Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


tert-Amyl methyl ether (TAME) (994-05-8)


231 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Dynamics of Blood Drop Release from Swinging Objects in the Creation of Cast-off Bloodstain Patterns

Authors: Williams, EMP; Graham, ES; Jermy, MC; Kieser, DC; Taylor, MC (2018) HERO ID: 4662199

[Less] Although the characteristics of cast-off bloodstain patterns are well known, the physics of the mechanism . . . [More] Although the characteristics of cast-off bloodstain patterns are well known, the physics of the mechanism by which they are created is poorly understood. The aim of this work was to describe the process by which blood droplets disengage from swinging objects. Cast-off droplets were recorded using high-speed digital video photography, and the resulting cast-off patterns were analyzed to draw inferences about the trajectories of individual drops. Blood on the object's distal end formed ligaments, which subsequently disintegrated into droplets. Initial droplet trajectories were approximately tangential to the trajectory of the location on the object from which the droplet was released. The application of the laws of physics to the mechanism of cast-off is discussed, and the process of drop formation is compared to that of passive drop formation. A technical description of cast-off is proposed, and a diagram to aid investigators in interpreting cast-off patterns at crime scenes is offered.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to BTEX and Ethers in Petrol Station Attendants and Proposal of Biological Exposure Equivalents for Urinary Benzene and MTBE

Authors: Campo, L; Rossella, F; Mercadante, R; Fustinoni, S (2016) Annals of Occupational Hygiene 60:318-333. HERO ID: 3160285

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To assess exposure to benzene (BEN) and other aromatic compounds (toluene, . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To assess exposure to benzene (BEN) and other aromatic compounds (toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene) (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in petrol station workers using air sampling and biological monitoring and to propose biological equivalents to occupational limit values.

METHODS: Eighty-nine petrol station workers and 90 control subjects were investigated. Personal exposure to airborne BTEX and ethers was assessed during a mid-week shift; urine samples were collected at the beginning of the work week, prior to and at the end of air sampling.

RESULTS: Petrol station workers had median airborne exposures to benzene and MTBE of 59 and 408 µg m(-3), respectively, with urinary benzene (BEN-U) and MTBE (MTBE-U) of 339 and 780ng l(-1), respectively. Concentrations in petrol station workers were higher than in control subjects. There were significant positive correlations between airborne exposure and the corresponding biological marker, with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) values of 0.437 and 0.865 for benzene and MTBE, respectively. There was also a strong correlation between airborne benzene and urinary MTBE (r = 0.835). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary levels of benzene were influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and tobacco smoking [determination coefficient (R (2)) 0.572], while MTBE-U was influenced only by personal exposure (R (2) = 0.741).

CONCLUSIONS: BEN-U and MTBE-U are sensitive and specific biomarkers of low occupational exposures. We propose using BEN-U as biomarker of exposure to benzene in nonsmokers and suggest 1457ng l(-1) in end shift urine samples as biological exposure equivalent to the EU occupational limit value of 1 p.p.m.; for both smokers and nonsmokers, MTBE-U may be proposed as a surrogate biomarker of benzene exposure, with a biological exposure equivalent of 22 µg l(-1) in end shift samples. For MTBE exposure, we suggest the use of MTBE-U with a biological exposure equivalent of 22 µg l(-1) corresponding to the occupational limit value of 50 p.p.m.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sustainability assessment of electrokinetic bioremediation compared with alternative remediation options for a petroleum release site

Authors: Gill, RT; Thornton, SF; Harbottle, MJ; Smith, JW (2016) Journal of Environmental Management 184:120-131. HERO ID: 3457384

