Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA Ozone 2019


49,257 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interspecific Resource Competition-Combined Effects of Radiation and Nutrient Limitation on Two Diazotrophic Filamentous Cyanobacteria

Authors: Mohlin, M; Roleda, MY; Pattanaik, B; Tenne, SJ; Wulff, A (In Press) Microbial Ecology. HERO ID: 841322

[Less] The cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are dominated by diazotrophic cyanobacteria, the potentially . . . [More] The cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are dominated by diazotrophic cyanobacteria, the potentially toxic species Aphanizomenon sp. and the toxic species Nodularia spumigena. The seasonal succession with peaks of Aphanizomenon sp., followed by peaks of N. spumigena, has been explained by the species-specific niches of the two species. In a three-factorial outdoor experiment, we tested if nutrient and radiation conditions may impact physiological and biochemical responses of N. spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp. in the presence or absence of the other species. The two nutrient treatments were f/2 medium without NO (3) (-) (-N) and f/2 medium without PO (4) (3-) (-P), and the two ambient radiation treatments were photosynthetic active radiation >395 nm (PAR) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B >295 nm. The study showed that Aphanizomenon sp. was not negatively affected by the presence of N. spumigena and that N. spumigena was better adapted to both N and P limitation in interaction with ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm). In the Baltic Sea, these physical conditions are likely to prevail in the surface water during summer. Interestingly, the specific growth rate of N. spumigena was stimulated by the presence of Aphanizomenon sp. We suggest that the seasonal succession, with peaks of Aphanizomenon sp. followed by peaks of N. spumigena, is a result from species-specific preferences of environmental conditions and/or stimulation by Aphanizomenon sp. rather than an allelopathic effect of N. spumigena. The results from our study, together with a predicted stronger stratification due to effects of climate change in the Baltic Sea with increased temperature and increased precipitation and increased UV-B due to ozone losses, reflect a scenario with a continuing future dominance of the toxic N. spumigena.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparing removal of trace organic compounds and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) at advanced and traditional water treatment plants

Authors: Lou, JC; Lin, CY; Han, JY; Tseng, WB; Hsu, KL; Chang, TW (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 864174

[Less] Stability of drinking water can be indicated by the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). This AOC value . . . [More] Stability of drinking water can be indicated by the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). This AOC value represents the regrowth capacity of microorganisms and has large impacts on the quality of drinking water in a distribution system. With respect to the effectiveness of traditional and advanced processing methods in removing trace organic compounds (including TOC, DOC, UV(254), and AOC) from water, experimental results indicate that the removal rate of AOC at the Cheng Ching Lake water treatment plant (which utilizes advanced water treatment processes, and is hereinafter referred to as CCLWTP) is 54%, while the removal rate of AOC at the Gong Yuan water treatment plant (which uses traditional water treatment processes, and is hereinafter referred to as GYWTP) is 36%. In advanced water treatment units, new coagulation-sedimentation processes, rapid filters, and biological activated carbon filters can effectively remove AOC, total organic carbon (TOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In traditional water treatment units, coagulation-sedimentation processes are most effective in removing AOC. Simulation results and calculations made using the AutoNet method indicate that TOC, TDS, NH(3)-N, and NO(3)-N should be regularly monitored in the CCLWTP, and that TOC, temperature, and NH(3)-N should be regularly monitored in the GYWTP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Treating wastewater from a pharmaceutical formulation facility by biological process and ozone

Authors: Lester, Y; Mamane, H; Zucker, I; Avisar, D (In Press) Water Research. HERO ID: 1668038

