Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane


403 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nanopatterning via Self-Assembly of a Lamellar-Forming Polystyrene-block-Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Diblock Copolymer on Topographical Substrates Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography

Authors: Borah, D; Cummins, C; Rasappa, S; Senthamaraikannan, R; Salaun, M; Zelsmann, M; Liontos, G; Ntetsikas, K; Avgeropoulos, A; Morris, MA (2018) 8. HERO ID: 4659280

[Less] The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock . . . [More] The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer (DBCP) was studied herein for surface nanopatterning. The DBCP was synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization of styrene and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D₃). The number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and PS volume fraction (φps) of the DBCP were MnPS = 23.0 kg mol-1, MnPDMS = 15.0 kg mol-1, Mw/Mn = 1.06 and φps = 0.6. Thin films of the DBCP were cast and solvent annealed on topographically patterned polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) substrates. The lamellae repeat distance or pitch (λL) and the width of the PDMS features (dL) are ~35 nm and ~17 nm, respectively, as determined by SEM. The chemistry of the POSS substrates was tuned, and the effects on the self-assembly of the DBCP noted. The PDMS nanopatterns were used as etching mask in order to transfer the DBCP pattern to underlying silicon substrate by a complex plasma etch process yielding sub-15 nm silicon features.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes

Authors: Zhang, Y; Weissmann, GS; Fogg, GE; Lu, B; Sun, H; Zheng, C (2018) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15. HERO ID: 4821832

[Less] Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, . . . [More] Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3-d), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3-d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3-d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses' health study II

Authors: Hart, JE; Bertrand, KA; Dupre, N; James, P; Vieira, VM; Vopham, T; Mittleman, MR; Tamimi, RM; Laden, F (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:28. HERO ID: 4821835

[Less] BACKGROUND: Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, to date, no nationwide studies have evaluated these possible associations. Our objective was to examine the impacts of mammary carcinogen and estrogen disrupting HAPs on risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide cohort.

METHODS: We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Risk of overall invasive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+), and ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer with increasing quartiles of exposure were assessed in time-varying multivariable proportional hazards models, adjusted for traditional breast cancer risk factors.

RESULTS: A total of 3321 invasive cases occurred (2160 ER+, 558 ER-) during follow-up 1989-2011. Overall, there was no consistent pattern of elevated risk of the HAPs with risk of breast cancer. Suggestive elevations were only seen with increasing 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposures (multivariable adjusted HR of overall breast cancer = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.29; ER+ breast cancer HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.30; ER- breast cancer HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; each in the top exposure quartile compared to the lowest).

CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization, antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of degraded polysaccharides from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) fruits

Authors: Xu, Y; Niu, X; Liu, N; Gao, Y; Wang, L; Xu, G; Li, X; Yang, Y (2018) Food Chemistry 243:26-35. HERO ID: 4324096

[Less] In this study, the degradation of polysaccharides from blackcurrant (BCP) was investigated. Two low-molecular-weight . . . [More] In this study, the degradation of polysaccharides from blackcurrant (BCP) was investigated. Two low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (DBCP-1, DBCP-2) were obtained using Fe2+ with different concentrations of H2O2 solution. IR spectra showed DBCPs had obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. GC analysis confirmed DBCPs were composed of the same monosaccharide units as BCP but with different molar ratios. NMR analysis indicated DBCPs and BCP had similar glycosidic linkage patterns. The surface area of fragmented structure in DBCPs was reduced compared to BCP, and they had no triple helix structure. The results of bioactivity assays indicated that DBCPs exhibited higher antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than BCP, and the degraded polysaccharides with the lower molecular weight possessed higher bioactivities. These results suggested that Fe2+-H2O2 degradation did not change the main structure of polysaccharide and the degree of degradation could play a key role in the bioactivities of the polysaccharides.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Changes in in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal degradation of tropical tannin-rich legumes due to varying levels of polyethylene glycol

Authors: Knowles, MM; Pabón, ML; Hess, HD; Carulla, JE (2017) Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 101:641-648. HERO ID: 4734614

