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Biphenyl




  • 11.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    2010 TLVs and BEIs: Based on the documentation of the threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices

    Author: ACGIH
    (2010) Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. [TLV/BEI]
    Tagged With: Considered , Excluded References
  • 12.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    TLVs and BEIs threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices

    Author: ACGIH
    (1999) Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
    Tagged With: Considered , Excluded References

    Details
       
  • 13.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    The causes and prevention of cancer: the role of environment

    Authors: Ames, B; Gold, L
    (1998) Biotherapy 11:205-220.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The idea that synthetic chemicals such as DDT are major contributors to human cancer has been inspired, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The idea that synthetic chemicals such as DDT are major contributors to human cancer has been inspired, in part, by Rachel Carson''s passionate book, Silent Spring. This chapter discusses evidence showing why this is not true. We also review research on the causes of cancer, and show why much cancer is preventable. Epidemiological evidence indicates several factors likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections. Other factors are avoidance of intense sun exposure, increases in physical activity, and reduction of alcohol consumption and possibly red meat. Already, risks of many forms of cancer can be reduced and the potential for further reductions is great. If lung cancer (which is primarily due to smoking) is excluded, cancer death rates are decreasing in the United States for all other cancers combined. Pollution appears to account for less than 1% of human cancer; yet public concern and resource allocation for chemical pollution are very high, in good part because of the use of animal cancer tests in cancer risk assessment. Animal cancer tests, which are done at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), are being misinterpreted to mean that low doses of synthetic chemicals and industrial pollutants are relevant to human cancer. About half of the chemicals tested, whether synthetic or natural, are carcinogenic to rodents at these high doses. A plausible explanation for the high frequency of positive results is that testing at the MTD frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement, a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses. Ignoring this greatly exaggerates risks. Scientists must determine mechanisms of carcinogenesis for each substance and revise acceptable dose levels as understanding advances. The vast bulk of chemicals ingested by humans is natural. For example, 99.99% of the pesticides we eat are naturally present in plants to ward off insects and other predators. Half of these natural pesticides tested at the MTD are rodent carcinogens. Reducing exposure to the 0.01% that are synthetic will not reduce cancer rates. On the contrary, although fruits and vegetables contain a wide variety of naturally-occurring chemicals that are rodent carcinogens, inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables doubles the human cancer risk for most types of cancer. Making them more expensive by reducing synthetic pesticide use will increase cancer. Humans also ingest large numbers of natural chemicals from cooking food. Over a thousand chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee: more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens. There are more rodent carcinogens in a single cup of coffee than potentially carcinogenic pesticide residues in the average American diet in a year, and there are still a thousand chemicals left to test in roasted coffee. This does not mean that coffee is dangerous but rather that animal cancer tests and worst-case risk assessment, build in enormous safety factors and should not be considered true risks. The reason humans can eat the tremendous variety of natural chemical "rodent carcinogens" is that humans, like other animals, are extremely well protected by many general defense enzymes, most of which are inducible (i.e., whenever a defense enzyme is in use, more of it is made). Since the defense enzymes are equally effective against natural and synthetic chemicals one does not expect, nor does one find, a general difference between synthetic and natural chemicals in ability to cause cancer in high-dose rodent tests. The idea that there is an epidemic of human cancer caused by synthetic industrial chemicals is false. In addition, there is a steady rise in life expectancy in the developed countries. Linear extrapolation from the maximum tolerated dose in rodents to low level exposure in humans has led to grossly exaggerated mortality forecasts. Such extrapolations can not be verified by epidemiology. Furthermore, relying on such extrapolations for synthetic chemicals while ignoring the enormous natural background, leads to an imbalanced perception of hazard and allocation of resources. It is the progress of scientific research and technology that will continue to lengthen human life expectancy. Zero exposure to rodent carcinogens cannot be achieved. Low levels of rodent carcinogens of natural origin are ubiquitous in the environment. It is thus impossible to obtain conditions totally free of exposure to rodent carcinogens or to background radiation. Major advances in analytical techniques enable the detection of extremely low concentrations of all substances, whether natural or synthetic, often thousands of times lower than could be detected 30 years ago. Risks compete with risks: society must distinguish between significant and trivial risks. Regulating trivial risks or exposure to substances erroneously inferred to cause cancer at low-doses, can harm health by diverting resources from programs that could be effective in protecting the health of the public. Moreover, wealth creates health: poor people have shorter life expectancy than wealthy people. When money and resources are wasted on trivial problems, society''s wealth and hence health is harmed.
    Tagged With: Considered , Excluded References
  • 14.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Appendix II. The bacterial mutation test: Six tests for carcinogenicity