[Less] Wastewater from a pharmaceutical formulation facility (TevaKS, Israel) was treated with a biological . . . [More] Wastewater from a pharmaceutical formulation facility (TevaKS, Israel) was treated with a biological activated-sludge system followed by ozonation. The goal was to reduce the concentrations of the drugs carbamazepine (CBZ) and venlafaxine (VLX) before discharging the wastewater to the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Both drugs were detected at extremely high concentrations in TevaKS raw wastewater ([VLX]=11.72±2.2mg/L, [CBZ]=0.84±0.19mg/L), and resisted the biological treatment. Ozone efficiently degraded CBZ: at an O3 dose-to-dissolved organic carbon ratio of 0.55 (O3/DOC), the concentration of CBZ was reduced by >99%. A lower removal rate was observed for VLX, which was decreased by ∼98% at the higher O3/DOC ratio of 0.87. Decreasing the pH of the biologically treated effluent from 7 to 5 significantly increased the ozone degradation rate of CBZ, while decreasing the degradation rate of VLX. Ozone treatment did not alter the concentration of the effluent's DOC and filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf). However, a significant increase was recorded (following ozonation) in the effluent's biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and the BOD5/CODf ratio. This implies an increase in the effluent's biodegradability, which is highly desirable if ozonation is followed by a domestic biological treatment. Different organic byproducts were formed following ozone reaction with the target pharmaceuticals and with the effluent organic matter; however, these byproducts are expected to be removed during biological treatment in the municipal WWTP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structural Modification of Lignin and Characterization of Pretreated Wheat Straw by Ozonation

Authors: Bule, MV; Gao, AH; Hiscox, B; Chen, S (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1668115

[Less] Ozonolysis is potentially an effective method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass to improve the . . . [More] Ozonolysis is potentially an effective method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass to improve the production of fermentable sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis. Further understanding of the ozonolysis process and identifying specific lignin structural changes are crucial for improving the pretreatment process. Investigation into pretreatment of wheat straw using ozonolysisis is reported in this paper, with special emphasis on selective modification/degradation of lignin subunits. The ozonolysis was performed for 2 h with less than 60 mesh particles in order to achieve maximum lignin oxidation. The results showed that the lignin structure was significantly modified under these conditions, leading to higher sugar recovery of more than 50% which increased from 13.11% to 63.17% corresponding to the control and ozone treated samples, respectively. Moisture content was found to be an important parameter for improving sugar recovery. Ninety percent (w/w) moisture produced the highest sugar recovery. The concentration of acid soluble lignin in the ozone treated sample increased from 4% to 11% after 2 h treatment. NMR analysis revealed that the S2/6 and G2 lignin units in the wheat straw were most prone to oxidation by ozone as the concentration of aromatic units decreased while the carboxylic acids became more abundant. The experimental data suggest the degradation of β-O-4 moieties and aromatic ring opening in lignin subunits. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results revealed that the rate of lignin unit degradation was in the following order: syringyl > guaiacyl > p-hydroxyphenyl. Long ozone exposure resulted in few condensed lignin structure formation. In addition, the formation of condensed units during this process increased the activation energy from ASTM-E, 259.74 kJ/mol; Friedman-E, 270.08 kJ/mol to ASTM-E, 509.29 kJ/mol; Friedman-E, 462.17 kJ/mol. The results provide new information in overcoming lignin barrier for lignocellulose utilization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study

Authors: Saggar, S; Singh, J; Giltrap, DL; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, DG; Rys, G; Der Weerden, TJ (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1510889

[Less] Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal . . . [More] Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH(3)) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N(2)O), however, NH(3) is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N(2)O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30years to reduce NH(3) losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH(3) emission, from which adjusted values for Frac(GASF) (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH(3)) and Frac(GASM) (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH(3)) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH(3) emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH(3) emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH(3) emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for Frac(GASF) FN(UI) (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH(3)) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are available on the effectiveness of UI for reducing NH(3) losses from animal urine-N deposited during grazing in a grazed pasture system. The same can be said about mixing UI with urine, rather than spraying UI before or after urine application. Since it was not possible to accurately measure the efficacy of UI in reducing NH(3) emissions from animal urine-N deposited during grazing, we currently cannot recommend the adoption of a Frac(GASM) value adjusted for the inclusion of UI.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Development of a Biphasic Electroreactor with a Wet Scrubbing System for the Removal of Gaseous Benzene