[Less] We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus . . . [More] We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus (San Ramón CIAT 22310 and Patulul CIAT 22316) on in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal dry matter and apparent protein degradation. For each tannin source (legumes), different dosages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (8000 Da) in McDougall buffer were added to achieve ratios of 0:3, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3 PEG:condensed tannin (CT). Ruminal fluid mixed with McDougall buffer (1:4) was added to tubes containing only legume foliage (control) or PEG-treated legume foliage. For both Calliandra varieties, a higher ruminal dry matter degradation was observed at a PEG:CT ratio of 3:3. For F. macrophylla, no differences were found between 2:3 and 3:3 ratios (p > 0.05), indicating that a PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 might be enough to bind tannins. Increasing PEG:CT ratios increased apparent ruminal degraded protein and ammonia concentration (p < 0.0001) differing among species (species × ratio: p < 0.0001). The degradation of bypass crude protein (dBCP) was influenced by both legume type and PEG:CT ratio (p < 0.0001). For Patulul, as PEG:CT ratio increased, dBCP increased, but after tannin ratio of 2:3, there was not a significant increase, and for San Ramón, dBCP degradation was higher as PEG:CT ratio increased up to 2:3. For Flemingia, dBCP was higher than PEG:CT ratio of 0:3 but not different among 1:3, 2:3 or 3:3. Low concentration of CT (116 mg/g DM) increased the proportion of protein digested in the abomasum, but higher levels of CT (252 mg/g) clearly reduced the proportion of digested CP. For Flemingia, PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 is enough to inactivate tannins, while PEG:CT ratio of 3:3 was needed for Calliandra and consequently increased ruminal degradation of dry mater (rdDM), and crude protein (rdCP), total degradation of dry matter (tdDM), crude protein (tdCP) and ammonia levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of dilute ammonia gas for treatment of 1,2,3-trichloropropane and explosives-contaminated soils

Authors: Coyle, CG; Waisner, SA; Medina, VF; Griggs, CS (2017) Journal of Environmental Management 204:775-782. HERO ID: 3863974

[Less] Laboratory studies were performed to test a novel reactive gas process for in-situ treatment of soils . . . [More] Laboratory studies were performed to test a novel reactive gas process for in-situ treatment of soils containing halogenated propanes or explosives. A soil column study, using a 5% ammonia-in-air mixture, established that the treatment process can increase soil pH from 7.5 to 10.2. Batch reactor experiments were performed to demonstrate contaminant destruction in sealed jars exposed to ammonia. Comparison of results from batch reactors that were, and were not, exposed to ammonia demonstrated reductions in concentrations of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), 1,3-dichloropropane (1,3-DCP), 1,2-dicholoropropane (1,2-DCP) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) that ranged from 34 to 94%. Decreases in TCP concentrations at 23° C ranged from 37 to 65%, versus 89-94% at 62° C. A spiked soil column study was also performed using the same set of contaminants. The study showed a pH penetration distance of 30 cm in a 2.5 cm diameter soil column (with a pH increase from 8 to > 10), due to treatment via 5% ammonia gas at 1 standard cubic centimeter per minute (sccm) for 7 days. Batch reactor tests using explosives contaminated soils exhibited a 97% decrease in 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), an 83% decrease in nitrobenzene, and a 6% decrease in hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). A biotransformation study was also performed to investigate whether growth of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms could be stimulated via prolonged exposure of soil to ammonia. Over the course of the 283 day study, only a very small amount of nitrite generation was observed; indicating very limited ammonia monooxygenase activity. Overall, the data indicate that ammonia gas addition can be a viable approach for treating halogenated propanes and some types of explosives in soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Localized Gene Expression Analysis during Sprouting Angiogenesis in Mouse Embryoid Bodies Using a Double Barrel Carbon Probe

Authors: Ito, H; Nashimoto, Y; Zhou, Y; Takahashi, Y; Ino, K; Shiku, H; Matsue, T (2016) Analytical Chemistry 88:610-613. HERO ID: 4452965

[Less] The mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived angiogenesis model is widely used as a 3D model, reproducing . . . [More] The mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived angiogenesis model is widely used as a 3D model, reproducing cell-cell interactions in the living body. Previously, many methods to analyze localized cellular function, including in situ hybridization and laser capture microdissection, have been reported. In this study, we achieved a collection of localized cells from the angiogenesis model in hydrogel. The gene expression profiles of the endothelial cells derived from mouse ES cells were evaluated. First, we collected localized cells from the live tissue model embedded in hydrogel using the double barrel carbon probe (DBCP) and quantified mRNA expression. Second, we found that vascular marker genes were expressed at a much higher level in sprouting vessels than in the central core of the embryoid body because the cells in sprouting vessels might significantly differentiate into endothelial linages, including tip/stalk cells. Third, the gene expression levels tended to be different between the top and middle regions in the sprouting vessel due to the difference in the degree of differentiation in these regions. At the top region of the vessel, both the tip and stalk cells were present. The cells in the middle region became more mature. Collectively, these results show that DBCP is very useful for analyzing localized gene expression in cells collected from 3D live tissues embedded in hydrogel. This technique can be applied to comprehensive gene expression analyses in the medical field.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing reproductive toxicity of two environmental toxicants with a novel in vitro human spermatogenic model

