Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Propylene glycol ethers (88917-22-0 & 55934-93-5)


67 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Dipropylene glycol methyl ether acetate ITSL change in the averaging time from 24 hrs to annual

Author: Michigan DEQ (2017) HERO ID: 5015178


Technical Report
Technical Report

Amended safety assessment of butyl polyoxyalkylene ethers as used in cosmetics

Author: CIR Expert Panel (2017) HERO ID: 5014494

[Less] The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 46 butyl polyoxyalkylene . . . [More] The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 46 butyl polyoxyalkylene ethers that share a common structural motif, namely a butyl chain (4 carbon alkyl chain) bound to a polyoxyalkylene (PPG, PEG, or both); 23 of these ethers were previously reviewed by the Panel, and 23 are reviewed for the first time. Most of the butyl polyoxyalkylene ethers have several functions in cosmetics, but the most common functions include hair conditioning agent and skin conditioning agent, and many function as fragrance ingredients. Upon review of new data, including frequency and concentration of use, and data from previous CIR reports and on read-across analogs, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics when formulated to be non-irritating.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

754 exposures to reed diffusers reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service 2010-2014

Authors: Panchal, B; Eddleston, M; Thomas, SH; Thompson, JP; Vale, JA (2016) Clinical Toxicology 54:333-338. HERO ID: 3114932

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review the reported toxicity of reed diffuser . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review the reported toxicity of reed diffuser fragrance liquid which, in addition to essential oils, commonly contains glycol ethers but other ingredients and/or alternatives are 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol, petroleum distillates, ethanol and isopropanol.

METHODS: We analysed retrospectively enquiries to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014.

RESULTS: 754 patients were exposed to reed diffusers; the majority (n = 712) were children < 5 years. Ingestion was the most common route of exposure (706 of 754 patients) and involved the liquid alone (n = 570), water beads alone (n = 84), sucking on the reeds (n = 31) or ingesting the liquid and water beads (n = 21). The reported amount of fragrance liquid ingested was known in only 76 of 591 cases (12.9%), with a median (IQR) volume of 20.0 (IQR = 10-40) mL. The WHO/IPCS/EC/EAPCCT Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) was known in 702 of 706 sole ingestions: in 574 (81.3%), the PSS was 0 (asymptomatic); in 117 (16.6%) patients, the PSS was 1 (minor toxicity); in 11 (1.6%), the PSS was 2 (moderate toxicity); there were no patients with features graded PSS 3 (severe toxicity). Significantly (p = 0.008) more patients became symptomatic (PSS 1 and PSS 2) following the ingestion of a reed diffuser containing 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol than propylene glycol monobutyl ether, though there was no significant difference when compared with those containing dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (p = 0.181). The most common features following ingestion of fragrance liquid were nausea and vomiting (n = 53), coughing (n = 17) and CNS depression (n = 9). Seven patients suffered eye exposure alone: two developed eye pain and four conjunctivitis. Dermal exposure alone was reported in six patients, two of whom developed skin irritation.

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients in our study developed no features or only minor symptoms following ingestion of reed diffuser fragrance liquid.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Glycol ethers: Ethers of propylene, butylene glycols, and other glycol derivatives

Author: Cragg, ST (2012) In Bingham, E; Cohrssen, B (Eds.), Patty's toxicology: Volume 4 (6th, pp. 789-877). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. HERO ID: 4851358

[Less] There are five U.S. manufacturers of propylene glycol ether derivatives shown in Table 1. This table . . . [More] There are five U.S. manufacturers of propylene glycol ether derivatives shown in Table 1. This table also lists the trade names for these materials.

The ethers of mono‐, di‐, tri‐, and polypropylene glycol are prepared commercially by reacting propylene oxide with the alcohol of choice in the presence of a catalyst. They may also be prepared by direct alkylation of the selected glycol with an appropriate alkylating agent such as a dialkyl sulfate in the presence of an alkali.

