Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


5,433 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Free nitrous acid selectively inhibits and eliminates nitrite oxidizers from nitrifying sequencing batch reactor

Authors: Kim, DJ; Seo, DW; Lee, SH; Shipin, O (In Press) Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. HERO ID: 838936

[Less] In a complete nitrification sequencing batch reactor (CNSBR), where ammonium containing wastewater (200-1,000 mg N/L) . . . [More] In a complete nitrification sequencing batch reactor (CNSBR), where ammonium containing wastewater (200-1,000 mg N/L) is completely oxidized to nitrate up to 2.4 kg NH(4) (+)-N/m(3) d, both ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers were enriched in the sludge granules. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the sludge granules of the CNSBR showed that ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers occupied 31 and 4.2% of total bacteria, respectively. Most of the nitrite oxidizers were Nitrobacter species (95% of the nitrite oxidizers) and the remainder was Nitrospira species. The population of nitrite oxidizers was significantly higher than that of partial nitrification SBR (PNSBR) where most of the ammonium was oxidized to nitrite. The PNSBR had 37% (ammonia oxidizers) and 0.4% (nitrite oxidizers) of total bacteria. Comparative study with CNSBR and PNSBR revealed that free nitrous acid, rather than free ammonia, played a critical inhibition role to wash out nitrite oxidizers from the reactor. The concentrations of free ammonia and nitrite as well as free nitrous acid in the CNSBR selected Nitrobacter as the dominant nitrite oxidizers rather than Nitrospira.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Crystal structure of the complex between 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum and CoA

Authors: Macieira, S; Zhang, J; Buckel, W; Messerschmidt, A (In Press) Archives of Microbiology. HERO ID: 1000059

[Less] Clostridium aminobutyricum ferments 4-aminobutyrate (γ-aminobutyrate, GABA) to ammonia, acetate and . . . [More] Clostridium aminobutyricum ferments 4-aminobutyrate (γ-aminobutyrate, GABA) to ammonia, acetate and butyrate via 4-hydroxybutyrate that is activated to the CoA-thioester catalyzed by 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase. Then, 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA is dehydrated to crotonyl-CoA, which disproportionates to butyryl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. Cocrystallization of the CoA-transferase with the alternate substrate butyryl-CoA yielded crystals with non-covalently bound CoA and two water molecules at the active site. Most likely, butyryl-CoA reacted with the active site Glu238 to CoA and the mixed anhydride, which slowly hydrolyzed during crystallization. The structure of the CoA is similar but less stretched than that of the CoA-moiety of the covalent enzyme-CoA-thioester in 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase from Shewanella oneidensis. In contrast to the structures of the apo-enzyme and enzyme-CoA-thioester, the structure described here has a closed conformation, probably caused by a flip of the active site loop (residues 215-219). During turnover, the closed conformation may protect the anhydride intermediate from hydrolysis and CoA from dissociation from the enzyme. Hence, one catalytic cycle changes conformation of the enzyme four times: free enzyme-open conformation, CoA+ anhydride 1-closed, enzyme-CoA-thioester-open, CoA + anhydride-2-closed, free enzyme-open.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Mechanistic Analysis of the Birch Reduction