    Authors: Anderson, D; Styles, JA
    (1978) British Journal of Cancer 37:924-930.
    Tagged With: Considered , Excluded References
  • 15.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Air pollution, smoking, and plasma homocysteine

    Authors: Baccarelli, A; Zanobetti, A; Martinelli, I; Grillo, P; Hou, L; Lanzani, G; Mannucci, PM; Bertazzi, PA; Schwartz, J
    (2007) Environmental Health Perspectives 115:176-181.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Air pollution exposure induces short-term inflammatory changes that may determine hyperhomocysteinemia, particularly in the presence of a preexisting proinflammatory status such as that found in cigarette smokers. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relation of air pollution levels with fasting and postmethionine-load total homocysteine (tHcy) in 1,213 normal subjects from Lombardia, Italy. METHODS: We obtained hourly concentrations of particulate matter < 10 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide(,) ozone) from 53 monitoring sites covering the study area. We applied generalized additive models to compute standardized regression coefficients controlled for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, hormone use, temperature, day of the year, and long-term trends. RESULTS: The estimated difference in tHcy associated with an interquartile increase in average PM(10) concentrations in the 24 hr before the study was nonsignificant [0.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.4 to 3.3 for fasting; and 1.1%, 95% CI, -1.5 to 3.7 for postmethionine-load tHcy]. In smokers, 24-hr PM(10) levels were associated with 6.3% (95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; p < 0.05) and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.5 to 9.6; p < 0.05) increases in fasting and postmethionine-load tHcy, respectively, but no association was seen in nonsmokers (p-interaction = 0.005 for fasting and 0.039 for postmethionine-load tHcy). Average 24-hr O(3) concentrations were associated with significant differences in fasting tHcy (6.7%; 95% CI, 0.9 to 12.8; p < 0.05), but no consistent associations were found when postmethionine-load tHcy and/or 7-day average O(3) concentrations were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Air particles may interact with cigarette smoking and increase plasma homocysteine in healthy subjects.
    Tagged With: Considered , Excluded References
  • 16.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Detection of micronuclei, cell proliferation and hyperdiploidy in bladder epithelial cells of rats treated with o-phenylphenol

    Authors: Balakrishnan, S; Uppala, PT; Rupa, DS; Hasegawa, L; Eastmond, DA
    (2002) Mutagenesis 17:89-93.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. o-Phenylphenol (OPP), a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent, has been considered to be among . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. o-Phenylphenol (OPP), a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent, has been considered to be among the top 10 home and garden pesticides used in the USA. Earlier studies have consistently shown that the sodium salt of OPP (SOPP) causes bladder cancer in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats, whereas OPP has produced variable results. This difference has been attributed to the presence of the sodium salt. To determine cellular and genetic alterations in the rat bladder and the influence of the sodium salt, F344 rats were administered 2% OPP, 2% NaCl and 2% NaCl + 2% OPP in their diet for 14 days. Twenty-four hours before being killed the animals were administered 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by i.p. injection. Bladder cells were isolated, stained with DAPI and scored for the presence of micronuclei and incorporation of BrdU into replicating cells. To determine changes in chromosome number, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a DNA probe for rat chromosome 4. Significant increases in the frequency of micronuclei and BrdU incorporation were seen in bladder cells of rats from all treatment groups. In contrast, the frequency of hyperdiploidy/polyploidy in treated animals was not increased over that seen in controls. A high control frequency of cells with three or more hybridization signals was seen, probably due to the presence of polyploid cells in the bladder. The presence of polyploid cells combined with cytotoxicity and compensatory cell proliferation makes it difficult to determine whether OPP is capable of inducing aneuploidy in the rat urothelium. In summary, these studies show that OPP can cause cellular and chromosomal alterations in rat bladder cells in the absence of the sodium salt. These results also indicate that at high concentrations the sodium salt can enhance chromosomal damage in the rat urothelium.
    Tagged With: Considered , Cited References, Toxicokinetics, Other studies, Mechanistic and genotoxic studies
  • 17.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Tissue and sex differences in the activation of aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylases in rats

