Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


763 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

High rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia oxidizing bacteria

Authors: Taher, E; Chandran, K (In Press) HERO ID: 1510714

[Less] The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic . . . [More] The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic conversion of methane (CH4) to methanol (CH3OH). In this study, we employed ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to selectively and partially oxidize CH4 to CH3OH. In fed-batch reactors using mixed nitrifying enrichment cultures from a continuous bioreactor, up to 59.89 ± 1.12 mg COD/L of CH3OH was produced within an incubation time of 7 h, which is approximately ten times the yield obtained previously using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. The maximum specific rate of CH4 to CH3OH conversion obtained during this study was 0.82 mg CH3OH COD/mg AOB biomass COD-d, which is 1.5 times the highest value reported with pure cultures. Notwithstanding these positive results, CH4 oxidation to CH3OH by AOB was inhibited by NH3 (the primary substrate for the oxidative enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase, AMO) as well as the product, CH3OH, itself. Further, oxidation of CH4 to CH3OH by AOB was also limited by reducing equivalents supply, which could be overcome by externally supplying hydroxylamine (NH2OH) as an electron donor. Therefore, a potential optimum design for promoting CH4 to CH3OH oxidation by AOB could involve supplying NH3 (needed to maintain AMO activity) uncoupled from the supply of NH2OH and CH4. Partial oxidation of CH4 containing gases to CH3OH by AOB represents an attractive platform for the conversion of a gaseous mixture to an aqueous compound, which could be used as a commodity chemical. Alternately, the nitrate and CH3 OH thus produced could be channeled to a downstream anoxic zone in a biological nitrogen removal process to effect nitrate reduction to N2, using an internally produced organic electron donor.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Shifts between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in relation to nitrification potential across trophic gradients in two large Chinese lakes (Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu)

Authors: Hou, J; Song, C; Cao, X; Zhou, Y (In Press) Water Research. HERO ID: 1510715

[Less] Ammonia oxidation plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. . . . [More] Ammonia oxidation plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. Recent findings have expanded the known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes from Bacteria to Archaea. However, the relative importance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrification is still debated. Here we showed that, in two large eutrophic lakes in China (Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu), the abundance of AOA and AOB varied in opposite patterns according to the trophic state, although both AOA and AOB were abundant. In detail, from mesotrophic to eutrophic sites, the AOA abundance decreased, while the AOB increased in abundance and outnumbered the AOA at hypertrophic sites. In parallel, the nitrification rate increased along these trophic gradients and was significantly correlated with both the AOB abundance and the numerical ratio of AOB to AOA. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial amoA sequences showed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha- and Nitrosospira-affiliated AOB dominated in both lakes, while Nitrosomonas communis-related AOB were only detected at the eutrophic sites. The diversity of AOB increased from mesotrophic to eutrophic sites and was positively correlated with the nitrification rate. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes by elucidating conditions that AOB may numerically predominated over AOA, and indicated that AOA may play a less important role than AOB in the nitrification process of eutrophic lakes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nitrogen cycling and relationships between ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in a clay-loam soil

Authors: Paranychianakis, NV; Tsiknia, M; Giannakis, G; Nikolaidis, NP; Kalogerakis, N (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1510724

[Less] This study investigated the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (0, 50, and 100 t/ha) on N . . . [More] This study investigated the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (0, 50, and 100 t/ha) on N cycling and the microorganisms involved in it, in a clay-loam soil. After a release of nitrates (NO(3) (-)-N) in the first 6 days after compost incorporation, soil NO(3) (-)-N content remained constant in all the treatments until day 62, suggesting N immobilization induced by the soil used in this study. Then, soil NO(3) (-)-N content increased in all treatments and especially in the highest compost dose, providing evidence that immobilization effect has been at least partially relieved. amoA gene copies of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) followed the overall pattern of soil NO(3) (-)-N content; however, no differences were found in amoA gene copies among treatments, except in the last sampling, an effect attributed to the slight differences in the potential nitrification rate among them. Ammonia oxidizer pattern provided evidence that both groups were involved in ammonia oxidation and changes in their abundance can be used as 'indicator' to predict changes in soil nitrification status. Moreover, the strong correlation between AOA and AOB amoA copies (R (2) = 0.94) and the high slope (13) of the curve suggest that AOA had probably an important role on ammonia oxidation. Denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK, nosZ) also followed the general pattern of soil NO(3) (-)-N, and they were strongly correlated with both groups of ammonia oxidizers, and particularly AOA, suggesting strong interrelationships among them. Losses of N through denitrification, as they were estimated by total nitrogen, were inversely related to soil NO(3) (-)-N content. Similar to ammonia oxidizers, denitrifying gene copies did not differ among compost treatments an effect that could be probably explained by the low availability of organic-C in the MSW compost and hence the competition with aerobic heterotrophs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enhanced heme protein expression by ammonia-oxidizing communities acclimated to low dissolved oxygen conditions