Author: Zimmerman, HE (In Press) Accounts of Chemical Research. HERO ID: 1000903

[Less] The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction . . . [More] The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction of dissolving metals in ammonia with aromatic compounds to produce 1,4-cyclohexadienes. Discovered by Arthur Birch in 1944, the reaction occupies 300 pages in Organic Reactions to describe its synthetic versatility. Thus, it is remarkable that the reaction mechanism has been so very controversial and only relatively recently has been firmly established. Perhaps this is not that surprising, since the reaction also has many unusual and esoteric mechanistic facets. Here, I provide a description of how I have applied ever-evolving levels of quantum mechanics and a novel experimental test to understand details of the mechanism and the origins of the selectivities observed in the Birch reduction. The reaction involves an initial radical anion resulting from introduction of an electron from the blue liquid ammonia solution of free electrons formed by the dissolution of Li or related metals. This radical anion is protonated by an alcohol and then further reduced to a carbanion. Finally, the carbanion is protonated using a second proton to afford a nonconjugated cyclohexadiene. The regiochemistry depends on substituents present. With 18 resonance structures in the case of anisole radical anion, prediction of the initial protonation site would seem difficult. Nevertheless, computational methods from Hückel theory through modern density functional calculations do correctly predict the site of protonation. An esoteric test established this mechanism experimentally. The nature of the carbanion also is of mechanistic interest, and the preponderance of the resonance structure shown was revealed from Hückel calculations involving variable bond orders. For the trianion from benzoic acid, parallel questions about structure are apparent, and have been answered. Some mechanistic questions are answered experimentally and some by modern computations. Recently, our mechanistic understanding has led to a variety of synthetic applications. For example, the preparation of alkyl aromatics from benzoic acids makes use of the intermediates formed in these reactions. This Account provides an overview of both experimental techniques and theoretical methodology used to provide detailed mechanistic understanding of the Birch Reduction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis and Application of a New Fluorous-Tagged Ammonia Equivalent

Authors: Nielsen, SD; Smith, G; Begtrup, M; Kristensen, JL (In Press) Chemistry: A European Journal. HERO ID: 990682

[Less] A novel fluorous-tagged ammonia equivalent has been developed. It is based on a nitrogen-oxygen bond, . . . [More] A novel fluorous-tagged ammonia equivalent has been developed. It is based on a nitrogen-oxygen bond, which can be cleaved in a traceless manner by a molybdenum complex or samarium diiodide. The application in the synthesis of ureas, amides, sulfonamides, and carbamates is described. The scope of the fluorous N--O linker is exemplified by the synthesis of itopride, a drug used for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Itopride was synthesized with the aid of fluorous purification methods and the product was isolated in good overall yield, with high purity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Changing Lanes from Concerted to Stepwise Hydrogenation: The Reduction Mechanism of Frustrated Lewis Acid-Base Pair Trapped CO(2) to Methanol by Ammonia-Borane

Authors: Roy, L; Zimmerman, PM; Paul, A (In Press) Chemistry: A European Journal. HERO ID: 990264


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geochemistry and mobilization of arsenic in Shuklaganj area of Kanpur-Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Chauhan, VS; Yunus, M; Sankararamakrishnan, N (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1000194

[Less] The level of arsenic (As) contamination and the geochemical composition of groundwater in Shuklaganj . . . [More] The level of arsenic (As) contamination and the geochemical composition of groundwater in Shuklaganj area located on the banks of the Ganges Delta of Kanpur-Unnao district were elucidated. Samples (n = 59) were collected from both India Mark II hand pumps (depth, 30-33 m) and domestic hand pump tube wells (10-12 m) located within 5 km from the banks of Ganges. Samples were analyzed for various parameters, including total inorganic As, sulfate, nitrate, alkalinity, ammonia, and iron. Hydrochemistry of the groundwater aquifer was studied through the trilinear plots between monovalent and divalent cations and anions. In Indian mark II hand pumps, arsenic concentration ranged from below detection limit to 448 μg/L. Most of the samples contained both As(III) and As(V). The pH of the samples ranged from 7.1 to 8.2. Except for a few, most of the samples were reducing in nature as evident by their negative oxidation reduction potentials. A positive correlation for arsenic with iron, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon shows the probability of biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide processes to leach As in aquifers. For confirmation of the suggested arsenic mobilization mechanism, the presence and absence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducing bacteria were also tested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of humic acids on the reverse osmosis treatment of hazardous landfill leachate

Authors: Sír, M; Podhola, M; Patočka, T; Honzajková, Z; Kocurek, P; Kubal, M; Kuraš, M (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1000722