Authors: Easley, CA; Bradner, JM; Moser, A; Rickman, CA; Mceachin, ZT; Merritt, MM; Hansen, JM; Caudle, WM (2015) Stem Cell Research 14:347-355. HERO ID: 4452973

[Less] Environmental influences and insults by reproductive toxicant exposure can lead to impaired spermatogenesis . . . [More] Environmental influences and insults by reproductive toxicant exposure can lead to impaired spermatogenesis or infertility. Understanding how toxicants disrupt spermatogenesis is critical for determining how environmental factors contribute to impaired fertility. While current animal models are available, understanding of the reproductive toxic effects on human fertility requires a more robust model system. We recently demonstrated that human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into spermatogonial stem cells/spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and haploid spermatids; a model that mimics many aspects of human spermatogenesis. Here, using this model system, we examine the effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) and 1,2,dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) on in vitro human spermatogenesis. 2-BP and DBCP are non-endocrine disrupting toxicants that are known to impact male fertility. We show that acute treatment with either 2-BP or DBCP induces a reduction in germ cell viability through apoptosis. 2-BP and DBCP affect viability of different cell populations as 2-BP primarily reduces spermatocyte viability, whereas DBCP exerts a much greater effect on spermatogonia. Acute treatment with 2-BP or DBCP also reduces the percentage of haploid spermatids. Both 2-BP and DBCP induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation leading to an oxidized cellular environment. Taken together, these results suggest that acute exposure with 2-BP or DBCP causes human germ cell death in vitro by inducing ROS formation. This system represents a unique platform for assessing human reproductive toxicity potential of various environmental toxicants in a rapid, efficient, and unbiased format.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photosensitized degradation kinetics of trace halogenated contaminants in natural waters using membrane introduction mass spectrometry as an in situ reaction monitor

Authors: Letourneau, DR; Gill, CG; Krogh, ET (2015) Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 14:2108-2118. HERO ID: 3481367

[Less] The photochemically mediated dechlorination of polyhalogenated compounds represents a potential decontamination . . . [More] The photochemically mediated dechlorination of polyhalogenated compounds represents a potential decontamination strategy and a relevant environmental process in chemically reducing media. We report the UV irradiation of natural and artificial waters containing natural dissolved organic matter to effect the photo-sensitized degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, including tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-tricloroethane, perchloroethene, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and chlorobenzene at trace (ppb) levels in aqueous solution. The degradation kinetics are followed in situ using membrane introduction mass spectrometry. By re-circulating the reaction mixture in a closed loop configuration over a semi-permeable hollow fiber polydimethylsiloxane membrane in a flow cell interface, volatile and semi-volatile compounds are continuously monitored using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The time resolved quantitative information provides useful mechanistic insights, including kinetic data. Pseudo first-order rate constants for the degradation of contaminant mixtures in natural waters are reported.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Degradation of halogenated compounds by haloalkane dehalogenase DadA from Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5 ]

Authors: Li, A; Shao, Z (2014) HERO ID: 4452971

[Less] [OBJECTIVE] Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5 is an important oil-degrading bacterium. We studied its substrate . . . [More] [OBJECTIVE] Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5 is an important oil-degrading bacterium. We studied its substrate range and degradation of halogenated compounds. [METHODS] Growth capability of B-5 was examined with different halogenated substrates as sole carbon source. A putative haloalkane dehalogenase (HLD) gene named dadA was found from the genome of strain B-5 and analyzed by sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and homologous modeling. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and purification, the activity of DadA towards 46 substrates was determined. [RESULTS] Strain B-5 was capable of utilizing various halogenated compounds (C3-C,8) as the sole carbon source. DadA had typical catalytic pentad residues of HLD-II subfamily, but it was independent from other members of this subfamily according to phylogenetic analysis. Activity assay showed that DadA has higher specificity and narrower substrate range than other characterized HLDs and it only showed activity toward 1,2,3-tribromopropane, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and 2,3-dichloroprop-1-ene among 46 tested substrates. [CONCLUSIONS] Strain B-5 and its HLD DadA can degrade halogenated aliphatic pollutants although.