Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane


1,957 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nanopatterning via Self-Assembly of a Lamellar-Forming Polystyrene-block-Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Diblock Copolymer on Topographical Substrates Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography

Authors: Borah, D; Cummins, C; Rasappa, S; Senthamaraikannan, R; Salaun, M; Zelsmann, M; Liontos, G; Ntetsikas, K; Avgeropoulos, A; Morris, MA (2018) 8. HERO ID: 4659280

[Less] The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock . . . [More] The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer (DBCP) was studied herein for surface nanopatterning. The DBCP was synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization of styrene and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D₃). The number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and PS volume fraction (φps) of the DBCP were MnPS = 23.0 kg mol-1, MnPDMS = 15.0 kg mol-1, Mw/Mn = 1.06 and φps = 0.6. Thin films of the DBCP were cast and solvent annealed on topographically patterned polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) substrates. The lamellae repeat distance or pitch (λL) and the width of the PDMS features (dL) are ~35 nm and ~17 nm, respectively, as determined by SEM. The chemistry of the POSS substrates was tuned, and the effects on the self-assembly of the DBCP noted. The PDMS nanopatterns were used as etching mask in order to transfer the DBCP pattern to underlying silicon substrate by a complex plasma etch process yielding sub-15 nm silicon features.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes

Authors: Zhang, Y; Weissmann, GS; Fogg, GE; Lu, B; Sun, H; Zheng, C (2018) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15. HERO ID: 4821832

[Less] Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, . . . [More] Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3-d), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3-d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3-d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between retinal arteriolar and venular calibre with the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study

Authors: Phan, K; Mitchell, P; Liew, G; Plant, AJ; Wang, SB; Thiagalingam, A; Burlutsky, G; Gopinath, B (2018) HERO ID: 4822683

[Less] BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore retinal vessel calibre in individuals at risk . . . [More] BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore retinal vessel calibre in individuals at risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM), and whether indices of CAD extent and severity modifies these associations with DM.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 1680 patients presenting to Westmead Hospital (Sydney, Australia) for evaluation of potential CAD. Baseline digital retinal photographs, cardiovascular risk factor measurements, fasting blood tests and self-reported diabetes by patient questionnaire was recorded. Extent and severity of CAD was assessed using Extent and Gensini scores from angiography findings, respectively. Multivariate analysis including age and hypertension was undertaken to assess the association between retinal vessel calibre and IFG or DM.

RESULTS: A total of 748 patients were included; 96 (12.8%) and 189 (25.3%), respectively, had IFG or DM (together termed 'hyperglycaemia'). No consistent association between hyperglycaemia and retinal arteriolar calibre was apparent. Wider retinal venular calibre (second and third tertile) carried a significantly higher odds of DM in men only (multivariable-adjusted OR 2.447, p = 0.005; and OR 2.76, p = 0.002; respectively). No equivalent association was apparent in women. This association was marginally significant (p = 0.08) in patients with CAD Extent scores below the median (i.e. less diffuse CAD). Retinal vessel calibre was not associated with impaired fasting glucose.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a significant association between retinal venular widening and diabetes mellitus in men. This association was marginally stronger among participants with less diffuse CAD.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses' health study II

Authors: Hart, JE; Bertrand, KA; Dupre, N; James, P; Vieira, VM; Vopham, T; Mittleman, MR; Tamimi, RM; Laden, F (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:28. HERO ID: 4821835

[Less] BACKGROUND: Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, to date, no nationwide studies have evaluated these possible associations. Our objective was to examine the impacts of mammary carcinogen and estrogen disrupting HAPs on risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide cohort.

METHODS: We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Risk of overall invasive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+), and ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer with increasing quartiles of exposure were assessed in time-varying multivariable proportional hazards models, adjusted for traditional breast cancer risk factors.

RESULTS: A total of 3321 invasive cases occurred (2160 ER+, 558 ER-) during follow-up 1989-2011. Overall, there was no consistent pattern of elevated risk of the HAPs with risk of breast cancer. Suggestive elevations were only seen with increasing 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposures (multivariable adjusted HR of overall breast cancer = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.29; ER+ breast cancer HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.30; ER- breast cancer HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; each in the top exposure quartile compared to the lowest).

CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

BC Tree-based Proxy Graphs for Visualization of Big Graphs

Authors: Hong, SHee; Quan Nguyen; Meidiana, A; Li, J; Eades, P; IEEE (2018) HERO ID: 4822134

[Less] Recent work for visualizing big graphs uses a proxy graph approach: the original graph is replaced by . . . [More] Recent work for visualizing big graphs uses a proxy graph approach: the original graph is replaced by a proxy graph, which is much smaller than the original graph. The challenge for the proxy graph approach is to ensure that the proxy graph is a good representation of the original graph. However, previous work to compute proxy graphs using graph sampling techniques often fails to preserve connectivity and important global skeletal structure in the original graph.

