Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


4,793 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat

Authors: Mandal, S; Thangarajan, R; Bolan, NS; Sarkar, B; Khan, N; Ok, YS; Naidu, R (2016) Chemosphere 142:120-127. HERO ID: 2995974

[Less] Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, . . . [More] Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, NH3 volatilization results in low N use efficiency by crops. Incubation experiments were conducted using five soils (pH 5.5-9.0), three N sources such as, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and poultry manure (PM) and two biochars such as, poultry litter biochar (PL-BC) and macadamia nut shell biochar (MS-BC). Ammonia volatilization was higher at soil with higher pH (pH exceeding 8) due to the increased hydroxyl ions. Among the N sources, urea recorded the highest NH3 volatilization (151.6mgkg(-1)soil) followed by PM (124.2mgkg(-1)soil) and DAP (99mgkg(-1)soil). Ammonia volatilization was reduced by approximately 70% with PL-BC and MS-BC. The decreased NH3 volatilization with biochars is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as NH3 adsorption/immobilization, and nitrification. Moreover, biochar increased wheat dry weight and N uptake as high as by 24.24% and 76.11%, respectively. This study unravels the immense potential of biochar in decreasing N volatilization from soils and simultaneously improving use efficiency by wheat.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Change Abundance and Composition of Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Mediterranean Urban Stream Biofilms

Authors: Merbt, SN; Auguet, JC; Blesa, A; Martí, E; Casamayor, EO (2015) Microbial Ecology 69:66-74. HERO ID: 2368690

[Less] Streams affected by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are hotspots of nitrification. We analyzed . . . [More] Streams affected by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are hotspots of nitrification. We analyzed the influence of WWTP inputs on the abundance, distribution, and composition of epilithic ammonia-oxidizing (AO) assemblages in five Mediterranean urban streams by qPCR and amoA gene cloning and sequencing of both archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). The effluents significantly modified stream chemical parameters, and changes in longitudinal profiles of both NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) indicated stimulated nitrification activity. WWTP effluents were an allocthonous source of both AOA, essentially from the Nitrosotalea cluster, and mostly of AOB, mainly Nitrosomonas oligotropha, Nitrosomonas communis, and Nitrosospira spp. changing the relative abundance and the natural composition of AO assemblages. Under natural conditions, Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus AOA dominated AO assemblages, and AOB were barely detected. After the WWTP perturbation, epilithic AOB increased by orders of magnitude whereas AOA did not show quantitative changes but a shift in population composition to dominance of Nitrosotalea spp. The foraneous AOB successfully settled in downstream biofilms and probably carried out most of the nitrification activity. Nitrosotalea were only observed downstream and only in biofilms exposed to either darkness or low irradiance. In addition to other potential environmental limitations for AOA distribution, this result suggests in situ photosensitivity as previously reported for Nitrosotalea under laboratory conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Green cheese: Partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems

Authors: Aguirre-Villegas, HA; Passos-Fonseca, TH; Reinemann, DJ; Armentano, LE; Wattiaux, MA; Cabrera, VE; Norman, JM; Larson, R (2015) Journal of Dairy Science 98:1571-1592. HERO ID: 2958389

[Less] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on . . . [More] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG emission reductions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

10-Day survival of Hyalella azteca as a function of water quality parameters

Authors: Javidmehr, A; Kass, PH; Deanovic, LA; Connon, RE; Werner, I (2015) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 115:250-256. HERO ID: 2959117

[Less] Estuarine systems are among the most impacted ecosystems due to anthropogenic contaminants; however, . . . [More] Estuarine systems are among the most impacted ecosystems due to anthropogenic contaminants; however, they present unique challenges to toxicity testing with regard to varying water quality parameters. The euryhaline amphipod species, Hyalella azteca, is widely used in toxicity testing and well suited for testing estuarine water samples. Nevertheless, the influence of relevant water quality parameters on test endpoints must be quantified in order to efficiently use this species for routine monitoring. Here, we studied the influence of five water quality parameters: electrical conductivity, pH, un-ionized ammonia, dissolved oxygen and temperature, on H. azteca survival in a water column toxicity test. A model was developed to quantify and predict the independent and interacting effects of water quality variables on 10-day survival. The model allows simultaneous assessment of multiple potential predictors recorded during the tests. Data used for modeling came from 1089 tests performed on ambient water samples over a period of three years (2006-2008). The final model reflects significant effects of predictors and their two-way interactions. The effect of each level of all predictors on survival probability of H. azteca was examined by comparing levels of each predictor at a time, while holding all others at their lowest (reference) level. This study showed that predictors of survival in water column tests should not be evaluated in isolation in the interpretation of H. azteca water column tests. Our model provides a useful tool to predict expected control survival based on relevant water quality parameters, and thus enables the use of H. azteca tests for toxicity monitoring in estuaries with a wide range of water quality conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction using PCX as the sorbent for the determination of melamine and cyromazine in milk and milk powder by UHPLC-HRMS/MS

