Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


93 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ammonia in breath and emitted from skin

Authors: Schmidt, FM; Vaittinen, O; Metsälä, M; Lehto, M; Forsblom, C; Groop, PH; Halonen, L (2013) Journal of Breath Research 7:017109. HERO ID: 1510722

[Less] Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH3) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line . . . [More] Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH3) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line with a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer and compared to saliva pH and plasma ammonium ion (NH+4), urea and creatinine concentrations. Special attention was given to mouth, nose and skin sampling procedures and the accurate quantification of ammonia in humid gas samples. The obtained median concentrations were 688 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for mouth-eNH3, 34 ppbv for nose-eNH3, and 21 ppbv for both mouth- and nose-eNH3 after an acidic mouth wash (MW). The median ammonia emission rate from the lower forearm was 0.3 ng cm−2 min−1. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the breath, skin and plasma ammonia/ammonium concentrations were not found. However, mouth-eNH3 strongly (p < 0.001) correlated with saliva pH. This dependence was also observed in detailed measurements of the diurnal variation and the response of eNH3 to the acidic MW. It is concluded that eNH3 as such does not reflect plasma but saliva and airway mucus NH+4 concentrations and is affected by saliva and airway mucus pH. After normalization with saliva pH using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, mouth-eNH3 correlated with plasma NH+4, which points to saliva and plasma NH+4 being linked via hydrolysis of salivary urea.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A quantitative study of the influence of inhaled compounds on their concentrations in exhaled breath

Authors: Španěl, P; Dryahina, K; Smith, D (2013) Journal of Breath Research 7:017106. HERO ID: 1592035

[Less] Throughout the development of breath analysis research, there has been interest in how the concentrations . . . [More] Throughout the development of breath analysis research, there has been interest in how the concentrations of trace compounds in exhaled breath are related to their concentrations in the ambient inhaled air. In considering this, Phillips introduced the concept of 'alveolar gradient' and judged that the measured exhaled concentrations of volatile organic compounds should be diminished by an amount equal to their concentrations in the inhaled ambient air. The objective of the work described in this paper was to investigate this relationship quantitatively. Thus, experiments have been carried out in which inhaled air was polluted by seven compounds of interest in breath research, as given below, and exhaled breath has been analysed by SIFT-MS as the concentrations of these compounds in the inhaled air were reduced. The interesting result obtained is that all the exogenous compounds are partially retained in the exhaled breath and there are close linear relationships between the exhaled and inhaled air concentrations for all seven compounds. Thus, retention coefficients, a, have been derived for the following compounds: pentane, 0.76 ± 0.09; isoprene, 0.66 ± 0.04; acetone, 0.17 ± 0.03; ammonia, 0.70 ± 0.13, methanol, 0.29 ± 0.02; formaldehyde, 0.06 ± 0.03; deuterated water (HDO), 0.09 ± 0.02. From these data, correction to breath analyses for inhaled concentration can be described by coefficients specific to each compound, which can be close to 1 for hydrocarbons, as applied by Phillips, or around 0.1, meaning that inhaled concentrations of such compounds can essentially be neglected. A further deduction from the experimental data is that under conditions of the inhalation of clean air, the measured exhaled breath concentrations of those compounds should be increased by a factor of 1/(1 - a) to correspond to gaseous equilibrium with the compounds dissolved in the mixed venous blood entering the alveoli. Thus, for isoprene, this is a factor of 3, which we have confirmed experimentally by re-breathing experiments.

