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Trichloroethylene (TCE) (Final, 2011)

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  • 11.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Glutamine transaminase K is not a major cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase of rat kidney mitochondria: Evidence that a high-molecular weight enzyme fulfills this role

    Authors: Abraham, D; Thomas, R; Cooper, A
    (1995) Molecular Pharmacology 48:855-860.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Glutamine transaminase K (homodimer; M(r) of monomer approximately 45,000) is a major cysteine S-conjugate . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Glutamine transaminase K (homodimer; M(r) of monomer approximately 45,000) is a major cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase of rat kidney cytosol. Several cysteine S-conjugates are known to cause kidney damage. Mitochondria are especially sensitive, and glutamine transaminase K activity is present in the mitochondrial fraction of rat kidneys. Therefore, it is possible that the mitochondrial form of glutamine transaminase K is a cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase of the rat kidney and that this activity contributes to the mitochondrial damage. However, the literature contains conflicting data on this point. We obtained highly purified mitochondrial glutamine transaminase K and showed that it possesses little cysteine S-conjugate beta-lysae activity with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine as substrates. Recently, a high-molecular-weight cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase (M(r) approximately 330,000) was shown to be present in the cytosol of rat kidney homogenates and partially purified. We present evidence that suggests that a similar high-molecular-weight enzyme is present in rat kidney mitochondria and that this protein may be a major cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase of these organelles.
    Tagged With: All References, Toxicokinetics, Metabolism
  • 12.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Purification and characterization of human microsomal dipeptidase

    Authors: Adachi, H; Kubota, I; Okamura, N; Iwata, H; Tsujimoto, M; Nakazato, H; Nishihara, T; Noguchi, T
    (1989) Journal of Biochemistry 105:957-961.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Human microsomal dipeptidase (MDP, formerly referred to as dehydropeptidase-I or renal dipeptidase) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Human microsomal dipeptidase (MDP, formerly referred to as dehydropeptidase-I or renal dipeptidase) [EC 3.4.13.11] was solubilized from the membrane fraction of kidney by treatment with octyl-beta-D-glucoside and purified by a procedure including ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on cilastatin-immobilized Sepharose. The purified human MDP was found to be homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight (Mr) was estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions to be 130 kDa, comprising a homodimer of two subunits. After treatment with endoglycosidase F, human MDP showed a single band with an apparent Mr of 42 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human MDP was found to bind to Con A-Sepharose and the activity was eluted with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside, suggesting that human MDP is a glycoprotein. We also examined the substrate specificity of human MDP and found that human MDP catalyzed the hydrolysis of S(substituent)-L-cysteinyl-glycine adducts such as L-cystinyl-bis(glycine) and S-N-ethylmaleimide-L-cysteinyl-glycine, as well as the conversion of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4. These results suggest that MDP might play an important role in the metabolism of glutathione and leukotriene.
    Tagged With: All References, Toxicokinetics, Metabolism
  • 13.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Excess risk of primary liver cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Authors: Adami, HO; Chow, WH; Nyrén, O; Berne, C; Linet, MS; Ekbom, A; Wolk, A; McLaughlin, JK; Fraumeni, JF
    (1996) Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88:1472-1477.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, alcohol consumption, and cirrhosis of the liver are recognized . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, alcohol consumption, and cirrhosis of the liver are recognized risk factors for primary liver cancer. A few, but not all, studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus also increases risk for this cancer.

    We conducted a population-based cohort study to analyze the risk of developing primary liver cancer and biliary tract (gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater) cancers among patients with diabetes.

    A cohort of 153 852 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of diabetes in the period from 1965 through 1983 was identified by use of the Swedish In-patient Register. Follow-up for these patients extended from the date of cohort entry through December 31, 1989. Incident cases of cancer during follow-up were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry. To minimize the impact of selection bias, we excluded from the analysis patients who were diagnosed with liver and biliary tract cancers during the first year of follow-up. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by use of nationwide rates of liver and biliary tract cancers, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar year, for comparison.

    During 1-24 years of follow-up, 819 incident cancers in the combined category of primary liver (n = 533) and biliary tract (n = 286) were identified in the cohort, yielding an overall SIR of 2.5 (95% CI = 2.3-2.6). The risk was higher in men (SIR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.9-3.6) than in women (SIR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8-2.2). The incidence of primary liver cancer alone was increased fourfold (SIR = 4.1; 95% CI = 3.8-4.5); again, the risk was higher in men (SIR = 4.7; 95% CI = 4.2-5.2) than in women (SIR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.9-3.9). Smaller increases in risk were seen for cancers of the gallbladder, the extrahepatic bile ducts, and the ampulla of Vater. After exclusion of diabetic patients with concomitant diseases that predispose to primary liver cancer, such as alcoholism, cirrhosis, and hepatitis, the persistence of an approximately threefold excess risk was observed.