Authors: Chen, D; Zhao, Y; Miao, H; Wu, Y (2015) Talanta 134:144-152. HERO ID: 2996623

[Less] A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) cleanup method based on the PCX sorbent (a kind . . . [More] A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) cleanup method based on the PCX sorbent (a kind of cation exchange polymer material) was applied to the analysis of melamine and cyromazine residues in milk and milk powder, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) was used as instrument detection. Milk powder samples were first extracted with 1% formic acid in acetonitrile/water (1:1 v/v), and milk samples were cleaned up directly without any pre-extraction. Then, melamine and cyromazine in the extracts or milk were adsorbed to the PCX powder. Subsequently, the analytes in PCX sorbent were eluted with ammonium hydroxide/ acetonitrile (2.5:97.5 v/v) through a simple unit device equipped with 1 mL syringe and 0.22 pm nylon syringe filter. All the samples were analyzed by UHPLC-HRMS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH HILIC column with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium formate in water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, CC alpha and CC beta of the DMSPE cleanup method were investigated. The proposed method provided a significant improvement for the determination of melamine and cyromazine in milk and milk powder in terms of efficient, rapid, economical, and miniaturized sample preparation methods, which yielded fewer matrix effects compared with SPE method. The established cleanup method is expected to be widely applied for the sample preparation of alkaline contaminants at trace levels in the future. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

VARIABILITY IN NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS OF MACROALGAE: CONSEQUENCES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF NITROGEN SOURCES

Authors: Julia Ochoa-Izaguirre, M; Soto-Jimenez, MF (2015) HERO ID: 2952947

[Less] In our research, we collected and analyzed numerous macroalgal specimens (738) for isotopic analysis . . . [More] In our research, we collected and analyzed numerous macroalgal specimens (738) for isotopic analysis sampled over a year at monthly intervals across 20 sites within the Urias lagoon complex, a typical subtropical coastal ecosystem located in the Gulf of California. We quantified and characterized (chemically and isotopically) the N loads received by Urias throughout a year. We studied the spatial-temporal variation of the chemical forms and isotopic signals of the available N in the water column, and we monitored in situ different environmental variables and other hydrodynamic parameters. Multiple N sources (e. g., atmospheric, sewage, seafood processing, agriculture and aquaculture effluents) and biogeochemical reactions related to the N cycle (e. g., ammonia volatilization, nitrification and denitrification) co-occurring across the ecosystem, result in a mixture of chemical species and isotopic compositions of available N in the water column. Increased variability was observed in the delta N-15 values of macroalgae (0.41 parts per thousand-22.67 parts per thousand). Based on our results, the variation in delta N-15 was best explained by spatio-temporal changes in available N and not necessarily related to the N sources. The variability was also explained by the differences in macroalgal biology among functional groups, species and/or individuals. Although the delta N-15-macroalgae technique was a useful tool to identify N sources, its application in coastal ecosystems receiving multiple N sources, with changing environmental conditions influencing biogeochemical processes, and high diversity of ephemeral macroalgal species, could be less sensitive and have less predictive power.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Permeation characteristics of volatile fatty acids solution by forward osmosis

Authors: Jung, K; Choi, Jindalrae; Lee, D; Seo, C; Lee, J; Lee, SYup; Chang, HoNam; Kim, YeuC (2015) HERO ID: 2952954