Technical Report
Technical Report

ChemIDplus: Ammonia

Author: NLM (2012) Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 1007792


Technical Report
Technical Report

Ammonia

Author: HSDB (2012) HERO ID: 1006149


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of the Rhesus glycoprotein, Rh B glycoprotein, in renal ammonia excretion

Authors: Bishop, JM; Verlander, JW; Lee, HW; Nelson, RD; Weiner, AJ; Handlogten, ME; Weiner, ID (2010) American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 299:F1065-F1077. HERO ID: 990428

[Less] Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) is a member of the Rh glycoprotein family of ammonia transporters. In the current . . . [More] Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) is a member of the Rh glycoprotein family of ammonia transporters. In the current study, we examine Rhbg's role in basal and acidosis-stimulated acid-base homeostasis. Metabolic acidosis induced by HCl administration increased Rhbg expression in both the cortex and outer medulla. To test the functional significance of increased Rhbg expression, we used a Cre-loxP approach to generate mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhbg knockout (IC-Rhbg-KO). On normal diet, intercalated cell-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter urine ammonia excretion, pH, or titratable acid excretion significantly, but it did decrease glutamine synthetase expression in the outer medulla significantly. After metabolic acidosis was induced, urinary ammonia excretion was significantly less in IC-Rhbg-KO than in control (C) mice on days 2–4 of acid loading, but not on day 5. Urine pH and titratable acid excretion and dietary acid intake did not differ significantly between acid-loaded IC-Rhcg-KO and C mice. In IC-Rhbg-KO mice, acid loading increased connecting segment (CNT) cell and outer medullary collecting duct principal cell Rhbg expression. In both C and IC-Rhbg-KO mice, acid loading decreased glutamine synthetase in both the cortex and outer medulla; the decrease on day 3 was similar in IC-Rhbg-KO and C mice, but on day 5 it was significantly greater in IC-Rhbg-KO than in C mice. We conclude 1) intercalated cell Rhbg contributes to acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion, 2) Rhbg in CNT and principal cells may contribute to renal ammonia excretion, and 3) decreased glutamine synthetase expression may enable normal rates of ammonia excretion under both basal conditions and on day 5 of acid loading in IC-Rhbg-KO mice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of intercalated cell-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion on basal and metabolic acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion

Authors: Lee, HW; Verlander, JW; Bishop, JM; Nelson, RD; Handlogten, ME; Weiner, ID (2010) American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 299:F369-F379. HERO ID: 990622

[Less] Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg) is an NH(3)-specific transporter expressed in both intercalated cells (IC) . . . [More] Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg) is an NH(3)-specific transporter expressed in both intercalated cells (IC) and principal cells (PC) in the renal collecting duct. Recent studies show that deletion of Rhcg from both intercalated and principal cells inhibits both basal and acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current studies was to better understand the specific role of Rhcg expression in intercalated cells in basal and metabolic acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion. We generated mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhcg deletion (IC-Rhcg-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques; control (C) mice were floxed Rhcg but Cre negative. Under basal conditions, IC-Rhcg-KO and C mice excreted urine with similar ammonia content and pH. Mice were then acid loaded by adding HCl to their diet. Ammonia excretion after acid loading increased similarly in IC-Rhcg-KO and C mice during the first 2 days of acid loading but on day 3 was significantly less in IC-Rhcg-KO than in C mice. During the first 2 days of acid loading, urine was significantly more acidic in IC-Rhcg-KO mice than in C mice; there was no difference on day 3. In IC-Rhcg-KO mice, acid loading increased principal cell Rhcg expression in both the cortex and outer medulla as well as expression of another ammonia transporter, Rh glycoprotein B (Rhbg), in principal cells in the outer medulla. We conclude that 1) Rhcg expression in intercalated cells is necessary for the normal renal response to metabolic acidosis; 2) principal cell Rhcg contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia excretion; and 3) adaptations in Rhbg expression occur in response to acid-loading.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Repeatability of the measurement of exhaled volatile metabolites using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

Authors: Boshier, PR; Marczin, N; Hanna, GB (2010) American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Journal 21:1070-1074. HERO ID: 990681

