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Inorganic Mercury Salts (2)


11,658 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Unique phenotypes in the sperm of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for assessing radiation hazards

Authors: Yesudhason, BV; Jegathambigai, J; Thangasamy, PA; Lakshmanan, DD; Selvan Christyraj, JR; Sathya Balasingh Thangapandi, EJ; Krishnan, M; Sivasubramaniam, S (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1337640

[Less] The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae is a segmented worm. It has two pairs of testes whose cells are highly . . . [More] The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae is a segmented worm. It has two pairs of testes whose cells are highly proliferative. It was found that the earthworm, which is irradiated with X-ray, shows the following phenotypic changes in its sperm: fragmented acrosome in the head, break in the tail, and the appearance of zigzag sperm tail. Sperm morphology can be used as a tool to study radiation hazards in local areas. These three phenotypes were not observed in the sperm of worms exposed to different concentration of toxic chemicals such as sodium arsenate, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. In contrast, exposure of worms to ethidium bromide caused fragmented acrosome in the head of their sperm cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mercury mobility and effects in the salt-marsh plant Halimione portulacoides: Uptake, transport, and toxicity and tolerance mechanisms

Authors: Cabrita, MT; Duarte, B; Cesário, R; Mendes, R; Hintelmann, H; Eckey, K; Dimock, B; Caçador, I; Canário, J (2019) Science of the Total Environment 650:111-120. HERO ID: 4963166

[Less] The plant Halimione portulacoides, an abundant species widely distributed in temperate salt-marshes, . . . [More] The plant Halimione portulacoides, an abundant species widely distributed in temperate salt-marshes, has been previously assessed as bioindicator and biomonitor of mercury contamination in these ecosystems. The present study aims to assess uptake and distribution of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MMHg) within H. portulacoides, potential mercury release by volatilization through leaves, and toxicity and tolerance mechanisms by investigating plant photochemical responses. Stem cuttings of H. portulacoides were collected from a salt-marsh within the Tagus estuary natural protected area, and grown under hydroponic conditions. After root development, plants were exposed to 199HgCl2 and CH3201HgCl, and sampled at specific times (0, 1, 2, 4, 24, 72, 120, 168 (7 days) and 432 h (18 days)). After exposure, roots, stems and leaves were analysed for total 199Hg (T199Hg) and MM201Hg content. Photobiology parameters, namely efficiency and photoprotection capacity, were measured in leaves. Both THg and MMHg were incorporated into the plant root system, stems and leaves, with roots showing much higher levels of both isotope enriched spikes than the other plant tissues. Presence of both mercury isotopes in the stems and leaves and high significant correlations found between roots and stems, and stems and leaves, for both THg and MMHg concentrations, indicate Hg translocation between the roots and above-ground organs. Long-term uptake in stems and leaves, leading to higher Hg content, was more influenced by temperature and radiation than short-term uptake. However, the relatively low levels of both THg and MMHg in the aerial parts of the plant, which were influenced by temperature and radiation, support the possibility of mercury release by stems and leaves, probably via stomata aperture, as a way to eliminate toxic mercury. Regarding photochemical responses, few differences between control and exposed plants were observed, indicating high tolerance of this salt marsh plant to THg and MMHg.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental Mercury Chemistry - In Silico

Authors: Asaduzzaman, A; Riccardi, D; Afaneh, AT; Cooper, SJ; Smith, JC; Wang, F; Parks, JM; Schreckenbach, G (2019) Accounts of Chemical Research 52:379-388. HERO ID: 5020485

[Less] Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental contaminant. Major anthropogenic sources of Hg emission include . . . [More] Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental contaminant. Major anthropogenic sources of Hg emission include gold mining and the burning of fossil fuels. Once deposited in aquatic environments, Hg can undergo redox reactions, form complexes with ligands, and adsorb onto particles. It can also be methylated by microorganisms. Mercury, especially its methylated form methylmercury, can be taken up by organisms, where it bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in the food chain, leading to detrimental effects on ecosystem and human health. In support of the recently enforced Minamata Convention on Mercury, a legally binding international convention aimed at reducing the anthropogenic emission of-and human exposure to-Hg, its global biogeochemical cycle must be understood. Thus, a detailed understanding of the molecular-level interactions of Hg is crucial. The ongoing rapid development of hardware and methods has brought computational chemistry to a point that it can usefully inform environmental science. This is particularly true for Hg, which is difficult to handle experimentally due to its ultratrace concentrations in the environment and its toxicity. The current account provides a synopsis of the application of computational chemistry to filling several major knowledge gaps in environmental Hg chemistry that have not been adequately addressed experimentally. Environmental Hg chemistry requires defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for Hg species, as they are critical for understanding its speciation, transformation and bioaccumulation in the environment. Formation constants and the nature of bonding have been determined computationally for environmentally relevant Hg(II) complexes such as chlorides, hydroxides, sulfides and selenides, in various physical phases. Quantum chemistry has been used to determine the driving forces behind the speciation of Hg with hydrochalcogenide and halide ligands. Of particular importance is the detailed characterization of solvation effects. Indeed, the aqueous phase reverses trends in affinities found computationally in the gas phase. Computation has also been used to investigate complexes of methylmercury with (seleno)amino acids, providing a molecular-level understanding of the toxicological antagonism between Hg and selenium (Se). Furthermore, evidence is emerging that ice surfaces play an important role in Hg transport and transformation in polar and alpine regions. Therefore, the diffusion of Hg and its ions through an idealized ice surface has been characterized. Microorganisms are major players in environmental mercury cycling. Some methylate inorganic Hg species, whereas others demethylate methylmercury. Quantum chemistry has been used to investigate catalytic mechanisms of enzymatic Hg methylation and demethylation. The complex interplay between the myriad chemical reactions and transport properties both in and outside microbial cells determines net biogeochemical cycling. Prospects for scaling up molecular work to obtain a mechanistic understanding of Hg cycling with comprehensive multiscale biogeochemical modeling are also discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of the differential transport mechanism of cinnabar and mercury containing compounds

