Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


10,717 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Free nitrous acid selectively inhibits and eliminates nitrite oxidizers from nitrifying sequencing batch reactor

Authors: Kim, DJ; Seo, DW; Lee, SH; Shipin, O (In Press) Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. HERO ID: 838936

[Less] In a complete nitrification sequencing batch reactor (CNSBR), where ammonium containing wastewater (200-1,000 mg N/L) . . . [More] In a complete nitrification sequencing batch reactor (CNSBR), where ammonium containing wastewater (200-1,000 mg N/L) is completely oxidized to nitrate up to 2.4 kg NH(4) (+)-N/m(3) d, both ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers were enriched in the sludge granules. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the sludge granules of the CNSBR showed that ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers occupied 31 and 4.2% of total bacteria, respectively. Most of the nitrite oxidizers were Nitrobacter species (95% of the nitrite oxidizers) and the remainder was Nitrospira species. The population of nitrite oxidizers was significantly higher than that of partial nitrification SBR (PNSBR) where most of the ammonium was oxidized to nitrite. The PNSBR had 37% (ammonia oxidizers) and 0.4% (nitrite oxidizers) of total bacteria. Comparative study with CNSBR and PNSBR revealed that free nitrous acid, rather than free ammonia, played a critical inhibition role to wash out nitrite oxidizers from the reactor. The concentrations of free ammonia and nitrite as well as free nitrous acid in the CNSBR selected Nitrobacter as the dominant nitrite oxidizers rather than Nitrospira.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rebuttal to Comment on Gas/Particle Partitioning of Two Acid-Base Active Compounds in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke: Nicotine and Ammonia

Authors: Chen, C; Pankow, JF (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 990442


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comment on Gas/Particle Partitioning of Two Acid-Base Active Compounds in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke: Nicotine and Ammonia

Author: Lauterbach, JH (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 990444


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of Ammonia Plasma Treatment on the Properties and Cytocompatibility of a Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Film Surface

Authors: Jiao, Y; Xu, J; Zhou, C (In Press) Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. HERO ID: 1001556

[Less] Ammonia plasma treatment is an efficient method to modify the surface of polymeric biomaterials to improve . . . [More] Ammonia plasma treatment is an efficient method to modify the surface of polymeric biomaterials to improve their hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. In this study, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) films were treated with ammonia plasma to investigate the effects on the surface properties and cytocompatibility. Surface morphologies of the films were observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the surface roughness was analyzed with the software attached to the AFM. Mass loss density and contact angles associated to plasma treatment power and time were also studied. The stability of the treated films was evaluated by testing the contact angle change. The cytocompatibiliy was evaluated by cell adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle. The results showed that the surface morphology and roughness of the treated PLLA surfaces increased with treatment power. The mass loss density increased with plasma treatment power and time. With increasing treatment power and time, the resulting amino group density on treated PLLA film surface increased first and decreased later, while the contact angle showed an opposite trend. The contact angle of the treated films increased with storage time and returned to its original value after about 2 weeks. The cell experiments indicated that promotion of cell adhesion and proliferation were significantly improved on the treated PLLA surfaces.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Community shift of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along an anthropogenic pollution gradient from the Pearl River Delta to the South China Sea

Authors: Cao, H; Hong, Y; Li, M; Gu, JD (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1000091

[Less] The phylogenetic diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria (beta-AOB) was analyzed . . . [More] The phylogenetic diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria (beta-AOB) was analyzed along an anthropogenic pollution gradient from the coastal Pearl River Delta to the South China Sea using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Along the gradient from coastal to the open ocean, the phylogenetic diversity of the dominant genus changed from Nitrosomonas to Nitrosospira, indicating the niche specificity by these two genera as both salinity and anthropogenic influence were major factors involved. The diversity of bacterial amoA gene was also variable along the gradient, with the highest in the deep-sea sediments, followed by the marshes sediments and the lowest in the coastal areas. Within the Nitrosomonas-related clade, four distinct lineages were identified including a putative new one (A5-16) from the different sites over the large geographical area. In the Nitrosospira-related clade, the habitat-specific lineages to the deep-sea and coastal sediments were identified. This study also provides strong support that Nitrosomonas genus, especially Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage (6a) could be a potential bio-indicator species for pollution or freshwater/wastewater input into coastal environments. A suite of statistical analyses used showed that water depth and temperature were major factors shaping the community structure of beta-AOB in this study area.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous use of urea and potassium nitrate for Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivation

Authors: Vieira, DC; Matsudo, MC; Sato, S; Converti, A; de Carvalho, JC (In Press) Biotechnology Journal. HERO ID: 999900

[Less] Urea has been considered as a promising alternative nitrogen source for the cultivation of Arthrospira . . . [More] Urea has been considered as a promising alternative nitrogen source for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis if it is possible to avoid ammonia toxicity; however, this procedure can lead to periods of nitrogen shortage. This study shows that the addition of potassium nitrate, which acts as a nitrogen reservoir, to cultivations carried out with urea in a fed-batch process can increase the maximum cell concentration (X(m) ) and also cell productivity (P(X) ). Using response surface methodology, the model indicates that the estimated optimum X(m) can be achieved with 17.3 mM potassium nitrate and 8.9 mM urea. Under this condition an X(m) of 6077 ± 199 mg/L and a P(X) of 341.5 ± 19.1 mg L(-1) day(-1) were obtained.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Screening Multicomponent Reactions for X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis-Baculoviral Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Repeats Domain Binder

Authors: Monfardini, I; Huang, JW; Beck, B; Cellitti, JF; Pellecchia, M; Dömling, A (In Press) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. HERO ID: 999990