[Less] Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, has been used to determine the repeatability of the . . . [More] Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, has been used to determine the repeatability of the analysis of volatile metabolites within the breath of healthy volunteers, with emphasis on the influence of sampling methodology. Baseline instrument specific coefficients of variability for examined metabolites were as follows: acetone (1%), ammonia (1%), isoprene (2%), propanol (6%), ethanol (7%), acetic acid (7%), and hydrogen cyanide (19%). Metabolite concentration and related product ion count rate were identified as strong determinants of measurement variation. With the exception of ammonia, an orally released metabolite, variability in repeated on-line breath analysis tended to be lower for metabolites of systemic origin. Standardization of sampling technique improved the repeatability of the analysis of selected metabolites. Off-line (bag) alveolar breath sampling, as opposed to mixed (whole) breath sampling, likewise improved the repeatability of the analysis of all metabolites investigated, with the exception of acetic acid. We conclude that SIFT-MS analysis of common volatile metabolites within the breath of healthy volunteers is both reliable and repeatable. For selected metabolites, the finding that repeatability is improved through modification of sampling methodology may have implications in terms of future recommended practices.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Human (13)N-ammonia PET studies: The importance of measuring (13)N-ammonia metabolites in blood

Authors: Keiding, S; Sørensen, M; Munk, OL; Bender, D (2010) Metabolic Brain Disease 25:49-56. HERO ID: 990690

[Less] Dynamic 13N-ammonia PET is used to assess ammonia metabolism in brain, liver and muscle based on kinetic . . . [More] Dynamic 13N-ammonia PET is used to assess ammonia metabolism in brain, liver and muscle based on kinetic modeling of metabolic pathways, using arterial blood 13N-ammonia as input function. Rosenspire et al. (1990) introduced a solid phase extraction procedure for fractionation of 13N-content in blood into 13N-ammonia, 13N-urea, 13N-glutamine and 13N-glutamate. Due to a radioactive half-life for 13N of 10 min, the procedure is not suitable for blood samples taken beyond 5–7 min after tracer injection. By modifying Rosenspire’s method, we established a method enabling analysis of up to 10 blood samples in the course of 30 min. The modified procedure was validated by HPLC and by 30-min reproducibility studies in humans examined by duplicate 13N-ammonia injections with a 60-min interval. Blood data from a 13N-ammonia brain PET study (from Keiding et al. 2006) showed: (1) time courses of 13N-ammonia fractions could be described adequately by double exponential functions; (2) metabolic conversion of 13N-ammonia to 13N-metabolites were in the order: healthy subjects > cirrhotic patients without HE > cirrhotic patients with HE; (3) kinetics of initial tracer distribution in tissue can be assessed by using total 13N-concentration in blood as input function, whereas assessment of metabolic processes requires 13N-ammonia measurements.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stabling causes a significant increase in the pH of the equine airway

Authors: Whittaker, AG; Love, S; Parkin, TDH; Duz, M; Hughes, KJ (2009) Equine Veterinary Journal 41:940-943. HERO ID: 990649

[Less] Regulation of pH homeostasis in the equine lung is poorly understood. Measurement of exhaled breath . . . [More] Regulation of pH homeostasis in the equine lung is poorly understood. Measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH provided a simple, highly repeatable and noninvasive method for the longitudinal investigation of changes in airway pH in response to environmental changes. Stabling of horses was found to lead to a small (approximately 100-200 parts/billion) but significant (P < 0.001) increase in ambient ammonia concentration when compared to pasture. This increase in exposure to ambient ammonia concentration was associated with significant (P = 0.002) increases in EBC pH and exhaled ammonia (P = 0.013). Stable feed/bedding management type had no effect on EBC pH or exhaled ammonia concentration, while ambient ammonia concentration was influenced by stable management type.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels

Authors: Johnson, DR; Bedick, CR; Clark, NN; McKain, DL, Jr (2009) Environmental Science and Technology 43:3959-3963. HERO ID: 839940

[Less] Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United . . . [More] Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independent of engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41−67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5−7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further research with control optimization, urea distribution and possible use of oxidation catalysts is recommended to improve the NOx reduction capabilities while minimizing ammonia slip.