Authors: Govindan, M; Chung, SJ; Moon, HH; Jang, JW; Moon, IS (In Press) . HERO ID: 1939912

[Less] An efficient, continuous flow electroreactor system comprising a scrubbing column (for absorption) and . . . [More] An efficient, continuous flow electroreactor system comprising a scrubbing column (for absorption) and a biphasic electroreactor (for degradation) was developed to treat gas streams containing benzene. Initial benzene absorption studies using a continuous flow bubble column containing absorbents like 40% sulfuric acid, 10% silicone oil (3, 5, 10 cSt), or 100% silicone oil showed that 100% silicone oil is the most suitable. A biphasic batch electroreactor based on 50 mL of silicone oil and 100 mL of activated Co(III) (activated electrochemically) in 40% sulfuric acid demonstrated that indirect oxidation of benzene is possible by Co(III). Combined experiments on the wet scrubbing column and biphasic electroreactor (BP-ER) were performed to determine the feasibility of benzene removal, which is reside in the silicone oil medium. In semidynamic scrubbing with BP-ER experiments using an aqueous electroreactor volume of 2 L, and an inlet gas flow and a gaseous benzene concentration were 10 Lmin(-1) and 100 ppm, respectively, benzene removal efficiency is 75% in sustainable way. The trend of CO2 evolution is well correlated with benzene recovery in the BP-ER. The addition of sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS) enhanced the recovery of silicone oil without affecting benzene removal. This process is promising for the treatment of high concentrations of gaseous benzene.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An improved dry ash procedure for the detection of titanium dioxide in cattle feces

Authors: Ohmori, H; Nonaka, I; Ohtani, F; Tajima, K; Kawashima, T; Kaji, Y; Terada, F (In Press) Animal Science Journal. HERO ID: 1580453

[Less] We improved the dry ash procedure for detecting titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) in cattle feces containing . . . [More] We improved the dry ash procedure for detecting titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) in cattle feces containing chromium dioxide (Cr2 O3 ). First, the effect of amount of sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 ) on the recovery of TiO2 from cattle feces that contained Cr2 O3 was evaluated. Average recovery of TiO2 at the 2.5 g Na2 SO4 level was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that at 0.75 g Na2 SO4 . Second, the effect of Cr2 O3 concentration on the recovery of TiO2 of cattle feces by using two levels of Na2 SO4 addition was examined. The recovery of TiO2 decreased with the increase in the amount of Cr2 O3 at the 0.75 g Na2 SO4 level but was consistently high at 2.5 g Na2 SO4 . Third, the recovery of Cr2 O3 from cattle feces was checked. The recoveries of TiO2 and Cr2 O3 were high enough at the 2.5 g Na2 SO4 level. Fourth, the improved dry ash procedure (5 mL of concentrated H2 SO4 and 2.5 g of Na2 SO4 were used for sample digestion) was compared to the wet ash procedure. Average recovery of TiO2 by the improved dry ash procedure was significantly higher (P = 0.0077) than that by the wet ash procedure. Thus, the improved dry ash procedure can be used for TiO2 analysis in cattle feces containing Cr2 O3 .

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Yield vs. quality trade-offs for wheat in response to carbon dioxide and ozone

Authors: Pleijel, H; Uddling, J (In Press) Global Change Biology. HERO ID: 1669254

