Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


tert-Amyl ethyl ether (TAEE)


210 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Promethazine and Oral Midazolam Preanesthetic Children Medication

Authors: Nadri, S; Mahmoudvand, H; Taee, N; Anbari, K; Beiranvand, S (2018) HERO ID: 4641541

[Less] AIMS: Several kinds of drugs have been investigated in preschool children as a preanesthetic . . . [More] AIMS: Several kinds of drugs have been investigated in preschool children as a preanesthetic sedation after various routes of administration for surgeries. This study aims to compare the efficacy of promethazine and oral midazolam for premedication in children aged 3 to 9 years who were scheduled for surgeries.

METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized controlled study conducted on 93 patients between the age of 3 and 9 years at Loresten University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Khoramabad, Iran. The subjects were grouped into P (promethazine), M (midazolam), and C (control). About 0.3 mg/kg of oral promethazine was administered to patients in group P, 0.5 mg/kg of oral midazolam was administered to patients in group M, and 3 mL of normal saline as placebo was administered to patients in group C. Patient satisfaction, sedation and emotional score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR) were recorded.

RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference among the 3 groups. However, the period after medication, it was observed that SBP, diastolic blood pressure, RR, and HR in group C were statistically significantly higher than those in groups M and P. These 2 groups are similar in terms of SBP, RR, and HR. The emotional scores were comparable for the 2 groups. It was between 3.97 ± 0.6 to 1.7 ± 0.5 in group M and from 3.45 ± 1.17 to 2.745 ± 0.997 in group P in a Kruskal-Wallis test.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that both test groups reduce stress at the time of anesthetic induction and separation from their parents with similar effect. Both of the anesthetics are easily administered without the necessity of an additional equipment. A shorter period to maximal sedation for midazolam is an advantage, thus, making the drug helpful, mostly in the outpatient setting.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Comparison of the Effect of Cold Drink and Dexamethasone, and their Combined Effect on Children with Croup

Authors: Faraji-Goodarzi, M; Taee, N; Mohammadi-Kamalvand, M (2018) HERO ID: 4641545

[Less] AIMS: Croup is a clinical syndrome which included inspiratory stridor, coughing with . . . [More] AIMS: Croup is a clinical syndrome which included inspiratory stridor, coughing with a dog-like sound, noise obstruction and respiratory distress symptoms. This present study was conducted to compare the effects of cold drink and dexamethasone, and the effects of their co-administration on children's croup.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, all patients with croup admitted to the emergency ward of Madani Hospital Khorramabad were divided through the simple randomized method into 3 groups after informed consents were taken from their parents. The first group was given cold drink, second group with dexamethasone (DM), and the third group were given the combined treatment simultaneously. The patients in the first and second groups who did not show signs of improvement received the simultaneous treatment similar to the third group. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including multi-field variance analysis and co-variance analysis.

RESULT: The results of the study indicated a statistically significant between the 3 group in terms of improvement time-scale of croup clinical symptoms (P=0.001). There was no significant difference observed between the effects of other variables on improvement time-scale of croup clinical symptoms.

CONCLUSION: The cold drink has less treating effect than DM and combined simultaneous treatment method. Also, DM had more influence than simultaneous treatment method. In addition, other variables including age, sex, birth weight, BMI, respiratory allergy and previous croup history did not influenced improvement time-scale and only type of intervention influenced improvement time-scale of croup clinical symptoms.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: ChemIDplus (2018) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 4235826


Journal Article
Journal Article

Catalytic activity dependence on morphological properties of acidic ion-exchange resins for the simultaneous ETBE and TAEE liquid-phase synthesis

Authors: Soto, R; Fite, C; Ramirez, E; Iborra, M; Tejero, J (2018) HERO ID: 4641882

[Less] The simultaneous liquid-phase synthesis of 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane (ETBE) and 2-ethoxy-2-methylbutane . . . [More] The simultaneous liquid-phase synthesis of 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane (ETBE) and 2-ethoxy-2-methylbutane (TAEE) has been studied over fifteen commercial acidic ion-exchange resins. Kinetic experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at T = 335 K and initial molar ratios of alcohol to olefins (R degrees(A/O)) and between olefins (R degrees(C4/C5)) of 1.1 and 1, respectively. The catalytic activity, measured as intrinsic initial etherification rates, has been found to decrease in the order: Amberlyst (TM) 35 > Amberlyst (TM) 48 > Purolite (R) CT-275 > Amberlyst (TM) 15 > Purolite (R) CT-175 > Amberlyst (TM) 40 > Amberlyst (TM) 36 > Amberlyst (TM) 16 > Purolite (R) CT-482 > Amberlyst (TM) 39 > Amberlyst (TM) DT > Amberlyst (TM) 45 > Purolite (R) CT-124 > Purolite (R) MN-500 > Amberlyst T 46. This catalytic activity rank is related to the morphological properties of the resins in both dry and swollen states. The ratio of acid capacity to specific volume of the swollen polymer has been found to be the main catalyst properties that determine their activity: the higher the ratio, the higher the activity.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Pharmacological Properties and Molecular Mechanisms of Thymol: Prospects for Its Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development

Authors: Nagoor Meeran, MF; Javed, H; Al Taee, H; Azimullah, S; Ojha, SK (2017) HERO ID: 4366728