[Less] Sustainable management practices can be applied to the remediation of contaminated land to maximise . . . [More] Sustainable management practices can be applied to the remediation of contaminated land to maximise the economic, environmental and social benefits of the process. The Sustainable Remediation Forum UK (SuRF-UK) have developed a framework to support the implementation of sustainable practices within contaminated land management and decision making. This study applies the framework, including qualitative (Tier 1) and semi-quantitative (Tier 2) sustainability assessments, to a complex site where the principal contaminant source is unleaded gasoline, giving rise to a dissolved phase BTEX and MTBE plume. The pathway is groundwater migration through a chalk aquifer and the receptor is a water supply borehole. A hydraulic containment system (HCS) has been installed to manage the MTBE plume migration. The options considered to remediate the MTBE source include monitored natural attenuation (MNA), air sparging/soil vapour extraction (AS/SVE), pump and treat (PT) and electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation (EK-BIO). A sustainability indictor set from the SuRF-UK framework, including priority indicator categories selected during a stakeholder engagement workshop, was used to frame the assessments. At Tier 1 the options are ranked based on qualitative supporting information, whereas in Tier 2 a multi-criteria analysis is applied. Furthermore, the multi-criteria analysis was refined for scenarios where photovoltaics (PVs) are included and amendments are excluded from the EK-BIO option. Overall, the analysis identified AS/SVE and EK-BIO as more sustainable remediation options at this site than either PT or MNA. The wider implications of this study include: (1) an appraisal of the management decision from each Tier of the assessment with the aim to highlight areas for time and cost savings for similar assessments in the future; (2) the observation that EK-BIO performed well against key indicator categories compared to the other intensive treatments; and (3) introducing methods to improve the sustainability of the EK-BIO treatment design (such as PVs) did not have a significant effect in this instance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of fuel ethers in water by membrane extraction ion mobility spectrometry

Authors: Holopainen, S; Nousiainen, M; Sillanpää, M (2013) Talanta 106:448-453. HERO ID: 2321098

[Less] Fuel oxygenates are environmentally detrimental compounds due to their rapid migration to groundwater. . . . [More] Fuel oxygenates are environmentally detrimental compounds due to their rapid migration to groundwater. Fuel oxygenates have been reported to cause taste and odour problems in drinking water, and they also have long-term health effects. Feasible analytical methods are required to observe the presence of fuel oxygenates in drinking and natural water. The authors studied ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to determinate isomeric fuel ether oxygenates; ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), separated from aqueous matrices with a pervaporation membrane module. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was also membrane extracted and detected with IMS. The authors demonstrated that fuel ethers (MTBE, ETBE, DIPE, and TAME) can be quantified at μg/L level with membrane extraction IMS. A membrane extraction module coupled to IMS is a time and cost effective analysis method because sampling can be performed in a single procedure and from different natural water matrices within a few minutes. Consequently, IMS combined with membrane extraction is suitable not only for waterworks and other online applications but also in the field monitoring the quality of drinking and natural water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Constitutive expression of the cytochrome P450 EthABCD monooxygenase system enables degradation of synthetic dialkyl ethers in Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108

Authors: Schuster, J; Purswani, J; Breuer, U; Pozo, C; Harms, H; Müller, RH; Rohwerder, T (2013) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79:2321-2327. HERO ID: 2321097

[Less] In Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001, Rhodococcus zopfii IFP 2005, and Gordonia sp. strain IFP 2009, the cytochrome . . . [More] In Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001, Rhodococcus zopfii IFP 2005, and Gordonia sp. strain IFP 2009, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase EthABCD catalyzes hydroxylation of methoxy and ethoxy residues in the fuel oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The expression of the IS3-type transposase-flanked eth genes is ETBE dependent and controlled by the regulator EthR (C. Malandain et al., FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 72:289-296, 2010). In contrast, we demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) that the betaproteobacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, which possesses the ethABCD genes but lacks ethR, constitutively expresses the P450 system at high levels even when growing on nonether substrates, such as glucose. The mutant strain A. tertiaricarbonis L10, which is unable to degrade dialkyl ethers, resulted from a transposition event mediated by a rolling-circle IS91-type element flanking the eth gene cluster in the wild-type strain L108. The constitutive expression of Eth monooxygenase is likely initiated by the housekeeping sigma factor σ(70), as indicated by the presence in strain L108 of characteristic -10 and -35 binding sites upstream of ethA which are lacking in strain IFP 2001. This enables efficient degradation of diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) without any lag phase in strain L108. However, ethers with larger residues, n-hexyl methyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and alkyl aryl ethers, were not attacked by the Eth system at significant rates in resting-cell experiments, indicating that the residue in the ether molecule which is not hydroxylated also contributes to the determination of substrate specificity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption of BTEX, MTBE and TAME on natural and modified diatomite