Authors: Wang, Y; Zhou, S; Ma, H; Shi, JS; Lu, YF (2019) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 66:83-90. HERO ID: 5020486

[Less] BACKGROUND: Cinnabar has a long history of uses in Chinese traditional medicines as . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Cinnabar has a long history of uses in Chinese traditional medicines as an ingredient in various remedies. However, the detailed mechanism of cinnabar in medication remains unclear, and the toxicity of cinnabar has been a debate due to its containing mercury sulfide. This study was designed to investigate the differential transport mechanism of cinnabar and other Hg-containing compounds HgCl2, MeHg and HgS, and to determine if organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 were involved in the differential transport mechanism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 293T cells were employed to investigate and compare the differential transport mechanism of cinnabar and HgCl2, MeHg and HgS. Cells were incubated with a low dose (5 μM HgCl2 and MeHg, 200 μM HgS and cinnabar), medium dose (10 μM HgCl2 and MeHg, 400 μM HgS and cinnabar), and high dose (20 μM HgCl2 and MeHg, 800 μM HgS and cinnabar) of HgCl2, MeHg, HgS and cinnabar for 24 h. Following treatment, the cells were collected and the cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The intracellular mercury content was measured at 1, 4, and 24 h after treatment with 10 μM of the tested agents by an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The effect of these tested agents on mitochondrial respiration was determined in a high-resolution oxygraphyat 24 h following treatment. Furthermore, the effect of modulation of expression of transporters OAT1 and OAT3 on the transport and cytotoxicity of the tested agents was evaluated. The up and down regulation of OAT1 and OAT3 were achieved by overexpression and siRNA transfection, respectively.

RESULTS: Compared with HgCl2 and MeHg, the cytotoxicity of cinnabar and HgS was lower, with cell viability at the high dose cinnabar and HgS being about 65%, while MeHg and HgCl2 were 40% and 20%, respectively. The intracellular mercury accumulation was time-dependent. At 24 h the intracellular concentrations of HgCl2 and MeHg were about 7 and 5 times higher, respectively, than that of cinnabar. No significant difference was found in the intracellular mercury content in cells treated with cinnabar compared to HgS. The knockdown and overexpression of the transporter OAT1 resulted in significant reduction and increase, respectively, in mercury accumulation in HgCl2 -treated cells in relative to control cells, while no significant changes were observed in cells treated with cinnabar, MeHg, and HgS. In addition, the knockdown and overexpression of the transporter OAT3 caused significant reduction and increase, respectively, in mercury accumulation in both HgCl2 and MeHg-treated cells in relative to control cells, while no significant changes were observed in cells treated with cinnabar and HgS. Furthermore, it was found that cells transfected with siOAT1 caused significant resistance to the cytotoxicity induced by HgCl2, while no noticeable changes in cell viability were observed in cells treated with other tested agents. Additionally, cells transfected with OAT3 did not change cell sensitivity to cytotoxicity induced by all of the four tested agents.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that differential transport and accumulation of mercury in 293T cells exists among cinnabar and the three mercury-containing compounds HgCl2, MeHg and HgS, leading to distinct sensitivity to mercury induced cytotoxicity. The kidney organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 are partially involved in the regulation of the transport of HgCl2 and MeHg, but not in the regulation of the transport of cinnabar.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mercury distribution and speciation in biochar particles reacted with contaminated sediment up to 1030 days: A synchrotron-based study

Authors: Liu, P; Ptacek, CJ; Blowes, DW; Finfrock, YZ (2019) Science of the Total Environment 662:915-922. HERO ID: 5020489