[Less] Thymol, chemically known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol is a colorless crystalline monoterpene phenol. . . . [More] Thymol, chemically known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol is a colorless crystalline monoterpene phenol. It is one of the most important dietary constituents in thyme species. For centuries, it has been used in traditional medicine and has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic and antitumor activities. The present article presents a detailed review of the scientific literature which reveals the pharmacological properties of thymol and its multiple therapeutic actions against various cardiovascular, neurological, rheumatological, gastrointestinal, metabolic and malignant diseases at both biochemical and molecular levels. The noteworthy effects of thymol are largely attributed to its anti-inflammatory (via inhibiting recruitment of cytokines and chemokines), antioxidant (via scavenging of free radicals, enhancing the endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and chelation of metal ions), antihyperlipidemic (via increasing the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the circulation and membrane stabilization) (via maintaining ionic homeostasis) effects. This review presents an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo data supporting thymol's therapeutic activity and the challenges concerning its use for prevention and its therapeutic value as a dietary supplement or as a pharmacological agent or as an adjuvant along with current therapeutic agents for the treatment of various diseases. It is one of the potential candidates of natural origin that has shown promising therapeutic potential, pharmacological properties and molecular mechanisms as well as pharmacokinetic properties for the pharmaceutical development of thymol.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Kinetic modeling of the simultaneous etherification of ethanol with C-4 and C-5 olefins over Amberlyst (TM) 35 using model averaging

Authors: Soto, R; Fite, C; Ramirez, E; Bringue, R; Cunill, F (2017) HERO ID: 3986415

[Less] A kinetic study on the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of ethanol with isobutene (IB), 2-methyl-1-butene . . . [More] A kinetic study on the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of ethanol with isobutene (IB), 2-methyl-1-butene (2M1B) and 2-methyl-2-butene (2M2B) catalyzed by Amberlysf (TM) 35 to form ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) is presented. Isothermal experimental runs were carried out in a stirred tank batch reactor in the temperature range 323-353 K at 2.0 MPa, starting from different initial concentrations. Obtained reaction rates were free of catalyst load, internal, and external mass transfer effects. Mathematical fitting of a series of systematically originated models, model selection, and model averaging procedures were applied to find the best model and to draw conclusions about the reaction mechanism. The selected model involves a saturated catalytic surface with the participation of two active sites in etherification reactions and one active site in isoamylenes isomerization. Apparent activation energies for ETBE formation from IB and EtOH, TAEE formation from 2M1B and EtOH, TAEE formation from 2M2B and EtOH, and double bond isomerization between 2M1B and 2M2B were 72.8 +/- 1.4, 74.9 +/- 2.8, 81.2 +/- 2.2 and, 76.5 +/- 7.2 kJ/mol, respectively. The alkenes with the double bond in terminal position were more reactive towards EtOH than 2M2B, with the double bond in internal position. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study

Authors: Ma, J; Xiong, D; Li, H; Ding, Y; Xia, X; Yang, Y (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 332:10-18. HERO ID: 3865112

[Less] Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites . . . [More] Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m(3)). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cardioprotective Potentials of Plant-Derived Small Molecules against Doxorubicin Associated Cardiotoxicity

Authors: Ojha, S; Al Taee, H; Goyal, S; Mahajan, UB; Patil, CR; Arya, DS; Rajesh, M (2016) HERO ID: 4641562

[Less] Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and widely used anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of several . . . [More] Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and widely used anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of several malignancies. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of DOX is often restricted due to the elicitation of organ toxicity. Particularly, the increased risk for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy by DOX among the cancer survivors warrants major attention from the physicians as well as researchers to develop adjuvant agents to neutralize the noxious effects of DOX on the healthy myocardium. Despite these pitfalls, the use of traditional cytotoxic drugs continues to be the mainstay treatment for several types of cancer. Recently, phytochemicals have gained attention for their anticancer, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective activities. The ideal cardioprotective agents should not compromise the clinical efficacy of DOX and should be devoid of cumulative or irreversible toxicity on the naïve tissues. Furthermore, adjuvants possessing synergistic anticancer activity and quelling of chemoresistance would significantly enhance the clinical utility in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The present review renders an overview of cardioprotective effects of plant-derived small molecules and their purported mechanisms against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytochemicals serve as the reservoirs of pharmacophore which can be utilized as templates for developing safe and potential novel cardioprotective agents in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Online catalog for the Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs

Author: WHO (2016) Available online at http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/ehc/en/. HERO ID: 783977


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Equilibrium conversion, selectivity and yield optimization of the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of isobutene and isoamylenes with ethanol over Amberlyst (TM) 35

Authors: Soto, R; Fite, C; Ramirez, E; Bringue, R; Cunill, F (2016) HERO ID: 4641888

[Less] A prospective study on the product distribution at chemical equilibrium for the simultaneous liquid-phase . . . [More] A prospective study on the product distribution at chemical equilibrium for the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of isobutene and isoamylenes with ethanol over Amberlyst (TM) 35 is presented. Experiments were performed isothermally in a 200 cm(3) stirred tank batch reactor operating at 2.0 MPa. Initial molar ratios of alcohol/olefins and isobutene/isoamylenes ranged both from 05 to 2, and temperature from 323 to 353 K. Reactants equilibrium conversion, selectivities and yields toward products were clearly affected by the experimental conditions. Experimental etherification yields have been modeled using the response surface methodology (RSM), combined with the stepwise regression method to include only the statistically significant variables into the model. The multiobjective optimization (MOO) of etherification yields has been carried out numerically, by means of the desirability function approach, and graphically, by using the overlaid contour plots (OCP). Optimal conditions for the simultaneous production of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) have been found to be at low temperatures (323 to 337 K) and initial molar ratio alcohol/olefins close to 0.9 and isobutene/isoamylenes close to 0.5. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.