    Our findings suggest that patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing primary liver cancer and perhaps cancers of the biliary tract. The mechanisms involved in the association of diabetes and liver cancer remain to be clarified. Additional studies are needed to determine whether patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus differ in their risk for primary liver cancer or whether the risk is affected by the type of diabetes treatment.
    Tagged With: All References, Hazard, Liver, Liver Issues
  • 14.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Lifetime exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) modulates immune function

    Authors: Adams, C; Keil, D; Meyers, K; Eudaly, A; Smythe, J; Eudaly, J; Gilkeson, G; Peden-Adams, MM
    (2003) Toxicologist 72:375.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent used in the cleaning and degreasing of metal components . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent used in the cleaning and degreasing of metal components in various machine industries. Not only is it commonly inhaled during occupational situations, but its widespread use has resulted in groundwater contamination leading to human exposure via drinking water. It has been reported, in murine studies, that TCE can both exacerbate autoimmune disease and suppress immune function. While these studies have addressed effects in adult rodent models, none have explored immunological effects during developmental stages. To determine the immunological effects of TCE in B6C3F1 mice, exposure to TCE in drinking water (1000 ppb or 10,000 ppb) began when pairs were mated (female C57 and male C3H mice) and continued through weaning (21-day-old) or adulthood (56-days-old). The vehicle control group was administered emulphor-treated water. Endpoints assessed included splenic and thymic weights and cellularity, natural killer cell (NK) activity, antibody plaque forming cell (PFC) response, lymphocyte proliferation, and T-cell immunophenotypes. At 21 days of age, alterations were evident. Body weight and length were significantly decreased by the 10,000 ppb treatment. NK cell activity and T- and B-cell proliferation were not altered. IgM antibody responses to sRBC challenge were suppressed in both male and female pups by 10,000 ppb TCE and by 1000 ppb TCE in the male pups only. Additionally, there was a distinct decrease in splenic CD4+CD8- T-cells resulting in a concomitant decrease in the CD4+:CD8+ ratio. At 56 days of age, the most striking effect was noted with increased NK cell activity in both treatment groups. Currently studies are being conducted to verify the PFC response and T-cell immunophenotypes in the adult mice. These data suggest that lifetime exposure to TCE modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and this should be considered when assessing health risks to TCE.
    Tagged With: All References, Hazard, Immuno, Susceptibility

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  • 15.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Reviewed
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    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Authors: Adams, LA; Lindor, KD
    (2007) Annals of Epidemiology 17:863-869. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to the presence of hepatic steatosis not associated . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to the presence of hepatic steatosis not associated with a significant intake of ethanol. Insulin resistance is central to the pathogenesis of NAFLD; thus obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome are frequently associated with the disease. Consequently, as these metabolic conditions emerge as major health problems in Western society, it is now recognized that NAFLD is the most common chronic liver condition in the Western world. NAFLD is generally asymptomatic, although a minority of patients may present with evidence of progressive liver injury with complications of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite being common and potentially serious, relatively little is known about the natural history or prognostic significance of NAFLD. Although diabetes, obesity, and age are recognized risk factors for advanced liver disease, other significant factors leading to progressive liver injury remain to be identified. The treatment of NAFLD focuses upon modifying metabolic risk factors. Insulin-sensitizing and hepatoprotective drugs have been subjected to study trials, but as yet, no agent has conclusively been demonstrated to prevent disease progression. Management is further complicated by the inability to predict which patients will develop liver-related morbidity and thus benefit from treatment.
    Tagged With: All References, Liver Issues
  • 16.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Personal, indoor, and outdoor VOC exposures in a probability sample of children

    Authors: Adgate, J; Eberly, L; Stroebel, C; Pellizzari, E; Sexton, K
    (2004) Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14:S4-S13.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. As part of the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study we measured volatile organic compound (VOC) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. As part of the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study we measured volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in a probability sample of households with children. The 6-day average concentrations for 10 common VOCs were obtained in urban and nonurban residences twice during this multiphase study: screening-phase indoor measurements were collected in 284 households, and in the intensive-phase matched outdoor (O), indoor (I), and personal (P) measurements were collected in a subset (N=72) of the screened households. Screening-phase households with smokers had significantly higher concentrations of benzene and styrene compared to nonsmoking households; households with an attached garage had significantly higher levels of benzene, chloroform, styrene, and m/p- and o-xylene compared to households without an attached garage; and nonurban residences, which had a greater prevalence of smokers and attached garages, had significantly higher 1,1,1-trichloroethane, styrene, and toluene and significantly lower tetrachloroethylene concentrations compared to urban households. The screening-phase weighted distributions estimate the mean and variability in indoor VOC concentrations for more than 45,000 households with children in the census tracts sampled. Overall, median indoor concentrations of most VOCs measured in this study were similar to or lower than indoor levels measured previously in the United States. Intensive-phase outdoor VOC concentrations were generally lower than other major metropolitan areas, but urban concentrations were significantly higher than nonurban concentrations for all compounds except 1,1,1-trichloroethylene. A consistent pattern of P>I>O was observed for nine of 10 VOCs, with 1,1,1-trichloroethylene (I>P>O) being the only exception to this pattern. For most children, the indoor at-home microevironment was strongly associated with personal exposure after controlling for important covariates, but the ratio of median to upper bound exposures was smaller than that observed in studies of adults. There are relatively little data on VOC exposures in children, so these results are useful for estimating the central tendency and distribution of VOC exposures in locations where children spend a majority of their time.
    Tagged With: All References, Exposure, Hazard, Susceptibility
  • 17.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children