[Less] A previous long-term microcosm experiment showed mercury (Hg) in the aqueous phase of contaminated sediment . . . [More] A previous long-term microcosm experiment showed mercury (Hg) in the aqueous phase of contaminated sediment was effectively stabilized through the addition of biochar. The present study focuses on the application of synchrotron-related methods to evaluate the distribution and speciation of Hg in the biochar particles reacted for 235, 387, and 1030 days. The study provided more information on Hg stabilization mechanisms in addition to the information obtained by the previous studies. Confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging (CMXRFI) and micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) maps show that mercury co-exists with S, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn on the surface and inside the particles of biochar. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling shows that Hg is in an oxide form on the surface of an iron (hydro)oxide particle from fresh sediment and in Hg-sulfide forms in biochar samples. S X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses show that sulfide is present within the biochar particles. After amendment with biochars, a fraction of the Hg originally present in unstable forms (dissolvable, HgO, colloidal, nano, etc.) in the sediment was likely stabilized as less soluble Hg-sulfide phases on the surface or within the biochar particle. These results suggest Hg accumulation by the biochar particles renders it less potential for transport and bioavailability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mercury sequestration and transformation in chemically enhanced treatment wetlands

Authors: Bachand, PAM; Kraus, TEC; Stumpner, EB; Bachand, SM; Stern, D; Liang, YL; Horwath, WR (2019) Chemosphere 217:496-506. HERO ID: 5020556

[Less] Mercury (Hg) pollution is a concern to human and wildlife health worldwide, and management strategies . . . [More] Mercury (Hg) pollution is a concern to human and wildlife health worldwide, and management strategies that reduce Hg inputs to aquatic systems are of broad interest. Using a replicated field-scale study in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, we tested the effectiveness of chemically enhanced treatment wetlands (CETWs) under two coagulation treatments, polyaluminum chloride (Al treatment) and ferric sulfate (Fe treatment), in their initial removal and longer-term sequestration of Hg compared to untreated control wetlands. The primary mechanism for Hg removal by CETWs was the transfer of Hg from filtered forms to insoluble particulate forms and enhanced settling of particles. CETWs resulted in total Hg annual load removals of 63 ng m-2 yr-1 (71%) and 54 ng m-2 yr-1 (54%) for the Al and Fe treatments, respectively. Control wetlands removed significantly less at 13 ng m-2 yr-1 (14%). Load removals indicate that Fe treatment wetlands more effectively reduced filtered and total methylmercury (MeHg) exports, while Al treatment wetlands more effectively reduced particulate MeHg and total Hg exports. These differences in Hg species load reductions possibly indicate different mechanisms of Hg sequestration; current data suggest more effective floc formation and particle settling was likely responsible for the Al treatment behavior, while either preferential MeHg sequestration or methylation suppression was potentially responsible for Fe treatment behavior. Differences in Hg sequestration behavior post-coagulation between the flocs formed by different coagulants indicate the importance of in-situ studies and the need for careful selection of coagulant treatment depending on the Hg species requiring remediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A pilot study on using biochars as sustainable amendments to inhibit rice uptake of Hg from a historically polluted soil in a Karst region of China

Authors: Xing, Y; Wang, J; Xia, J; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Du, Y; Wei, W (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 170:18-24. HERO ID: 5020678

[Less] We studied the addition of two biochars (rice shell biochar (RSB) and wheat straw biochar (WSB)) to . . . [More] We studied the addition of two biochars (rice shell biochar (RSB) and wheat straw biochar (WSB)) to soil at doses of 24-72 t/ha on the dynamics of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulfate, Fe(III), and Fe(II), as well as on mercury (Hg) mobility in the pore water of a polluted paddy soil, throughout the rice-growing season. The effect of biochar addition to soil on rice biomass and Hg accumulation was also investigated. The key results showed that the addition of RSB or WSB to soil improved significantly the biomass of aboveground tissues of rice plants, particularly at higher dose treatments, compared with the control. The RSB treatment noticeably decreased Hg concentration in the pore water compared to the control, throughout the rice-growing season, and this decrease was likely due to the decreased Hg mobility by the RSB by promoting the level of sulfate in the pore water, which might be reduced to sulfide to combine with Hg to form Hg sulfides. The extent of Hg concentration reduction in the pore water was less pronounced in the WSB treatments relative to the RSB treatments. Addition of RSB to soil at doses of 24-72 t/ha decreased significantly Hg contents in the stalk, bran, hull and polish rice of rice plants compared to the non-treated rice (control), particularly Hg content in the polished rice was below the Chinese safety level (< 20 ng g-1, GB2762-2012). The WSB treatments showed limited effects on rice tissues Hg. Biochar (RSB) may offer a promising method for managing the risk of Hg in paddy field by inhibiting rice Hg uptake.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methylmercury-induced testis damage is associated with activation of oxidative stress and germ cell autophagy