Authors: Arnaldos, M; Kunkel, SA; Stark, BC; Pagilla, KR (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1510725

[Less] This study has investigated the acclimation of ammonia-oxidizing communities (AOC) to low dissolved . . . [More] This study has investigated the acclimation of ammonia-oxidizing communities (AOC) to low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. Under controlled laboratory conditions, two sequencing batch reactors seeded with activated sludge from the same source were operated at high DO (near saturation) and low DO (0.1 mg O(2)/L) concentrations for a period of 220 days. The results demonstrated stable and complete nitrification at low DO conditions after an acclimation period of approximately 140 days. Acclimation brought about increased specific oxygen uptake rates and enhanced expression of a particular heme protein in the soluble fraction of the cells in the low DO reactor as compared to the high DO reactor. The induced protein was determined not to be any of the enzymes or electron carriers present in the conventional account of ammonia oxidation in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Further research is required to determine the specific nature of the heme protein detected; a preliminary assessment suggests either a type of hemoglobin protein or a lesser-known component of the energy-transducing pathways of AOB. The effect of DO on AOC dynamics was evaluated using the 16S rRNA gene as the basis for phylogenetic comparisons and organism quantification. Ammonium consumption by ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was ruled out by fluorescent in situ hybridization in both reactors. Even though Nitrosomonas europaea was the dominant AOB lineage in both high and low DO sequencing batch reactors at the end of operation, this enrichment could not be linked in the low DO reactor to acclimation to oxygen-limited conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Composting toilets a misnomer: Excessive ammonia from urine inhibits microbial activity yet is insufficient in sanitizing the end-product

Authors: Hill, GB; Baldwin, SA; Vinnerås, B (In Press) Journal of Environmental Management. HERO ID: 1510728

[Less] End-product from 16 public mixed latrine style composting toilets (CTs) at 12 sites between 50 and 2100 m.a.s.l. . . . [More] End-product from 16 public mixed latrine style composting toilets (CTs) at 12 sites between 50 and 2100 m.a.s.l. in Western North America was tested in order to evaluate the effect of composting variables (TS%, NH(3)-N, temperature, and material age) on compost quality and hygiene (VS%, Escherichia coli, [Formula: see text] -N, and pH). Principal component analysis indicated that TS%, temperature, and material age equally contributed to reduction in VS%. NH(3)-N had the greatest effect on [Formula: see text] -N, E. coli, and pH. Nitrification was significantly inhibited above 386 mg/kg NH(3)-N, but no such limit was found for E. coli, despite a significant (p = 0.016) but weak (r(2) = 0.11) negative relationship. It may be possible to amplify the sanitizing effect of ammonia and overcome pathogen resistance due to low temperatures and re-contamination (caused by poor design) with generous dosing of urea and ash. However, even sanitized, the fertilization effect of discharged material on the natural environment may not be desired or permitted in parks or protected areas where many CTs were found. To this end, operators of CTs need to evaluate their primary management objectives and ensure congruency with proven system capabilities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

CO(2) reduction via aluminum complexes of ammonia boranes

Authors: Ménard, G; Stephan, DW (In Press) Dalton Transactions (Online). HERO ID: 1510730