This paper introduces two new families of proxy graph methods BCP-W and BCP-E, tightly integrating graph sampling methods with the BC (Block Cut-vertex) tree, which represents the decomposition of a graph into biconnected components. Experimental results using graph sampling quality metrics show that our new BC tree-based proxy graph methods produce significantly better results than existing sampling-based proxy graph methods: 25% improvement by BCP-W and 15% by BCP-E on average.

We also present DBCP, a BC tree-based proxy graph method for distributed environment. Experiments on the Amazon Cloud EC2 demonstrate that DBCP is scalable for big graph data sets; runtime speed-up of 77% for distributed 5-server on average.

Visual comparison using a graph layout method and the proxy quality metrics confirm that our new BC tree-based proxy graph methods are significantly better than existing sampling-based proxy graph method. Our main results lead to guidelines for computing sampling-based proxy graphs for visualization of big graphs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modeling Subsurface Fate of S-Metolachlor and Metolachlor Ethane Sulfonic Acid in the Westliches Leibnitzer Feld Aquifer

Authors: Kupfersberger, H; Klammler, G; Schuhmann, A; Brueckner, L; Kah, M (2018) HERO ID: 4822173

[Less] Pesticides and their metabolites have been increasingly detected in groundwater bodies in southeastern . . . [More] Pesticides and their metabolites have been increasingly detected in groundwater bodies in southeastern Austria in recent years. The main objective of this study was to model the fate of the herbicide S-metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-[(1S)-2-methoxy-l-methylethyllacetamide; SMET) and the main metabolite metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) at the Westliches Leibnitzer Feld (WLF) aquifer. For this purpose, a modeling approach based on coupling the one-dimensional vadose zone model PEARL and the two-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model FEFLOW was developed. To calibrate the one-dimensional pesticide fate model, we used leachate concentrations of SMET and MESA from lysimeter experiments. Additionally, samples of representative soil types in the WLF aquifer were analyzed to infer SMET- and MESA-specific fate parameters (e.g., half-life DT50, Freundlich sorption coefficient K-foc), which were used for the PEARL model. The results show that using SMET fate parameters derived from the lysimeter data considerably improved the fit of the simulation results with the field observations compared with the application of standard laboratory-derived fate parameters accounting for soil type differences. Although locally an overestimation of the monitoring data prevailed, the description of the subsurface fate of pesticides will improve the interpretation of concentration data and the design of mitigation measures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization, antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of degraded polysaccharides from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) fruits

Authors: Xu, Y; Niu, X; Liu, N; Gao, Y; Wang, L; Xu, G; Li, X; Yang, Y (2018) Food Chemistry 243:26-35. HERO ID: 4324096

[Less] In this study, the degradation of polysaccharides from blackcurrant (BCP) was investigated. Two low-molecular-weight . . . [More] In this study, the degradation of polysaccharides from blackcurrant (BCP) was investigated. Two low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (DBCP-1, DBCP-2) were obtained using Fe2+ with different concentrations of H2O2 solution. IR spectra showed DBCPs had obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. GC analysis confirmed DBCPs were composed of the same monosaccharide units as BCP but with different molar ratios. NMR analysis indicated DBCPs and BCP had similar glycosidic linkage patterns. The surface area of fragmented structure in DBCPs was reduced compared to BCP, and they had no triple helix structure. The results of bioactivity assays indicated that DBCPs exhibited higher antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than BCP, and the degraded polysaccharides with the lower molecular weight possessed higher bioactivities. These results suggested that Fe2+-H2O2 degradation did not change the main structure of polysaccharide and the degree of degradation could play a key role in the bioactivities of the polysaccharides.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Changes in in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal degradation of tropical tannin-rich legumes due to varying levels of polyethylene glycol

Authors: Knowles, MM; Pabón, ML; Hess, HD; Carulla, JE (2017) Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 101:641-648. HERO ID: 4734614