[Less] Permeation characteristics were investigated using forward osmosis for the dewatering of VFAs solution. . . . [More] Permeation characteristics were investigated using forward osmosis for the dewatering of VFAs solution. A solution of VFAs produced by anaerobic mixed-culture fermentation can be used as a raw material to produce mixed alcohol and microbial biodiesel. A 35 g/L surrogate solution of 6:1:3 ratio (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) was prepared. Under membrane orientation, the water flux, reverse salt flux, and rejection of VFAs in the FO mode were higher than those in the PRO mode. Both the flux and rejection rate were pH-dependent for the VFA solution. The flux increased at a lower pH, while the rejection increased at a higher pH. At pH 8, an optimum performance of 97% rejection and a 11.10 L/m(2) h water flux was obtained. The water flux was also influenced by the temperature, concentration of the draw solution, and type of draw solute, but the rejection of VFAs remained nearly constant. In a fermentation broth, the flux behaviors were different from those in a chemical solution because the remaining nutrients and by-products increased the osmotic pressure in the feed solution. The flux behavior findings obtained under various experimental conditions provide clues to the mechanisms and parameters for the dewatering of VFAs solution. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution of trace metals and the benthic foraminiferal assemblage as a characterization of the environment in the north Minjiang River Estuary (Fujian, China)

Authors: Li, Tao; Li, X; Zhong, H; Yang, C; Sun, G; Luo, W (2015) HERO ID: 2953002

[Less] A study of the total benthic foraminifera was carried out in 173 surficial sediment samples collected . . . [More] A study of the total benthic foraminifera was carried out in 173 surficial sediment samples collected from the north Minjiang River Estuary and two bays. Foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by Ammonia tepida and subordinately by Elphidium advenum. Trace metal analyses reveal that the study area is unpolluted to moderately polluted with As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn The metal distribution has an affinity with fine-grained sediment. Five metal groups are recognized based on their distribution patterns: (1) As, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, V, and Zn, (2) Hg, Pb, and Sb, (3) Ba and Zr, (4) Rb and Y, and (5) Sr. The species-environment relationship showed that the species composition is adversely influenced by Cr, Cu, Ga, Pb, Rb, Zn, and Zr, whereas sand may exert a positive influence on Quinqueloculina. This study supports the adaptability of using benthic foraminifera as bio-monitors of trace metal pollution in marginal marine environments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Utilizing water characteristics and sediment nitrogen isotopic features to identify non-point nitrogen pollution sources at watershed scale in Liaoning Province, China

Authors: Ma, J; Chen, Xin; Huang, Bin; Shi, Yi; Chi, G; Lu, C (2015) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22:2699-2707. HERO ID: 2953038

[Less] Identifying nitrogen (N) pollution sources is the fundamental work of non-point source pollution load . . . [More] Identifying nitrogen (N) pollution sources is the fundamental work of non-point source pollution load reduction from watersheds, but is hard due to complex N transport and transformation within spatially heterogenized huge areas. During September 2011, we measured water characteristics and sediment N stable isotope in four tributaries of the upper reach of the Hun River, an important water source of the Dahuofang Reservoir, a large drinking water source in Northeast China. Results showed that spatial changes in SO42- and Cl- contents in the tributaries were consisted with the changes in density of the population living along the tributaries. Sediment delta N-15 from all tributaries showed a downstream increasing trend in line with the land use change, which is characterized as more farmlands and more people around the outlet area of each tributary. Principal component analysis indicated the population density had a strong impact on N in these tributaries in the low-flow period. Tributaries and villages close to the Dahuofang Reservoir should be the major N load control objects in reduction of non-point source nitrogen load from the upper reach of the Hun River.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency from aqueous solutions by ultrasonic irradiation in short sonication periods

Authors: Ozturk, E; Bal, N (2015) Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 26:422-427. HERO ID: 2953096

[Less] In this study, mechanisms and efficiency of ammonia-nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions by ultrasonic . . . [More] In this study, mechanisms and efficiency of ammonia-nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions by ultrasonic irradiation were investigated. Depending on the factors affecting the sonication (initial concentration, initial pH, ultrasonic power density and sonication period), sonication tests were carried out and ammonium-nitrogen removal efficiency by ultrasonic irradiation was determined. In these experiments, ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved in the range of 8-64%. In short sonication periods, the best ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved at pH 8.2-11. Lower ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency was observed in high initial ammonia-nitrogen concentration of solutions. It was observed that high initial ammonia-nitrogen concentrations may led to decreased ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency however quantity of ammonia-nitrogen removal was higher. Because high initial concentration had a negative impact on the sonochemical reactions the heat of cavitation bubbles was reduced. Ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency was increased with ultrasonic density and sonication period. This study showed that effective ammonia-nitrogen removal could be achieved by the ultrasonic irradiation in short sonication periods (as 60-600 s). Specific cost of ammonia-nitrogen removal by the ultrasonic irradiation from simulated ground water, surface water, wastewater and landfill leachate was also calculated. The specific removal cost was varied between 0.01 and 0.25 $/g ammonia-nitrogen. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.