    Authors: Benford, DJ; Bridges, JW
    (1983) Biochemical Pharmacology 32:309-313.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Betamethasone and alpha-naphthoflavone produced similar activation of biphenyl 2-hydroxylase and benzo[a]pyrene . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Betamethasone and alpha-naphthoflavone produced similar activation of biphenyl 2-hydroxylase and benzo[a]pyrene 3-hydroxylase in control male rat liver microsomes. In small intestinal epithelial microsomes, betamethasone had no effect whereas alpha-naphthoflavone caused a pronounced activation of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation and a lesser activation of biphenyl 2-hydroxylation. In lung microsomes, betamethasone had no effect on either enzyme activity whereas alpha-naphthoflavone had no effect on biphenyl 2-hydroxylase but inhibited benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase. In kidney cortex microsomes from male rats both compounds caused inhibition or had no effect whereas in kidney cortex microsomes female rats betamethasone activated whereas alpha-naphthoflavone had no effect. Activation also occurred in isolated viable hepatocytes from male rats. The response of biphenyl 2-hydroxylase was very similar to that found in male rat liver microsomes but benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase was more sensitive to activation and less sensitive to inhibition than in microsomes. The findings are interpreted as demonstrating the presence of more than one 'latent' aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase in rodents.
    Tagged With: Considered , Cited References
  • 18.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    The selective activation of cytochrome P-450 dependent microsomal hydroxylases in human and rat liver microsomes

    Authors: Benford, DJ; Bridges, JW; Boobis, AR; Kahn, GC; Brodie, MJ; Davies, DS
    (1981) Biochemical Pharmacology 30:1702-1703.
    Tagged With: Considered , Cited References, Toxicokinetics
  • 19.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Effects of carcinogens on biphenyl hydroxylation in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Authors: Bianco, PJ; Jones, RS; Parke, DV
    (1979) Biochemical Society Transactions 7:639-641.
    Tagged With: Considered , Cited References, Toxicokinetics
  • 20.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Microsomal biphenyl hydroxylation: The formation of 3-hydroxybiphenyl and biphenyl catechol

    Authors: Billings, RE; McMahon, RE
    (1978) Molecular Pharmacology 14:145-154.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. 3-Hydroxybiphenyl has been identified as a metabolite of biphenyl incubated with liver microsomes. Liver . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. 3-Hydroxybiphenyl has been identified as a metabolite of biphenyl incubated with liver microsomes. Liver microsomes from hamster, mouse, and rabbit form 3-hydroxybiphenyl as well as 2-hydroxybiphenyl and 4-hydroxybiphenyl. The ratio of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to 3-hydroxybiphenyl is about 2:l with hamster and rabbit microsomes and 1:l with mouse microsomes. The major metabolite in all three species is 4-hydroxybiphenyl, but its relative amount also depends upon the species. Control rat liver microsomal hydroxylation of biphenyl yields 4-hydroxybiphenyl almost exclusively. 3-Methylcholanthrene or β-napthoflavone treatment of rats preferentially induces 2-hydroxybiphenyl formation, whereas increased amounts of 3- and 4-hydroxybiphenyl are formed after administration of phenobarbital. These results indicate that 3-hydroxybiphenyl is formed by a pathway different from that of either 2- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl. The existence of isotope effects for 3-hydroxybiphenyl formation but not for 2- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl formation from perdeuterobiphenyl suggests that this hydroxylation occurs at least partially via a direct hydroxylation pathway. In addition to the monohydroxylated products of biphenyl, the microsomal oxidation of biphenyl yields the catechol, 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl. This same catechol is produced by the hydroxylation of either 3- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl. Studies with 18O suggest that 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl is formed from biphenyl via two consecutive hydroxylations.
    Tagged With: Considered , Cited References, Toxicokinetics
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