Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Glycols (25265-71-8, 110-98-5, & 24800-44-0)


100 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Topical delivery of anthramycin I. Influence of neat solvents

Authors: Haque, T; Rahman, KM; Thurston, DE; Hadgraft, J; Lane, ME (2017) European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 104:188-195. HERO ID: 4947114

[Less] Anthramycin (ANT) was the first pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) molecule to be isolated, and is a potent . . . [More] Anthramycin (ANT) was the first pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) molecule to be isolated, and is a potent cytotoxic agent. Although the PBD family has been investigated for use in systemic chemotherapy, their application in the management of actinic keratoses (AK) or skin cancer has not been investigated to date. In the present work, anthramycin (ANT) was selected as a model PBD compound, and the skin penetration of the molecule was investigated using conventional Franz diffusion cells. Finite dose permeation studies of ANT were performed using propylene glycol (PG), 1,3-butanediol (BD), dipropylene glycol (DiPG), Transcutol P® (TC), propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and isopropyl myristate (IPM). The skin penetration of BD, DiPG, PG and TC was also measured. Penetration of ANT through human skin was evident for TC, PG and PGML with the active appearing to "track" the permeation of the vehicle in the case of TC and PG. Deposition of ANT in skin could be correlated with skin retention of the vehicle in the case of IPM, PGMC and PGML. These preliminary findings confirm the ability of ANT to penetrate human skin and, given the potency of the molecule, suggest that further investigation is justified. Additionally, the findings emphasise the critical importance of understanding the fate of the excipient for the rational design of topical formulations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids

Authors: Behar, RZ; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P (2014) Toxicology In Vitro 28:198-208. HERO ID: 4088550

[Less] In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic . . . [More] In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A toxicological review of the propylene glycols

Authors: Fowles, JR; Banton, MI; Pottenger, LH (2013) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 43:363-390. HERO ID: 3038211

[Less] The toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol . . . [More] The toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol (TPG) and polypropylene glycols (PPG; including tetra-rich oligomers) are collectively reviewed, and assessed considering regulatory toxicology endpoints. The review confirms a rich data set for these compounds, covering all of the major toxicological endpoints of interest. The metabolism of these compounds share common pathways, and a consistent profile of toxicity is observed. The common metabolism provides scientific justification for adopting a read-across approach to describing expected hazard potential from data gaps that may exist for specific oligomers. None of the glycols reviewed presented evidence of carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity potential to humans. The pathologies reported in some animal studies either occurred at doses that exceeded experimental guidelines, or involved mechanisms that are likely irrelevant to human physiology and therefore are not pertinent to the exposures experienced by consumers or workers. At very high chronic doses, MPG causes a transient, slight decrease in hemoglobin in dogs and at somewhat lower doses causes Heinz bodies to form in cats in the absence of any clinical signs of anemia. Some evidence for rare, idiosyncratic skin reactions exists for MPG. However, the larger data set indicates that these compounds have low sensitization potential in animal studies, and therefore are unlikely to represent human allergens. The existing safety evaluations of the FDA, USEPA, NTP and ATSDR for these compounds are consistent and point to the conclusion that the propylene glycols present a very low risk to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics

Authors: Fiume, MM; Bergfeld, WF; Belsito, DV; Hill, RA; Klaassen, CD; Liebler, D; Marks, JG; Shank, RC; Slaga, TJ; Snyder, PW; Andersen, FA (2012) International Journal of Toxicology 31:245S-60S. [Review] HERO ID: 3036587

[Less] Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing . . . [More] Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Data submitted to EPA: substantial risk reports: human health: acute toxicity: dipropylene glycol (25265-71-8)

Author: U.S. EPA (2011) HERO ID: 4940287


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dermal penetration of propylene glycols: Measured absorption across human abdominal skin in vitro and comparison with a QSAR model

Authors: Fasano, WJ; ten Berge, W; Banton, MI; Heneweer, M; Moore, NP (2011) Toxicology In Vitro 25:1664-1670. HERO ID: 3039551

[Less] The dermal penetration of undiluted monopropylene glycol (MPG) and dipropylene glycol (DPG) has been . . . [More] The dermal penetration of undiluted monopropylene glycol (MPG) and dipropylene glycol (DPG) has been measured in vitro using human abdominal skin under conditions of infinite dose application, and the results compared with predictions from the SKINPERM QSAR model (ten Berge, 2009). The measured steady-state penetration rates (J(ss)) for MPG and DPG were 97.6 and 39.3 mu g/cm(2)/h, respectively, and the permeability coefficients (K(p)) were 9.48 x 10(-5) cm/h for MPG and 3.85 x 10(-5) cm/h for DPG. In comparison, the SKINPERM model slightly over-predicted J(ss) and K(p) for MPG and DPG by between 2.6- and 5.1-fold, respectively. The model predictions of 254 mu g/cm(2)/h and 24.6 x 10(-5) cm/h for MPG, and 202 mu g/cm(2)/h and 19.8 x 10(-5) cm/h for DPG were in fairly good agreement with the measured values. Further, the model predicted a J(ss) of 101 mu g/cm(2)/h and a Kp of 9.9 x 10(-5) cm/h for the homologue tripropylene glycol. Assuming that the measured J(ss) was the same under conditions of finite dose application (taken to be 10 mu L/cm(2)) and was maintained over a 24-h period (both conservative assumptions), the relative dermal absorption of the applied dose was estimated to be 23% (0.96%/h) for MPG and 9% (0.39%/h) for DPG. However, the extrapolation for MPG may be further overestimated due to possible residence in the stratum corneum under infinite conditions of exposure that would not be applicable to a finite loading dose. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Technical Report
Technical Report

[(methylethylene)bis(oxy)]dipropanol: eye irritation: 002 key | experimental result

Author: ECHA (2010) HERO ID: 4940513


Technical Report
Technical Report

[(methylethylene)bis(oxy)]dipropanol: eye irritation: 001 key | experimental result

Author: ECHA (2010) HERO ID: 4940518


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An unusual case of dipropylene glycol toxicity

Authors: Nelsen, J; Marraffa, JM; Stork, CM; Hodgman, M; Holland, MG (2009) American Journal of Emergency Medicine 27:122-123. [Letter] HERO ID: 3036785


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Massive dipropylene glycol toxicity is very similar in presentation to cases of diethylene glycol toxicity

Author: LoVecchio, F (2009) American Journal of Emergency Medicine 27:123-123. [Letter] HERO ID: 4949088

[Less] To the Editor, We agree with the comments by Dr Marraffa that our patient with dipropylene glycol (DPG) . . . [More] To the Editor,
We agree with the comments by Dr Marraffa that our patient with dipropylene glycol (DPG) toxicity is very similar is presentation to cases of diethylene glycol (DEG) toxicity. We agree that DEG toxicity should be in the differential diagnosis in this patient and others with acute renal failure due to cortical necrosis and demyelinating sensorimotor peripheral polyneuropathy. We were somewhat surprised as to the toxicity that had arisen from DPG ingestion in our patient. We feel that in animal studies with massive ingestions, DPG presents a similar scenario. We were able to check with the manufacturer and learned that DEG was not a component of the solution of the fog-making solution.
Frank LoVecchio MD, DO, MPH