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30 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Systematic review of immunotoxicity associated with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (pfoa) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos)

Author: NTP (2016) National Toxicology Program. HERO ID: 3861540


Technical Report
Technical Report

Health effects support document for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 822-R-16-003). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Health and Ecological Criteria Division. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3603279


Technical Report
Technical Report

Health effects support document for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 822-R-16-002). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Health and Ecological Criteria Division. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3603365


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dermal penetration potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human and mouse skin

Authors: Franko, J; Meade, BJ; Frasch, HF; Barbero, AM; Anderson, SE (2012) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 75:50-62. HERO ID: 1290879

[Less] Recent data, using a murine model, have indicated that dermal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) . . . [More] Recent data, using a murine model, have indicated that dermal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) induces immune modulation, suggesting that this may be an important route of PFOA exposure. To investigate the dermal penetration potential of PFOA, serum concentrations were analyzed in mice following topical application. Statistically significant and dose-responsive increases in serum PFOA concentrations were identified. In vitro dermal penetration studies also demonstrated that PFOA permeates both mouse and human skin. Investigation into the mechanisms mediating PFOA penetration demonstrated that dermal absorption was strongly dependent upon the ionization status of PFOA. In addition, PFOA solid, but not 1% PFOA/acetone solution, was identified as corrosive using a cultured epidermis in vitro model. Despite its corrosive potential, expression of inflammatory cytokines in the skin of topically exposed mice was not altered. These data suggest that PFOA is dermally absorbed and that under certain conditions the skin may be a significant route of exposure.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Committee for risk assessment RAC: Annex 1: Background document to the opinion proposing harmonised classification and labelling at community level of ammoniumpentadecafluorooctanoate (APFO)

Author: ECHA (2011) HERO ID: 4467664


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol in the rat (vol 91, pg 341, 2006)

Authors: Fasano, WJ; Carpenter, SC; Gannon, SA; Snow, TA; Stadler, JC; Kennedy, GL; Buck, RC; Korzeniowski, SH; Hinderliter, PM; Kemper, RA (2008) HERO ID: 3859495


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to the immunosuppressant, perfluorooctanoic acid, enhances the murine IgE and airway hyperreactivity response to ovalbumin

Authors: Fairley, KJ; Purdy, R; Kearns, S; Anderson, SE; Meade, BJ (2007) Toxicological Sciences 97:375-383. HERO ID: 1290839

[Less] These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), . . . [More] These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a known immunosuppressant, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. PFOA has had widespread use as a carpet and fabric protectant. BALB/c mice were exposed dermally, on the dorsal surface of each ear, to concentrations of PFOA ranging from 0.01 to 1.5% (applied dose 0.25-50 mg/kg) for 4 days. In hypersensitivity studies, mice were also ip injected with 7.5 microg OVA and 2 mg alum on days 1 and 10 and in some studies challenged with 250 microg OVA by pharyngeal aspiration on days 17 and 26. Following exposure to PFOA, an increase in liver weights and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights and cellularities were observed. Similar immunomodulatory trends were demonstrated in mice coadministered PFOA and OVA. Compared to the OVA alone-exposed animals, an increase in total IgE was demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and concentrations of PFOA ranging from 0.75 to 1.5%, while the OVA-specific IgE response peaked with 0.75% PFOA coexposure (p < or = 0.05). OVA-specific airway hyperreactivity was increased in the 1.0% PFOA coexposed group (p < or = 0.05), with an increased pleiotropic cell response characterized by eosinophilia and mucin production, in animals coexposed to concentrations of PFOA up to 1.0%, as compared to the OVA alone-exposed animals. In a murine model, PFOA was demonstrated to be immunotoxic following dermal exposure, with an enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to OVA, suggesting that PFOA exposure may augment the IgE response to environmental allergens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorooctanoic acid: Relationship between repeated inhalation exposures and plasma PFOA concentration in the rat

Authors: Hinderliter, PM; Delorme, MP; Kennedy, GL (2006) Toxicology 222:80-85. HERO ID: 135732

