be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor agents. The purification and determination of the chemical structures of the compounds in these active fractions are under investigation. The results could provide a compound(s) with a promising role in future medicines and nutrition, when used either as a drug or a dietary supplement.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Separation of Four Homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia sappan by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography

Authors: Xu, P; Guan, S; Feng, R; Tang, R; Guo, D (In Press) Phytochemical Analysis. HERO ID: 1040590

[Less] INTRODUCTION: The main chemical constituents of Caesalpinia sappan are homoisoflavonoids. Conventional . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: The main chemical constituents of Caesalpinia sappan are homoisoflavonoids. Conventional column chromatographic techniques used for isolation of this type of compounds are tedious, time-consuming and waste solvents. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) could be a suitable alternative for the enrichment and purification of these target compounds from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). OBJECTIVE: To establish a method to isolate four homoisoflavonoids in one-step separation from C. sappan by HSCCC. METHODOLOGY: The crude extract of C. sappan was fractionated by HSCCC using a two-phase solvent system consisting of chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v/v). The separation conditions were: flow rate, 1.0 mL/min; revolution speed, 900 rpm; detection wavelength, 280 nm; separation temperature, 25 °C; sample size, 120 mg crude sample dissolved in a mixture of the upper and lower phases (10 mL each). The retention of the stationary phase was 83%. RESULTS: Five milligrams of 3'-deoxysappanol, 8 mg of 3-deoxysappanone B, 20 mg of 4-O-methylsappanol and 18 mg of brazilin were obtained in one-step separation from 120 mg of an ethyl acetate extracted fraction of C. sappan. Their purities were 99%, 97%, 90% and 85% by HPLC analysis. The mean recoveries of the four compounds were 83%, 86%, 93% and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The study has shown that HSCCC is effective for the separation and enrichment of the target compounds at a large scale. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hericium erinaceus suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammation gene activation in RAW264.7 macrophages

Authors: Kim, YO; Lee, SW; Oh, CH; Rhee, YH (In Press) Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. HERO ID: 880682

[Less] The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of each fraction of Hericium . . . [More] The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of each fraction of Hericium erinaceus (HE). The ethanol extract from HE was partitioned with different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. The treatment with 10-100 μg/mL of each fraction did not reduce RAW 264.7 cell viability except ethyl acetate fraction. Among the various extracts, the chloroform fraction showed the most potent activity against nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that chloroform fraction from HE (CHE) significantly reduced the protein level of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or mRNA levels of iNOS in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages. Furthermore, CHE inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit, phsophorylation of I-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activation of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and NF κB in the nucleus were abrogated by CHE with luciferase assay. In conclusion, these results indicate that CHE may provide an anti-inflammatory effect by attenuating the generation of excessive NO, PGE(2), and ROS and by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes through the inhibition of NF-κB and JNK activity.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Chloroform: Project guide

Author: IRIS (2018) HERO ID: 4180324

[Less] This guide is a zip file containing Excel spreadsheets. These sheets detail reasoning for inclusion, . . . [More] This guide is a zip file containing Excel spreadsheets. These sheets detail reasoning for inclusion, exclusion, and items considered supplemental to the project.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modulation of the lipid profile and insulin levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves and some fractions: Effect on the oral glucose tolerance of normoglycemic rats

Authors: Achi, NK; Ohaeri, OC; Ijeh, II; Eleazu, C (2017) Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 86:562-569. HERO ID: 3719707

[Less] BACKGROUND: No study to date has investigated the effect of different polar solvent . . . [More] BACKGROUND: No study to date has investigated the effect of different polar solvent extracts from Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on glycemic control as used in folk medicine. Hence this study which investigated the effect of ethanol extract and fractions of C. aconitifolius leaves on body weights, relative organ weights, serum levels of glucose, lipid profiles and insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and on oral glucose tolerance of normoglycemic rats.

METHODS: The ethanol extract was partitioned using methanol, hexane and chloroform to obtain different fractions.

RESULTS: The ethanol extract, fractions or glibenclamide demonstrated hypoglycemic/therapeutic actions as seen from the reduction of serum glucose but increase in serum insulin and body weights of the diabetic rats at the end of experimentation following their administration, unlike the diabetic control that had significant alteration of these parameters with respect to the normal control. Whereas the diabetic control had significant increase in pancreatic weights with no alteration in the heart weights, the ethanol extract, fractions or glibenclamide had no effect on these organs. The ethanol extract, methanol fractions or glibenclamide showed better hypoglycemic actions than the n-hexane or chloroform fractions at the doses used and results obtained were corroborated by histology. Furthermore, the ethanol extract, n-hexane (at 250mg/kg) and methanol fractions or glibenclamide improved glucose tolerance in glucose loaded normal rats. The methanol fraction (500mg/kg) demonstrated anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-hypertriglyceridemic and insulin modulatory properties in a manner akin to glibenclamide. Acute toxicity study revealed the non toxicity of the plant CONCLUSION: The study justifies the use of polar solvent extracts of this plant in the management of diabetes mellitus.