Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


247 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impaired expression of key molecules of ammoniagenesis underlies renal acidosis in a rat model of chronic kidney disease

Authors: Bürki, R; Mohebbi, N; Bettoni, C; Wang, X; Serra, AL; Wagner, CA (2015) Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 30:770-781. HERO ID: 2966604

[Less] BACKGROUND: Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of renal metabolic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of renal metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis per se may represent a trigger for progression of CKD. Renal acidosis of CKD is characterized by low urinary ammonium excretion with preserved urinary acidification indicating a defect in renal ammoniagenesis, ammonia excretion or both. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, have not been addressed to date. METHODS: We examined the Han:SPRD rat model and used a combination of metabolic studies, mRNA and protein analysis of renal molecules involved in acid-base handling. RESULTS: We demonstrate that rats with reduced kidney function as evident from lower creatinine clearance, lower haematocrit, higher plasma blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphate and potassium had metabolic acidosis that could be aggravated by HCl acid loading. Urinary ammonium excretion was highly reduced whereas urinary pH was more acidic in CKD compared with control animals. The abundance of key enzymes and transporters of proximal tubular ammoniagenesis (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, PEPCK and SNAT3) and bicarbonate transport (NBCe1) was reduced in CKD compared with control animals. In the collecting duct, normal expression of the B1 H(+)-ATPase subunit is in agreement with low urinary pH. In contrast, the RhCG ammonia transporter, critical for the final secretion of ammonia into urine was strongly down-regulated in CKD animals. CONCLUSION: In the Han:SPRD rat model for CKD, key molecules required for renal ammoniagenesis and ammonia excretion are highly down-regulated providing a possible molecular explanation for the development and maintenance of renal acidosis in CKD patients.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient ammonia exposures in an agricultural community and pediatric asthma morbidity

Authors: Loftus, C; Yost, M; Sampson, P; Torres, E; Arias, G; Breckwich Vasquez, V; Hartin, K; Armstrong, J; Tchong-French, M; Vedal, S; Bhatti, P; Karr, C (2015) Epidemiology 26:794-801. HERO ID: 2995852

[Less] Background: Large-scale animal feeding operations compromise regional air quality in the rural US through . . . [More] Background: Large-scale animal feeding operations compromise regional air quality in the rural US through emission of pollutants, such as ammonia gas. Exposure to airborne pollution from animal feeding operations may cause pediatric asthma exacerbations in surrounding communities. Objectives: To describe spatial and temporal patterns in ambient ammonia concentrations in an agricultural region, and to investigate associations between short-term fluctuations in ammonia and subsequent changes in respiratory health in children with asthma. Methods: For 13 months in the Yakima Valley of Washington State, 14 monitors sampled ammonia in outdoor air for 24-hour periods every 6 days. School-age children with asthma (n = 51) were followed for two health outcomes: biweekly reports of asthma symptoms and quick relief medication usage, and daily measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second. We assessed associations between each outcome and ammonia using generalized estimating equations. Results: Twenty-four-hour ammonia concentrations varied from 0.2 to 238.1 μg/m3 during the study period and displayed a strong correlation with proximity to animal feeding operations. The percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 3.8% lower (95% confidence interval = 0.2, 7.3) per interquartile increase in 1-day lagged ammonia concentration and 3.0% lower (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 5.8) for 2-day lagged concentration. We observed no associations between self-reported asthma symptoms or medication usage and estimated ammonia exposure. Conclusions: Ammonia concentrations were elevated in this community and strongly predicted by proximity to animal feeding operations. Ammonia’s association with acute lung function decrements in children with asthma in the surrounding community may be causal or, alternatively, ammonia may be a marker for other pollutants from animal feeding operations associated with respiratory effects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Airway inflammation and ammonia exposure among female Palestinian hairdressers: A cross-sectional study

Authors: Nemer, M; Sikkeland, LIB; Kasem, M; Kristensen, P; Nijem, K; Bjertness, E; Skare, Ø; Bakke, B; Kongerud, J; Skogstad, M (2015) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 72:428-434. HERO ID: 2834117

[Less] OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the working conditions and airway inflammation in . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the working conditions and airway inflammation in hairdressers in Palestine. We aimed to investigate if hairdressers in Palestine have a higher level of airway inflammation as compared to a control group. We also assessed the hairdressers' physical working conditions and exposure to ammonia gases at the hair salons. Lastly, we investigated the association between ammonia levels and inflammation markers in the airways and the blood.