The monoalkyl ethers of propylene glycol occur in two isomeric forms, the alpha or beta isomer. The alpha isomer is a secondary alcohol (on the middle carbon of the propane backbone) that forms the ether linkage at the terminal alcohol of propylyene glycol. This alpha isomer is predominant during synthesis. The beta isomer is a primary alcohol with the ether linkage formed at the secondary alcohol. The toxicological significance of the alpha and beta isomers of propylene glycol is discussed later in this narrative. The monoalkyl ethers of dipropylene glycol occur in four isomeric forms. The commercial product Dowanol® DPM Glycol Ether is believed to be a mixture of these but to consist to a very large extent of the isomer in which the alkyl group has replaced the hydrogen of the primary hydroxyl group of the dipropylene glycol, which is a secondary alcohol. The internal ether linkage is between the 2 position of the alkyl‐etherized propylene unit and the primary carbon of the other propylene unit, thus leaving the remaining secondary hydroxyl group unsubstituted. In the case of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, the primary isomer is 1‐(2‐methoxy‐1‐methylethoxy)‐2‐propanol. The monoalkyl ethers of tripropylene glycol can appear in eight isomeric forms. The commercial product Dowanol® TPM Glycol Ether, however, is believed to be a mixture of isomers consisting largely of the one in which the alkyl group displaces the hydrogen of the primary hydroxyl group of the tripropylene glycol and the internal ether linkages are between secondary and primary carbons. The known physical properties of the most common ethers are given in Tables 5 and 8.

The methyl and ethyl ethers of these propylene glycols are miscible with both water and a great variety of organic solvents. The butyl ethers have limited water solubility but are miscible with most organic solvents. This mutual solvency makes them valuable as coupling, coalescing, and dispersing agents. These glycol ethers have found applications as solvents for surface coatings, inks, lacquers, paints, resins, dyes, agricultural chemicals, and other oils and greases. The di‐ and tripropylene series also are used as ingredients in hydraulic brake fluids.

Occupational exposure would normally be limited to dermal and/or inhalation exposure. The toxicological activity of the propylene glycol‐based ethers generally indicates a low order of toxicity. Under typical conditions of exposure and use, propylene glycol ethers pose little hazard. As with many other solvents, appropriate precautions should be employed to minimize dermal and eye contact and to avoid prolonged or repeated exposures to high vapor concentrations.

The propylene glycol ethers (PGEs), even at much higher exposure levels, do not cause the types of toxicity produced by certain of the lower molecular weight ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs). Specifically, they do not cause damage to the thymus, testes, kidneys, blood, and blood‐forming tissues as seen with ethylene glycol methyl and ethyl ethers. In addition, the propylene glycol ethers induce neither the development effects of certain of the methyl‐ and ethyl‐substituted ethylene glycol‐based ethers nor the hemolysis and associated secondary effects seen in laboratory animals with EGEs.

Other propylene glycol ethers also exhibit a similar lack of toxicity. For example, propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE) and its acetate do not cause the critical toxicities of testicular, thymic, or blood injury and do not produce birth defects. Propylene glycol tertiary‐butyl ether (PGTBE) also has been tested and fails to elicit these toxicities or birth defects in rats exposed by inhalation to substantial concentrations.

The methyl, ethyl, and n‐butyl ethers of butylene glycol considered herein are prepared by reacting the appropriate alcohol with the so‐called straight‐chain butylene oxide, consisting of about 80% 1,2 isomer and about 20% 2,3 isomer in the presence of a catalyst. They are colorless liquids with slight, pleasant odors. The methyl and ethyl ethers are miscible with water, but the butyl ether has limited solubility. All are miscible with many organic solvents and oils; thus, they are useful as mutual solvents, dispersing agents, and solvents for inks, resins, lacquers, oils, and greases. Industrial exposure may occur by any of the common routes.

The common esters and diesters of the polyols are prepared commercially by esterifying the particular polyol with the acid, acid anhydride, or acid chloride of choice in the presence of a catalyst. Mono‐ or diesters result, depending on the proportions of each reactant employed. The ether esters are prepared by esterifying the glycol ether in a similar manner. Other methods can also be used.

The acetic acid esters have remarkable solvent properties for oils, greases, inks, adhesives, and resins. They are widely used in lacquers, enamels, dopes, adhesives, and in fluids to dissolve plastics or resins as applied by lacquer, paint, and varnish removers.

Generally speaking, the fatty acid esters of the glycols and glycol ethers, in either the liquid or vapor state, are more irritating to the mucous membranes than those of the parent glycol or glycol ethers. However, once absorbed into the body, the esters are hydrolyzed and the systemic effect is quite typical of the parent glycol or glycol ethers.