[Less] This study deals with the treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate with the help of reverse osmosis. . . . [More] This study deals with the treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate with the help of reverse osmosis. The landfill is located in an abandoned brown coal pit in northern Bohemia. The leachate contained 7.2g/L of dissolved inorganic salts. Among other contaminants were heavy metals, arsenic, ammonia nitrogen and associated organic pollutants, especially chlorinated compounds. A mobile membrane unit (LAB M30) equipped with a spiral wound element (FILMTEC SW30-4040), with a membrane area equaling 7.4m(2) was used for the pilot plant experiments. All experiments were carried out in batch mode. 94% conversion of the input stream into the permeate was achieved by use of a two-stage arrangement. Removal efficiencies of the monitored contaminants in the feed ranged from 94% for ammonia nitrogen to 99% for the two-valent ions. Removal efficiency for total dissolved solids was 99.3% on average. Due to varying levels of humic acids in the leachate throughout the year, fouling experiments were performed to investigate the separation process under different conditions than those used in the pilot plant. Leachates containing different concentrations of added humic acids were separated using a thin film composite on a propylene membrane. The added humic acids were obtained from samples of contaminated oxihumolite.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in eutrophic and oligotrophic basins of a shallow Chinese lake (Lake Donghu)

Authors: Chen, GY; Qiu, SL; Zhou, YY (In Press) Research in Microbiology. HERO ID: 990585

[Less] Classical cultivation and molecular methods based on the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) were used . . . [More] Classical cultivation and molecular methods based on the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) were used to study the abundance and diversity of beta-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in lake sediments. The eutrophic and oligotrophic basins of a Chinese shallow lake (Lake Donghu), in terms of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations, were sampled. The AOB number was significantly lower in the oligotrophic basin, but significantly higher in the eutrophic basin. In addition, using restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the amoA, ten restriction patterns including six unique ones were found in the eutrophic basin, while five patterns were observed in the oligotrophic basin with only one unique restriction group. Phylogenetic analysis for AOB revealed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha- and Nitrosomonas ureae-related AOB and Nitrosospira-affiliated AOB were ubiquitous; the former dominated in the eutrophic basin (87.2%), while, the latter dominated in the oligotrophic basin (65.5%). Furthermore, Nitrosomonas communis-related AOB was only detected in the eutrophic basin, at a small proportion (3.2%). These results indicate significant selection and adaptation of sediment AOB in lakes with differing trophic status.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of primary degradation-reaction products from Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-treated corn stover on the growth and fermentation of Escherichia coli KO11

Authors: Lau, MW; Dale, BE (In Press) Bioresource Technology. HERO ID: 990502

[Less] The primary degradation-reaction products (DRP) identified in Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated . . . [More] The primary degradation-reaction products (DRP) identified in Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover are acetate, lactate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HBD) and acetamide. The effects of these products at a broad concentration range were tested on Escherichia coli KO11, a strain engineered for cellulosic ethanol production. Fermentations using glucose or xylose as the sole carbohydrate source and a sugar mixture of glucose and xylose were conducted to determine how these products and sugar selection affected fermentation performance. Co-fermentation of the sugar mixture exhibited the lowest overall ethanol productivity compared to single-sugar fermentations and was more susceptible to inhibition. Metabolic ethanol yield increased with the increasing initial concentration of acetate. Although these degradation-reaction products (with exception of acetamide) are generally perceived to be inhibitory, organic acids and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde at low levels stimulated fermentation. Adaptation of cells to these products prior to fermentation increased overall fermentation rate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reversing Hyperammonemia in Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET)

Authors: Broadbridge, V; Townsend, A; Pittman, K; Kimber, R; Patterson, W; Sukumaran, S; Price, TJ (In Press) Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. HERO ID: 990662

[Less] Ammonia is a neurotoxin that is normally cleared by the intact liver and if not, hyperammonemia results . . . [More] Ammonia is a neurotoxin that is normally cleared by the intact liver and if not, hyperammonemia results in hepatic encephalopathy. Hyperammonemia may be owing to primary or secondary causes. Early diagnosis is important to prevent permanent brain damage. Advanced malignancy involving the liver is associated with hyperammonemia as a result of abnormality of the portal venous system or massive hepatic tumor burdon. Neuroendocrine tumors are an example of a malignant process that frequently involves the liver but despite this, may still have a relatively good prognosis, and are often characterized by chronic manageable symptoms and slow progression. Hyperammonemia in neuroendocrine tumor would represent a potentially reversible but ongoing process associated with an indolent malignancy. We present 2 cases that are examples of this diagnosis and discuss the diagnostic and management issues that may arise.