[Less] We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus . . . [More] We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus (San Ramón CIAT 22310 and Patulul CIAT 22316) on in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal dry matter and apparent protein degradation. For each tannin source (legumes), different dosages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (8000 Da) in McDougall buffer were added to achieve ratios of 0:3, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3 PEG:condensed tannin (CT). Ruminal fluid mixed with McDougall buffer (1:4) was added to tubes containing only legume foliage (control) or PEG-treated legume foliage. For both Calliandra varieties, a higher ruminal dry matter degradation was observed at a PEG:CT ratio of 3:3. For F. macrophylla, no differences were found between 2:3 and 3:3 ratios (p > 0.05), indicating that a PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 might be enough to bind tannins. Increasing PEG:CT ratios increased apparent ruminal degraded protein and ammonia concentration (p < 0.0001) differing among species (species × ratio: p < 0.0001). The degradation of bypass crude protein (dBCP) was influenced by both legume type and PEG:CT ratio (p < 0.0001). For Patulul, as PEG:CT ratio increased, dBCP increased, but after tannin ratio of 2:3, there was not a significant increase, and for San Ramón, dBCP degradation was higher as PEG:CT ratio increased up to 2:3. For Flemingia, dBCP was higher than PEG:CT ratio of 0:3 but not different among 1:3, 2:3 or 3:3. Low concentration of CT (116 mg/g DM) increased the proportion of protein digested in the abomasum, but higher levels of CT (252 mg/g) clearly reduced the proportion of digested CP. For Flemingia, PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 is enough to inactivate tannins, while PEG:CT ratio of 3:3 was needed for Calliandra and consequently increased ruminal degradation of dry mater (rdDM), and crude protein (rdCP), total degradation of dry matter (tdDM), crude protein (tdCP) and ammonia levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy with Temozolomide Followed by Adjuvant Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Patients: A Retrospective Multicenter Observation Study in Korea

Authors: Kim, BS; Seol, HJ; Nam, DH; Park, CK; Kim, IH; Kim, TM; Kim, JH; Cho, YH; Yoon, SM; Chang, JH; Kang, SG; Kim, EH; Suh, CO; Jung, TY; Lee, KH; Kim, CY; Kim, IA; Hong, CK; Yoo, H; Kim, JH; Kang, SH; Kang, MK; Kim, EY; Kim, SH; Chung, DS; Hwang, SC; Song, JH; Cho, SJ; Lee, SI; Lee, YS; Ahn, KJ; Kim, SH; Lim, DH; Gwak, HS; Lee, SH; Hong, YK (2017) HERO ID: 4822166

[Less] PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival . . . [More] PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in a Korean sample.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 750 Korean patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme, who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (CCRT) and adjuvant TMZ from January 2006 until June 2011, were analyzed retrospectively.

RESULTS: After the first operation, a gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection (STR), partial resection (PR), biopsy alone were achieved in 388 (51.7%), 159 (21.2%), 96 (12.8%), and 107 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was reviewed retrospectively in 217 patients. The median follow-up period was 16.3 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. The actuarial survival rates at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 72.1%, 21.0%, and 9.0%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the actuarial PFS at 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 42.2%, 13.0%, and 7.8%, respectively. The patients who received GTR showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those who received STR, PR, or biopsy alone, regardless of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Patients with a methylated MGMT promoter also showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Patients who received more than six cycles of adjuvant TMZ had a longer OS and PFS than those who received six or fewer cycles. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4 was observed in 8.4% of patients during the CCRT period and in 10.2% during the adjuvant TMZ period.

CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant TMZ had more favorable survival rates and tolerable toxicity than those who did not undergo this treatment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chlorinated biphenyls effect on estrogen-related receptor expression, steroid secretion, mitochondria ultrastructure but not on mitochondrial membrane potential in Leydig cells

Authors: Milon, A; Opydo-Chanek, M; Tworzydlo, W; Galas, J; Pardyak, L; Kaminska, A; Ptak, A; Kotula-Balak, M (2017) Cell and Tissue Research 369:429-444. HERO ID: 3985129

[Less] To characterize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) action on Leydig cells, PCBs congeners, low-chlorinated . . . [More] To characterize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) action on Leydig cells, PCBs congeners, low-chlorinated (delor 103; d103) and high-chlorinated ones (delor 106; d106) were selected. The cells were treated according to PCBs dose (d103 or d106 0.2 ng/ml in low doses:, or 2 ng/ml in high doses) and type (d103 + d106 in low doses or 103 + 106 in high doses). After 24 h treatment with PCBs, a distinct increase in estrogen-related receptors (ERRs type α, β and γ) expression was revealed. However, the dose- and type-dependent PCBs effect was mostly exerted on ERRα expression. A similar increase in ERRs expression was demonstrated by estradiol but not testosterone, which was without an effect on ERRs. PCBs caused no decrease in the membrane potential status of Leydig cells (either in dose or type schedule) but had severe effects on the mitochondria number and structure. Moreover, PCBs markedly increased calcium (Ca2+) concentration and sex steroid secretion (both androgens and estrogens were elevated). These findings suggest a similar estrogenic action of PCBs congeners (d103 and d106) on Leydig cell function. We report dose- and type-specific effects of PCBs only on Leydig cell ERRs expression. Both delors showed common effects on the mitochondria ultrastructural and functional status. Based on our results, ERRα seems to be the most sensitive to hormonal modulation. The increases in Ca2+ and sex steroid secretion may be due to the activation of ERRs by PCBs binding and/or direct effect of PCBs on ERRs mRNA/protein expression. Nevertheless, to confirm the existence of possible relationships between ERRs signaling (including PCBs as ligands) and mitochondria function in Leydig cells, further intensive studies are needed.