[Less] Reactions of amine-boranes NH(3)BH(3), Me(2)NHBH(3), or Me(3)NBH(3) with AlX(3) (X = Cl, Br, I, C(6)F(5)) . . . [More] Reactions of amine-boranes NH(3)BH(3), Me(2)NHBH(3), or Me(3)NBH(3) with AlX(3) (X = Cl, Br, I, C(6)F(5)) have been examined. The species AlBr(3)·H(3)BNMe(3), Al(C(6)F(5))(3)·H(3)BNMe(3), Al(C(6)F(5))(3)·H(3)BNHMe(2) and Al(C(6)F(5))(3)·H(3)BNH(3) have been prepared and isolated. The analogous reaction of B(C(6)F(5))(3) and H(3)BNMe(3) results in C(6)F(5)-transfer and the formation of (C(6)F(5))BH(2)·NMe(3). While the adduct was unreactive to CO(2), species reacts with CO(2) to give the formate linked Al(C(6)F(5))(3)(HCO(2))H(2)BNMe(3). The species R(3)PC(OAl(C(6)F(5))(3))(2) (R = o-tol (), R = Mes ()) were prepared, and was shown to react with amine-boranes to effect the reduction of this bound-CO(2) to formate and methoxide-derivatives, proceeding through intermediates including and [(Me(3)NBH(2))(2)(μ-H)][(HCO(2))(Al(C(6)F(5))(3))(2)] . The salt [tBu(3)PH][(HCO(2))(Al(C(6)F(5))(3))(2)] was prepared independently.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of an Accelerometer and a Microphone as Gas Detectors in the Online Quantitative Detection of Hydrogen Released from Ammonia Borane by Gas Chromatography

Authors: He, YS; Chen, KF; Lin, CH; Lin, MT; Chen, CC; Lin, CH (In Press) HERO ID: 1510734

[Less] The use of an accelerometer as a gas detector in gas chromatography (GC) is described for the first . . . [More] The use of an accelerometer as a gas detector in gas chromatography (GC) is described for the first time. A milli-whistle was connected to the outlet of the GC capillary. When the eluted and GC carrier gases pass through the capillary and milli-whistle, a sound is produced. After a fast Fourier transform (FFT), the sound wave generated from the milli-whistle is picked up by a microphone and the resulting vibration of the milli-whistle body can be recorded by an accelerometer. The release of hydrogen gas, as the result of thermal energy, from ammonia borane (NH3BH3), which has been suggested as a storage medium for hydrogen, was selected as the model sample. The findings show that the frequencies generated, either by sound or by the vibration from the whistle body, were identical. The concentration levels of the released hydrogen gas can be determined online, based on the frequency changes. Ammonia borane was placed in a brass reservoir, heated continually, and the released hydrogen gas was directly injected into the GC inlet at 0.5 min intervals, using a home-built electromagnetic pulse injector. The concentration of hydrogen for each injection can be calculated immediately. When the ammonia borane was encapsulated within a polycarbonate (PC) microtube array membrane, the temperature required for the release of hydrogen can be decreased, which would make such a material more convenient for use. The findings indicate that 1.0 mg of ammonia borane can produce hydrogen in the range of 1.0-1.25 mL, in the temperature range of 85-115 °C.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

Authors: Carozzi, M; Ferrara, RM; Rana, G; Acutis, M (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1510737

[Less] To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH(3)) losses from fertilised arable lands, six . . . [More] To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH(3)) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH(3) emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH(3) emission process was exhausted in the first 24-48h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH(3) losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH(3) losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Water and Ammonia Complexes of Germanium(II) Dications

Authors: Bandyopadhyay, R; Nguyen, JH; Swidan, A; Macdonald, CL (In Press) Angewandte Chemie (International Edition). HERO ID: 1510740

[Less] Craftily crowned: The treatment of crown ether Ge(II) dications with water or ammonia produces the stable . . . [More] Craftily crowned: The treatment of crown ether Ge(II) dications with water or ammonia produces the stable complexes [([15]crown-5)Ge⋅OH(2) ][OTf](2) (see picture; Ge orange, O red, F green, S yellow, H blue) and [([15]crown-5)Ge⋅NH(3) ][OTf](2) . The OH and NH hydrogen atoms are rendered more acidic in these compounds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficient cryopreservation protocol enables accessibility of a broad range of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria for the scientific community

Authors: Hoefman, S; Pommerening-Röser, A; Samyn, E; De Vos, P; Heylen, K (In Press) Research in Microbiology. HERO ID: 1510756

[Less] Long-term storage of the fastidious ammonia-oxidizing bacteria has proven difficult, which limits their . . . [More] Long-term storage of the fastidious ammonia-oxidizing bacteria has proven difficult, which limits their public availability and results in a loss of cultured biodiversity. To enable their accessibility to the scientific community, an effective protocol for cryopreservation of ammonia-oxidizing cultures at -80 °C and in liquid nitrogen was developed. Long-term storage could be achieved using 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant, preferably in a cryoprotective preservation medium containing tenfold-diluted trypticase soy broth and 1% trehalose. As such, successful activity and growth recovery was observed for a diverse set of ammonia-oxidizing cultures.