METHODS: Our study participants were 33 non-smoking hairdressers (aged 19-50 years) and 35 non-smoking control subjects (aged 18-49 years). Both groups answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, and performed lung function and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) tests. Blood and sputum samples were collected from all participants and air concentration levels of ammonia were measured in 13 salons.

RESULTS: Hairdressers had a higher level of sputum neutrophil count (absolute numbers/mg sputum (median (25th-75th centiles)) compared to controls, 376 (183-980) and 182 (96-358), respectively. Hairdressers also had significantly elevated eNO and blood C reactive protein (CRP) levels compared to the control subjects, controlled for age and body mass index. Exposure measurements showed that the hairdressers in salons with scarce ventilation were exposed to ammonia concentration, ranging from 3 to 61 mg/m(3).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to unexposed controls, the hairdressers had signs of neutrophilic airway inflammation, higher eNO levels and higher CRP. The hairdressers were exposed to high concentrations of ammonia from hairdressing chemicals and their working conditions were unsatisfactory.

Technical Report
Technical Report

SAB review of the EPA’s draft toxicological review of ammonia

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) (EPA-SAB-15-011). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3103144

[Less] EPA asked the Science Advisory Board (SAB) to assess the appropriateness and scientific soundness of . . . [More] EPA asked the Science Advisory Board (SAB) to assess the appropriateness and scientific soundness of the conclusions presented in the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia. EPA also asked the SAB to comment on the adequacy of EPA’s implementation of the National Research Council's (NRC’s) recommendations for changes to the format and structure of the IRIS assessments. In response to EPA’s request, the SAB convened a panel consisting of members of the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) augmented with chemical-specific experts to conduct the review. This report provides the SAB’s consensus advice and recommendations.

Technical Report
Technical Report

NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards: Ammonia

Author: NIOSH (2015) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. HERO ID: 1007560


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Management and sequelae of a 41-year-old Jehovah's Witness with severe anhydrous ammonia inhalation injury

Authors: Ortiz-Pujols, S; Jones, SW; Short, KA; Morrell, MR; Bermudez, CA; Tilley, SL; Cairns, BA (2014) Journal of Burn Care and Research 35:E180-E183. HERO ID: 2522180

[Less] Anhydrous ammonia is a commonly used chemicals that are found in fertilizer, refrigeration, and in other . . . [More] Anhydrous ammonia is a commonly used chemicals that are found in fertilizer, refrigeration, and in other occupational environments. Lung damage because of inhalation of ammonia can be devastating, producing debilitating lung disease and can ultimately lead to death. This is the case of a 41-year-old male, previously healthy, Jehovah's Witness, who was working at a poultry plant facility when an explosion occurred exposing him to toxic levels of anhydrous ammonia. Our patient developed end-stage lung disease after sustaining a severe ammonia inhalation injury. Despite aggressive pulmonary rehabilitation, the patient continued to deteriorate, and his only option for a chance at improved quality of life was a double-lung transplant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bloodless lung transplantation for inhalational lung injury in the literature. Further study is needed to better understand the effects of ammonia on lung physiology in order to better manage and treat patients who develop acute and chronic lung complications after exposure.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool: For non-randomized studies of interventions (ACROBAT-NRSI)

Authors: Stearne, JAC; Higgins, JPT; Reaves, BC (2014) (Version 1.0.0). HERO ID: 2826337

[Less] ACROBAT-NRSI is developed by members of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group and the Cochrane Non-Randomised . . . [More] ACROBAT-NRSI is developed by members of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group and the Cochrane Non-Randomised Studies Methods Group. See a list of the teamwho were involved. It was supported by a grant from the Cochrane Methods Innovation Fund (2011).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anion effects on the structures and magnetic properties of binuclear lanthanide single-molecule magnets

Authors: Yang, F; Zhou, Q; Zeng, G; Li, G; Gao, L; Shi, Z; Feng, S (2014) Dalton Transactions (Online) 43:1238-1245. HERO ID: 2233062