    Authors: Adgate, JL; Church, TR; Ryan, AD; Ramachandran, G; Fredrickson, AL; Stock, TH; Morandi, MT; Sexton, K
    (2004) Environmental Health Perspectives 112:1386-1392.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population of children who attended two inner-city schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Fifteen common VOCs were measured at four locations: outdoors (O), indoors at school (S), indoors at home (H), and in personal samples (P). Concentrations of most VOCs followed the general pattern O ≈ S < P ≤ H across the measured microenvironments. The S and O environments had the smallest and H the largest influence on personal exposure to most compounds. A time-weighted model of P exposure using all measured microenvironments and time–activity data provided little additional explanatory power beyond that provided by using the H measurement alone. Although H and P concentrations of most VOCs measured in this study were similar to or lower than levels measured in recent personal monitoring studies of adults and children in the United States, p-dichlorobenzene was the notable exception to this pattern, with upper-bound exposures more than 100 times greater than those found in other studies of children. Median and upper-bound H and P exposures were well above health benchmarks for several compounds, so outdoor measurements likely underestimate long-term health risks from children’s exposure to these compounds. Key words: air pollution, elementary school children, ethnicity, health risk, race, SHIELD study.
    Tagged With: All References, Exposure, Hazard, Susceptibility
  • 18.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Incidence study of childhood cancer in Maricopa County: 1965-1986

    Author: ADHS
    (1990)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ADHS conducted this study to measure the incidence rates of childhood leukemia and all cancers during . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ADHS conducted this study to measure the incidence rates of childhood leukemia and all cancers during the period 1965 to 1986 among the zero to 19-year-old resident population of Maricopa County. There was no statistically elevated incidence of total cancers or leukemia in the Goodyear area when compared to the remaining areas in Maricopa County. There also was no statistically elevated incidence of total cancers or leukemia for ages zero to 19 years in the Goodyear area when compared to the same age group nationwide during 1965 to 1986.
    Tagged With: All References, Hazard, Cancer Epi, Immuno, Repro/Dev, Other Cancers

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  • 19.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Update of the incidence of childhood cancers and testicular cancer in southwest Tuscon: 1987-1991

    Author: ADHS
    (1995)
    Tagged With: All References, Hazard, Cancer Epi, Immuno, Other Cancers

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  • 20.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Synopsis of the in vivo results obtained with the 10 known or suspected aneugens tested in the CEC collaborative study

    Author: Adler, ID
    (1993) Mutation Research: Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 287:131-137. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The synopsis of the in vivo test results in the first collaborative CEC Aneuploidy Project with 10 selected . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The synopsis of the in vivo test results in the first collaborative CEC Aneuploidy Project with 10 selected chemicals, colchicine (COL), econazole (EZ), chloral hydrate (CH), hydroquinone (HQ), diazepam (DZ), thiabendazole (TB), cadmium chloride (CD), thimerosal (TM), pyrimethamine (PY) and vinblastine (VBL), allowed several conclusions. (1) The spindle poisons, COL and VBL, were positive in all bone marrow and germ cell tests; (2) the clastogen HQ also induced aneuploidy in somatic and germinal cells; (3) the other seven compounds gave contradictory results either between laboratories or between test systems which require further experimental clarification; (4) CREST labeling or in situ hybridization for centromere identification showed about 70% fluorescent signals in micronuclei induced by COL or VBL but only about 15% in HQ induced micronuclei; (5) the tests for induction of a delay in cell division progression can be recommended as a prescreen for possible aneugens; (6) all test methods applied in these experiments require standardization with respect to sample size, sampling times and statistical treatment of the data. A second CEC Aneuploidy Programme has started recently to answer some of the questions raised by the first study regarding tissue and sex specificities.
    Tagged With: All References, Hazard, Genotox
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