[Less] A large database exists describing the pharmacokinetic behavior of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) following . . . [More] A large database exists describing the pharmacokinetic behavior of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) following oral exposure. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration- and time-dependence of the pharmacokinetics of inhaled PFOA in rat plasma to determine equivalent inhalation and oral (from literature values) exposure levels. The study was comprised of two separate experiments: a single 6-h inhalation exposure and repeated inhalation exposures for 3 weeks (6h per day, 5 days per week). In both experiments, male and female rats were exposed nose-only to aerosol atmospheres of either 0, 1, 10, or 25mg/m(3) PFOA. In the single exposure experiment, blood was drawn via the tail vein pre-exposure, four times concurrent to exposure, and six times post-exposure up to 24h. In the repeated exposure experiment, blood was collected immediately before and after exposure 3 days per week. Plasma PFOA concentrations were quantitated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Following the single exposures, plasma PFOA concentrations were directly proportional to airborne concentrations in both male and female rats. Elimination of PFOA from the plasma was sex-dependent, with female rats eliminating PFOA much more rapidly than male rats. Following repeated PFOA exposure, there was little daily PFOA carryover observed in plasma samples from female rats, while males demonstrated an accumulative pattern over the 3-week period. Peak post-exposure PFOA plasma concentrations in female rats averaged 1, 2, and 4 microg/mL when exposed to 1, 10, and 25mg/m(3) PFOA, respectively, and returned to baseline levels by the time of the next pre-exposure sample collection. Male rats reached steady state plasma concentrations of 8, 21, and 36 microg/mL (ppm) after 3 weeks of exposure to 1, 10, and 25mg/m(3) PFOA, respectively. These results demonstrate that the pharmacokinetic properties of inhaled PFOA in male and female rats are similar to those observed in male and female rats following oral dosing with PFOA. It is thus possible to use this internal dose metric (plasma PFOA) for route-to-route dose extrapolation, with inhalation exposures of 1, 10, and 25mg/m(3) PFOA corresponding to oral doses of approximately 0.3, 1.0, and 2.0mg/kg in rats.

Technical Report
Technical Report

A framework for assessing health risk of environmental exposures to children

Author: U.S. EPA (2006) (1-145). (EPA/600/R-05/093F). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. HERO ID: 194567

[Less] EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures . . . [More] EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children, which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the analysis phase with a multidisciplinary team.

Major findings and conclusions: This report outlines the framework in which mode of action(s) (MOA) can be considered across life stages. The framework is based upon existing approaches adopted in the Framework on Cumulative Risk Assessment and identifies existing guidance, guidelines and policy papers that relate to children's health risk assessment. It emphasizes the importance of an iterative approach between hazard, dose response, and exposure analyses. In addition, it includes discussion of principles for weight of evidence consideration across life stages for the hazard characterization database.

Key science/assessment issues:This framework addresses the questions of why and how an improved children's health risk assessment will strengthen the overall risk assessment process across the Agency. This approach improves the scientific explanation of children's risk and will add value by: 1) providing for a more complete evaluation of the potential for vulnerability at different life stages, including a focus on the underlying biological events and critical developmental periods for incorporating MOA considerations; 2) evaluating of the potential for toxicity after exposure during all developmental life stages; and 3) integrating of adverse health effects and exposure information across life stages.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Penetration of ammonium perfluorooctanoate through rat and human skin in vitro

Authors: Fasano, WJ; Kennedy, GL; Szostek, B; Farrar, DG; Ward, RJ; Haroun, L; Hinderliter, PM (2005) Drug and Chemical Toxicology 28:79-90. HERO ID: 3749187

[Less] Rat and human epidermal membranes were mounted onto in vitro diffusion cells with an exposure area of . . . [More] Rat and human epidermal membranes were mounted onto in vitro diffusion cells with an exposure area of 0.64 cm2, and skin integrity was confirmed using electrical impedance. Following membrane selection, Fluorad FC-118, a 20% aqueous solution of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (AFPO), was applied to the epidermal surface of each skin replicate at approximately 150 microL/cm2 and the donor chamber opening occluded with Parafilm. Serial receptor fluid samples were collected hourly from 1 to 6 h and at 12, 24, 30, and 48 h and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for APFO anion (PFO-). For rat skin, the time to steady-state penetration (6500+/-3000 ng APFO x cm(-2) x h(-1)) occurred in less than 12 h, which was sustained until termination (48 h). Based on the concentration of the applied test material, the permeability coefficient (Kp) for APFO in rat skin was calculated to be 3.25+/-1.51 x 10(-5) cm/h. By end of the 48-h exposure period, only a small portion of the total APFO applied (1.44+/-1.13%) had penetrated through rat skin. For human skin, steady-state penetration of APFO (190+/-57 ng APFO x cm(-2) x h(-1)) was reached by 12 h. Based on the concentration of the applied test material, the permeability coefficient for APFO in human skin was calculated to be 9.49+/-2.86 x 10(-7) cm/h. By the end of the 48-h exposure period, only a negligible amount of the total APFO applied (0.048+/-0.01%) had penetrated through human skin. Thus, under infinite dose and occlusive conditions, the steady-state penetration of APFO from a 20% solution was approximately 34-fold faster through rat skin than human skin.