[Less] Here we report the anion-induced changes of structures and magnetic properties in binuclear lanthanide . . . [More] Here we report the anion-induced changes of structures and magnetic properties in binuclear lanthanide compounds. Firstly, two Dy(3+)-based compounds, [Dy2(Mq)4(NO3)6] (1) and [Dy2(Mq)4Cl6](EtOH)2 (2) (Mq = 8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline), were synthesized and characterized. They contain similar binuclear Dy2O2 cores, while the different peripheral anions lead to quite different coordination environments of the Dy(3+) ion. In compound 1, the Dy(3+) ion is nine-coordinated and characterized by a distorted 4,4,4-tricapped trigonal prism environment. In compound 2, the Dy(3+) ion has a highly distorted six-coordinated octahedral environment. Their Gd(3+) analogues, [Gd2(Mq)4(NO3)6] (3) and [Gd2(Mq)4Cl6](EtOH)2 (4), were also studied to investigate the magnetic interaction between metal ions. Variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements show that all the compounds are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that both compounds 1 and 2 exhibit single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour, while the thermal energy barrier of 2 is significantly higher than that of 1 (Δ/k(B) = 40.0 K for 1 and Δ/k(B) = 102.4 K for 2).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ammonia transport in the kidney by Rhesus glycoproteins

Authors: Weiner, ID; Verlander, JW (2014) American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 306:F1107-F1120. [Review] HERO ID: 2996169

[Less] Renal ammonia metabolism is a fundamental element of acid-base homeostasis, comprising a major component . . . [More] Renal ammonia metabolism is a fundamental element of acid-base homeostasis, comprising a major component of both basal and physiologically altered renal net acid excretion. Over the past several years, a fundamental change in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal epithelial cell ammonia transport has occurred, replacing the previous model which was based upon diffusion equilibrium for NH3 and trapping of NH4(+) with a new model in which specific and regulated transport of both NH3 and NH4(+) across renal epithelial cell membranes via specific membrane proteins is required for normal ammonia metabolism. A major advance has been the recognition that members of a recently recognized transporter family, the Rhesus glycoprotein family, mediate critical roles in renal and extrarenal ammonia transport. The erythroid-specific Rhesus glycoprotein, Rh A Glycoprotein (Rhag), was the first Rhesus glycoprotein recognized as an ammonia-specific transporter. Subsequently, the nonerythroid Rh glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), were cloned and identified as ammonia transporters. They are expressed in specific cell populations and membrane domains in distal renal epithelial cells, where they facilitate ammonia secretion. In this review, we discuss the distribution of Rhbg and Rhcg in the kidney, the regulation of their expression and activity in physiological disturbances, the effects of genetic deletion on renal ammonia metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of Rh glycoprotein-mediated ammonia transport.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ammonia in breath and emitted from skin

Authors: Schmidt, FM; Vaittinen, O; Metsälä, M; Lehto, M; Forsblom, C; Groop, PH; Halonen, L (2013) Journal of Breath Research 7:017109. HERO ID: 1510722

[Less] Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH3) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line . . . [More] Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH3) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line with a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer and compared to saliva pH and plasma ammonium ion (NH+4), urea and creatinine concentrations. Special attention was given to mouth, nose and skin sampling procedures and the accurate quantification of ammonia in humid gas samples. The obtained median concentrations were 688 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for mouth-eNH3, 34 ppbv for nose-eNH3, and 21 ppbv for both mouth- and nose-eNH3 after an acidic mouth wash (MW). The median ammonia emission rate from the lower forearm was 0.3 ng cm−2 min−1. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the breath, skin and plasma ammonia/ammonium concentrations were not found. However, mouth-eNH3 strongly (p < 0.001) correlated with saliva pH. This dependence was also observed in detailed measurements of the diurnal variation and the response of eNH3 to the acidic MW. It is concluded that eNH3 as such does not reflect plasma but saliva and airway mucus NH+4 concentrations and is affected by saliva and airway mucus pH. After normalization with saliva pH using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, mouth-eNH3 correlated with plasma NH+4, which points to saliva and plasma NH+4 being linked via hydrolysis of salivary urea.