[Less] Although it is established that there exist potential trade-offs between grain yield and grain quality . . . [More] Although it is established that there exist potential trade-offs between grain yield and grain quality in wheat exposed to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and ozone (O3 ), their underlying causes remain poorly explored. To investigate the processes affecting grain quality under altered CO2 and O3 , we analysed 57 experiments with CO2 or O3 exposure in different exposure systems. The study covered 24 cultivars studied in 112 experimental treatments from 11 countries. A significant growth dilution effect on grain protein was found: a change in grain yield of 10% by O3 was associated with a change in grain protein yield of 8.1% (R(2) =0.96), while a change in yield effect of 10% by CO2 was linked to a change in grain protein yield effect of 7.5% (R(2) =0.74). Superimposed on this effect, elevated CO2 , but not O3 , had a significant negative effect on grain protein yield also in the absence of effects on grain yield, indicating that there exists a process by which CO2 restricts grain protein accumulation, which is absent for O3 . Grain mass, another quality trait, was more strongly affected by O3 than grain number, while the opposite was true for CO2 . Harvest index was strongly and negatively influenced by O3 , but was unaffected by CO2 . We conclude that yield vs. protein trade-offs for wheat in response to CO2 and O3 are constrained by close relationships between effects on grain biomass and less than proportional effects on grain protein. An important and novel finding was that elevated CO2 has a direct negative effect on grain protein accumulation independent of the yield effect, supporting recent evidence of CO2 -induced impairment of nitrate uptake/assimilation. Finally, our results demonstrated that processes underlying responses of grain yield vs. quality trade-offs are very different in wheat exposed to elevated O3 compared to elevated CO2 .

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Growth of mature boreal Norway spruce was not affected by elevated [CO2] and/or air temperature unless nutrient availability was improved

Authors: Sigurdsson, BD; Medhurst, JL; Wallin, G; Eggertsson, O; Linder, S (In Press) Tree Physiology. HERO ID: 1858944

[Less] The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO2] . . . [More] The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO2] (CE; 670-700 ppm) and long-term optimized nutrient availability or elevated air temperature (TE; ±3.9 °C) were studied in situ in northern Sweden in two 3 year field experiments using 12 whole-tree chambers in ca. 40-year-old forest. The first experiment (Exp. I) studied the interactions between CE and nutrient availability and the second (Exp. II) between CE and TE. It should be noted that only air temperature was elevated in Exp. II, while soil temperature was maintained close to ambient. In Exp. I, CE significantly increased the mean annual height increment, stem volume and biomass increment during the treatment period (25, 28, and 22%, respectively) when nutrients were supplied. There was, however, no significant positive CE effect found at the low natural nutrient availability. In Exp. II, which was conducted at the natural site fertility, neither CE nor TE significantly affected height or stem increment. It is concluded that the low nutrient availability (mainly nitrogen) in the boreal forests is likely to restrict their response to the continuous rise in [CO2] and/or TE.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of silicate supplementation on the alleviation of arsenite toxicity in 93-11 (Oryza sativa L. indica)

Authors: Hu, H; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Li, R; Pan, F; Wu, J; Feng, Y; Ying, Y; Liu, Q (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1597325

[Less] Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in rice has raised many health and environmental problems. As reported, . . . [More] Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in rice has raised many health and environmental problems. As reported, great variation exists among different rice genotypes in As uptake, translocation, and accumulation. Under hydroponic culture, we find that the Chinese wild rice (Oryza rufipogon; acc. 104624) takes up the most arsenic among tested genotypes. Of the cultivated rice, the indica cv. 93-11 has the lowest arsenic translocation factor value but accumulates the maximum concentration of arsenic followed by Nipponbare, Minghui 86, and Zhonghua 11. Higher level of arsenite concentration (50 μM) can induce extensive photosynthesis and root growth inhibition, and cause severe oxidative stress. Interestingly, external silicate (Si) supplementation has significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate, and promoted root elongation, as well as strongly ameliorated the oxidative stress by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase in roots and/or leaves of 93-11 seedlings. Notably, 1.873 mM concentration of Si considerably decreases the total As uptake and As content in roots, but significantly increases the As translocation from roots to shoots. In contrast, Si supplementation with 1.0 mM concentration significantly increases the total As uptake and As concentrations in roots and shoots of 93-11 seedlings after 50 μM arsenite treatment for 6 days.