Authors: Aivalioti, M; Papoulias, P; Kousaiti, A; Gidarakos, E (2012) Journal of Hazardous Materials 207-208:117-127. HERO ID: 1788016

[Less] The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and m-,p-,o-xylenes), MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl . . . [More] The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and m-,p-,o-xylenes), MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) and TAME (tertiary amyl methyl ether) from aqueous solutions by raw, thermally, chemically and both chemically and thermally treated diatomite was studied, through batch adsorption experiments. In total, 14 different diatomite samples were created and tested. Selected physical characteristics of the adsorbents, such as specific surface area and pore volume distribution, were determined. Matrix and competitive adsorption effects were also explored. It was proved that the diatomite samples were effective in removing BTEX, MTBE and TAME from aqueous solutions, with the sample treated with HCl being the most effective, as far as its adsorption capacity and equilibrium time are concerned. Among the contaminants, BTEX appeared to have the strongest affinity, based on mass uptake by the diatomite samples. Matrix effects were proved to be strong, significantly decreasing the adsorption of the contaminants onto diatomite. The kinetics data proved a closer fit to the pseudo second order model, while the isotherm experimental data were a better fit to the Freundlich model. However, the latter produced values of the isotherm constant 1/n greater than one, indicating unfavorable adsorption.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of BTEX, MTBE and TAME from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto raw and thermally treated lignite

Authors: Aivalioti, M; Pothoulaki, D; Papoulias, P; Gidarakos, E (2012) Journal of Hazardous Materials 207-208:136-146. HERO ID: 1788017

[Less] The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and m-,p-,o-xylenes), MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl . . . [More] The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and m-,p-,o-xylenes), MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) and TAME (tertiary amyl methyl ether) from aqueous solutions by raw (L(raw)) and thermally treated lignite at 250 C, 550 °C and 750 °C (L250, L550 and L750, respectively) was studied, through batch experiments. Selected physical characteristics of both raw and treated lignite such as surface area and pore volume distribution were determined. Competitive adsorption effects were also explored. It was proved that the examined lignite samples were quite effective in removing BTEX, MTBE and TAME from aqueous solutions, with sample treated at 750 °C being the most effective. Among the contaminants, BTEX appeared to have the strongest affinity, based on mass uptake by lignite samples. BTEX presence was found to significantly prevent MTBE and TAME adsorption on lignite (up to ∼55%). In all cases, equilibrium was achieved within 3h. The kinetics data proved a closer fit to the pseudo second order model, while the isotherm experimental data were a better fit to the Freundlich model, producing in some cases values of the isotherm constant 1/n less than one, indicating favorable adsorption. Respective batch experiments using commercial activated carbon (AC) were also conducted for comparison.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidative degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: Mechanistic study

Authors: Kim, DK; O'Shea, KE; Cooper, WJ (2012) Science of the Total Environment 430:246-259. HERO ID: 1248011

[Less] Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl . . . [More] Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl ether (TAME) which enter groundwater. The contaminated plume develops rapidly and treatment for the removal/destruction of these ethers is difficult when using conventional methods. Degradation of MTBE, with biological methods and advanced oxidation processes, are rather well known; however, fewer studies have been reported for degradation of alternative oxygenates. Degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates (DIPE, ETBE, and TAME) by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous oxygen saturation was investigated to elucidate degradation pathways. Detailed degradation mechanisms are proposed for each gasoline oxygenate. The common major degradation pathways are proposed to involve abstraction of α-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound cavitation and low temperature pyrolytic degradation of ETBE and TAME. Even some of the products from β-H abstraction overlap with those from high temperature pyrolysis, the effect of β-H abstraction was not shown clearly from product study because of possible 1,5 H-transfer inside cavitating bubbles. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides was also determined during sonolysis. These data provide a better understanding of the degradation pathways of gasoline oxygenates by sonolysis in aqueous solutions. The approach may also serve as a model for others interested in the details of sonolysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Craniofacial abnormalities and altered wnt and mmp mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to gasoline oxygenates ETBE and TAME