[Less] We report a second example of a general reaction screening approach to discover low molecular weight . . . [More] We report a second example of a general reaction screening approach to discover low molecular weight inhibitors of protein protein interactions. On the basis of the known pharmacophore model of SMAC mimetics, we predicted several inhibitors based on four different multicomponent reactions. The predicted inhibitors were subsequently synthesized, tested, and found to bind to the antiapoptotic protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and showed cellular activity. Also the compounds are currently not highly potent. They could form a starting point for future medicinal chemistry optimization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Crystal structure of the complex between 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum and CoA

Authors: Macieira, S; Zhang, J; Buckel, W; Messerschmidt, A (In Press) Archives of Microbiology. HERO ID: 1000059

[Less] Clostridium aminobutyricum ferments 4-aminobutyrate (γ-aminobutyrate, GABA) to ammonia, acetate and . . . [More] Clostridium aminobutyricum ferments 4-aminobutyrate (γ-aminobutyrate, GABA) to ammonia, acetate and butyrate via 4-hydroxybutyrate that is activated to the CoA-thioester catalyzed by 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase. Then, 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA is dehydrated to crotonyl-CoA, which disproportionates to butyryl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. Cocrystallization of the CoA-transferase with the alternate substrate butyryl-CoA yielded crystals with non-covalently bound CoA and two water molecules at the active site. Most likely, butyryl-CoA reacted with the active site Glu238 to CoA and the mixed anhydride, which slowly hydrolyzed during crystallization. The structure of the CoA is similar but less stretched than that of the CoA-moiety of the covalent enzyme-CoA-thioester in 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase from Shewanella oneidensis. In contrast to the structures of the apo-enzyme and enzyme-CoA-thioester, the structure described here has a closed conformation, probably caused by a flip of the active site loop (residues 215-219). During turnover, the closed conformation may protect the anhydride intermediate from hydrolysis and CoA from dissociation from the enzyme. Hence, one catalytic cycle changes conformation of the enzyme four times: free enzyme-open conformation, CoA+ anhydride 1-closed, enzyme-CoA-thioester-open, CoA + anhydride-2-closed, free enzyme-open.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of a thermostable methylaspartate ammonia lyase from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

Authors: Raj, H; Puthan Veetil, V; Szymanski, W; Dekker, FJ; Quax, WJ; Feringa, BL; Janssen, DB; Poelarends, GJ (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1000088

[Less] Methylaspartate ammonia lyase (MAL; EC 4.3.1.2) catalyzes the reversible addition of ammonia to mesaconate . . . [More] Methylaspartate ammonia lyase (MAL; EC 4.3.1.2) catalyzes the reversible addition of ammonia to mesaconate to give (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate and (2S,3R)-3-methylaspartate as products. MAL is of considerable biocatalytic interest because of its potential use for the asymmetric synthesis of substituted aspartic acids, which are important building blocks for synthetic enzymes, peptides, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Here, we have cloned the gene encoding MAL from the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. The enzyme (named Ch-MAL) was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Ch-MAL is a dimer in solution, consisting of two identical subunits (∼49 kDa each), and requires Mg(2+) and K(+) ions for maximum activity. The optimum pH and temperature for the deamination of (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartic acid are 9.0 and 70°C (k (cat) = 78 s(-1) and K (m) = 16 mM). Heat inactivation assays showed that Ch-MAL is stable at 50°C for >4 h, which is the highest thermal stability observed among known MALs. Ch-MAL accepts fumarate, mesaconate, ethylfumarate, and propylfumarate as substrates in the ammonia addition reaction. The enzyme also processes methylamine, ethylamine, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, and methoxylamine as nucleophiles that can replace ammonia in the addition to mesaconate, resulting in the corresponding N-substituted methylaspartic acids with excellent diastereomeric excess (>98% de). This newly identified thermostable MAL appears to be a potentially attractive biocatalyst for the stereoselective synthesis of aspartic acid derivatives on large (industrial) scale.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Mechanistic Analysis of the Birch Reduction

Author: Zimmerman, HE (In Press) Accounts of Chemical Research. HERO ID: 1000903

[Less] The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction . . . [More] The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction of dissolving metals in ammonia with aromatic compounds to produce 1,4-cyclohexadienes. Discovered by Arthur Birch in 1944, the reaction occupies 300 pages in Organic Reactions to describe its synthetic versatility. Thus, it is remarkable that the reaction mechanism has been so very controversial and only relatively recently has been firmly established. Perhaps this is not that surprising, since the reaction also has many unusual and esoteric mechanistic facets. Here, I provide a description of how I have applied ever-evolving levels of quantum mechanics and a novel experimental test to understand details of the mechanism and the origins of the selectivities observed in the Birch reduction. The reaction involves an initial radical anion resulting from introduction of an electron from the blue liquid ammonia solution of free electrons formed by the dissolution of Li or related metals. This radical anion is protonated by an alcohol and then further reduced to a carbanion. Finally, the carbanion is protonated using a second proton to afford a nonconjugated cyclohexadiene. The regiochemistry depends on substituents present. With 18 resonance structures in the case of anisole radical anion, prediction of the initial protonation site would seem difficult. Nevertheless, computational methods from Hückel theory through modern density functional calculations do correctly predict the site of protonation. An esoteric test established this mechanism experimentally. The nature of the carbanion also is of mechanistic interest, and the preponderance of the resonance structure shown was revealed from Hückel calculations involving variable bond orders. For the trianion from benzoic acid, parallel questions about structure are apparent, and have been answered. Some mechanistic questions are answered experimentally and some by modern computations. Recently, our mechanistic understanding has led to a variety of synthetic applications. For example, the preparation of alkyl aromatics from benzoic acids makes use of the intermediates formed in these reactions. This Account provides an overview of both experimental techniques and theoretical methodology used to provide detailed mechanistic understanding of the Birch Reduction.