Authors: Chen, N; Lin, M; Liu, N; Wang, S; Xiao, X (2019) Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 190:67-74. HERO ID: 5020694

[Less] Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental pollutant and causes a serious hazard to testicular . . . [More] Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental pollutant and causes a serious hazard to testicular development and spermatogenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying male reproductive toxicity induced by MeHg remain elusive. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of MeHg on autophagy induction in germ cells (GCs). In this study, we showed that orally administered MeHg 10 mg/kg per day for five consecutive days resulted in reduced sperm count and impaired sperm motility. Noteworthy, MeHg impaired the seminiferous tubule of rats and increased the apoptotic index of GCs of rats. Furthermore, the levels of the autophagy markers light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and beclin-1 were significantly increased following MeHg treatment, possibly via inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) signaling pathway. In addition, these effects are concomitant with the overgeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decreased expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). Interestingly, supplementation with MeHg induced oxidative DNA damage in testes of rats. Taken together, our data indicated that MeHg stimulates GC apoptosis through oxidative stress and autophagy, which may be the mechanism responsible for the regulation of testis function and differentiation following MeHg exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spectral insight into thiosulfate-induced mercury speciation transformation in a historically polluted soil

Authors: Liu, T; Wang, J; Feng, X; Zhang, H; Zhu, Z; Cheng, S (2019) Science of the Total Environment 657:938-944. HERO ID: 5020806

[Less] We studied the effect of different doses (0.5%, 2% and 5% (w/w)) of ammonium thiosulfate on mercury . . . [More] We studied the effect of different doses (0.5%, 2% and 5% (w/w)) of ammonium thiosulfate on mercury (Hg) speciation fractionation following its addition to the soil, as well as its accumulation by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), and compared them to a non-treated control in a historically polluted soil. The oilseed rape, corn, and sweet potato were planted consecutively in the same soils on days 30, 191, and 276, respectively after the addition of thiosulfate to the soil. The key results showed that bioavailable Hg contents in the rhizosphere soils ranged from 0.18 to 2.54 μg kg-1, 0.28 to 2.77 μg kg-1, and 0.24 to 2.22 μg kg-1, respectively, for the 0.5%, 2% and 5% thiosulfate treatments, which were close to the control soil (0.25 to 1.98 μg kg-1). The Hg L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results showed a tendency of the Hg speciation to transform from the Hg(SR)2 (initial soil, 56%; day-191 soil, 43%; day-276 soil, 46%, and day-356 soil, 16%) to nano particulated HgS (initial soil, 26%; day-191 soil, 42%; day-276 soil, 42%, and day-356 soil, 73%) with time in the soil treated with a 5% dose of thiosulfate. The Hg contents in the tissues of the crops, except for oilseed rape, were slightly affected by the addition of thiosulfate to the soil at all dosages, compared to the control. The addition of thiosulfate did not induce the movement of bioavailable Hg to the lower layer of the soil profile. We conclude a promotion of Hg immobilization by thiosulfate in the soil for over one year, offering a promising method for in-situ Hg remediation at Hg mining regions in China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mercury chloride toxicity in human erythrocytes: enhanced generation of ROS and RNS, hemoglobin oxidation, impaired antioxidant power, and inhibition of plasma membrane redox system

Authors: Ahmad, S; Mahmood, R (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:5645-5657. HERO ID: 5020424

[Less] Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and a widespread environmental pollutant. Mercury chloride . . . [More] Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and a widespread environmental pollutant. Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is an inorganic compound of mercury which is easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and then enters the blood where it can interact with erythrocytes. In this study, the effect of HgCl2 on human erythrocytes was studied under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were treated with different concentrations of HgCl2 (1-100 μM) for 1 h at 37 °C. Cell lysates were prepared and assayed for several biochemical parameters. HgCl2 treatment resulted in oxidation of ferrous iron of hemoglobin to ferric form giving methemoglobin which is inactive as an oxygen transporter. However, the activity of methemoglobin reductase was increased. Hemoglobin oxidation was accompanied by heme degradation and the release of free iron. Protein oxidation was greatly increased with a simultaneous decrease in free amino and sulfhydryl groups and glutathione content. The antioxidant power of HgCl2-treated erythrocytes was impaired resulting in lowered metal reducing and free radical quenching ability of these cells. This suggests that HgCl2 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. This was confirmed when superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide generation were found to be dose-dependently increased in HgCl2-treated erythrocytes. Glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, the two major pathways of glucose metabolism in erythrocytes, were also inhibited. HgCl2 treatment also inhibited the plasma membrane redox system while the activities of AMP deaminase and glyoxalase-I were increased. These results show that HgCl2 induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, oxidizes hemoglobin, impairs the antioxidant defense mechanism, and alters metabolic pathways in human erythrocytes.