Authors: Bonventre, JA; White, LA; Cooper, KR (2012) Aquatic Toxicology 120-121:45-53. HERO ID: 1248012

[Less] Gasoline additives ethyl tert butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are used world . . . [More] Gasoline additives ethyl tert butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are used world wide, but the consequence of developmental exposure to these hydrophilic chemicals is unknown for aquatic vertebrates. The effect of ETBE and TAME on zebrafish embryos was determined following OECD 212 guidelines, and their toxicity was compared to structurally related methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), which is known to target developing vasculature. LC50s for ETBE and TAME were 14mM [95% CI=10-20] and 10mM [CI=8-12.5], respectively. Both chemicals caused dose dependent developmental lesions (0.625-10mM), which included pericardial edema, abnormal vascular development, whole body edema, and craniofacial abnormalities. The lesions were suggestive of a dysregulation of WNT ligands and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein families based on their roles in development. Exposure to 5mM ETBE significantly (p≤0.05) decreased relative mRNA transcript levels of mmp-9 and wnt3a, while 2.5 and 5mM TAME significantly decreased wnt3a, and wnt8a. TAME also significantly decreased mmp-2 and -9 mRNA levels at 5mM. ETBE and TAME were less effective in altering the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-a and -c, which were the only genes tested that were significantly decreased by MTBE. This is the first study to characterize the aquatic developmental toxicity following embryonic exposure to ETBE and TAME. Unlike MTBE, which specifically targets angiogenesis, ETBE and TAME disrupt multiple organ systems and significantly alter the mRNA transcript levels of genes required for general development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Critical evaluation of the 2D-CSIA scheme for distinguishing fuel oxygenate degradation reaction mechanisms

Authors: Rosell, M; Gonzalez-Olmos, R; Rohwerder, T; Rusevova, K; Georgi, A; Kopinke, FD; Richnow, HH (2012) Environmental Science and Technology 46:4757-4766. HERO ID: 1248013

[Less] Although the uniform initial hydroxylation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenates during . . . [More] Although the uniform initial hydroxylation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenates during aerobic biodegradation has already been proven by molecular tools, variations in carbon and hydrogen enrichment factors (ε(C) and ε(H)) have still been associated with different reaction mechanisms (McKelvie et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 2793-2799). Here, we present new laboratory-derived ε(C) and ε(H) data on the initial degradation mechanisms of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) by chemical oxidation (permanganate, Fenton reagents), acid hydrolysis, and aerobic bacteria cultures (species of Aquincola, Methylibium, Gordonia, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Rhodococcus). Plotting of Δδ(2)H/ Δδ(13)C data from chemical oxidation and hydrolysis of ethers resulted in slopes (Λ values) of 22 ± 4 and between 6 and 12, respectively. With A. tertiaricarbonis L108, R. zopfii IFP 2005, and Gordonia sp. IFP 2009, ε(C) was low (<|-1|‰) and ε(H) was insignificant. Fractionation obtained with P. putida GPo1 was similar to acid hydrolysis and M. austroafricanum JOB5 and R. ruber DSM 7511 displayed Λ values previously only ascribed to anaerobic attack. The fractionation patterns rather correlate with the employment of different P450, AlkB, and other monooxygenases, likely catalyzing ether hydroxylation via different transition states. Our data questions the value of 2D-CSIA for a simple distinguishing of oxygenate biotransformation mechanisms, therefore caution and complementary tools are needed for proper interpretation of groundwater plumes at field sites.