It should be noted that the nitric acid esters of glycols are highly toxic and exert a physiological action quite different from that of the parent polyols.

The nitric acid esters of glycols are not typical of the esters or ether esters of organic acids and are considered separately in this chapter. They are used as explosives, usually in combination with nitroglycerin, to reduce the freezing point.

Industrial exposures of consequence are most likely to occur through the inhalation of vapors, but may also occur through contact with the eyes and skin. With the dinitrate, a serious hazard exists from absorption through the skin.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Draft interim REL March 2010. Dipropylene glycol methyl ether acetate (CAS 88917-22-0)

Author: CARB (2010) HERO ID: 5015978


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Final report on the safety assessment of PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, and PPG-2 methyl ether acetate

Authors: Robinson, V; Bergfeld, WF; Belsito, DV; Klaassen, CD; Marks, JG; Shank, RC; Slaga, TJ; Snyder, PW; Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel; Andersen, FA (2009) International Journal of Toxicology 28:162S-74S. HERO ID: 2530089

[Less] PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, and PPG-2 methyl ether acetate are used in cosmetics as fragrance . . . [More] PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, and PPG-2 methyl ether acetate are used in cosmetics as fragrance ingredients and/or solvents at concentrations of 0.4% to 2%. Propylene glycol ethers are rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body when introduced by inhalation or oral exposure, but the inhalation toxicity of PPG-2 methyl ether vapor, for example, is low. Aerosols, such as found with hair sprays, produce particle sizes that are not respirable. Because these ingredients are highly water-soluble, they are likely to be absorbed through the human skin only at slow rates, resulting in low blood concentrations and rapid removal by the kidney. These ingredients are not genotoxic and are not reproductive or developmental toxicants. Overall the data are sufficient to conclude that PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, and PPG-2 methyl ether acetate are safe as used in cosmetics.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Propylene glycol ethers: SIDS initial assessment report for SIAM 17: Arona, Italy, 11-14 November 2003

Author: OECD (2003) (SIDS Initial Assessment Meeting (SIAM) 17). UNEP Publications. HERO ID: 4956637

[Less] The category contains four structurally related propylene glycol ethers: - Propylene Glycol n-Butyl . . . [More] The category contains four structurally related propylene glycol ethers:
- Propylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether (PnB, 5131-66-8, major (“alpha”) isomer, 29387-86-8 isomeric mixture)
- Dipropylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether (DPnB, 29911-28-2 major isomer or 35884-42-5 isomeric mixture))
- Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (DPMA, 88917-22-0 isomeric mixture)
- Tripropylene Glycol Methyl Ether (TPM, 20324-33-8 one of the isomers and 25498-49-1 isomeric mixture)

The alpha (secondary alcohol) form is kinetically favored during synthesis. PnB is available as the isomeric mixture in which the alpha isomer is the predominant isomer (ca. 95%. DPnB, DPMA and TPM are commercially produced as mixtures of isomeric components in which the internal ether linkages may be adjacent to either primary or secondary carbon atoms. Thus, for DPMA and DPnB the commercially produced products may contain up to 4 such isomers. In the case of TPM, the commercially produced product may contain up to 8 such isomers.

Data for these propylene glycol ethers are supplemented with data from three propylene glycol ethers that are closely related to the category members in molecular structure, physicochemical properties and toxicity and thus extend the category. These compounds are:
- Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether (PM; CAS No. 107-98-2)
- Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PMA; CAS No. 108-65-6)
- Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether (DPM; CAS No. 34590-94-8 isomeric mixture and 20324-32-7 major isomer)

PM and PMA were reviewed at SIAM 11 and DPM was reviewed at SIAM 12. All were assigned as low priority for further work.

Technical Report
Technical Report

1-butoxypropan-2-ol: acute toxicity oral: 002 key | experimental result

Author: ECHA (2001) HERO ID: 5015987


Technical Report
Technical Report

1-butoxypropan-2-ol: eye irritation: 002 supporting | experimental result

Author: ECHA (2001) HERO ID: 5015997


Technical Report
Technical Report

1-butoxypropan-2-ol: skin irritation/corrosion: 005 supporting | experimental result

Author: ECHA (2001) HERO ID: 5016015