Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


187 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards: Ammonia

Author: NIOSH (2015) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. HERO ID: 1007560


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Management and sequelae of a 41-year-old Jehovah's Witness with severe anhydrous ammonia inhalation injury

Authors: Ortiz-Pujols, S; Jones, SW; Short, KA; Morrell, MR; Bermudez, CA; Tilley, SL; Cairns, BA (2014) Journal of Burn Care and Research 35:E180-E183. HERO ID: 2522180

[Less] Anhydrous ammonia is a commonly used chemicals that are found in fertilizer, refrigeration, and in other . . . [More] Anhydrous ammonia is a commonly used chemicals that are found in fertilizer, refrigeration, and in other occupational environments. Lung damage because of inhalation of ammonia can be devastating, producing debilitating lung disease and can ultimately lead to death. This is the case of a 41-year-old male, previously healthy, Jehovah's Witness, who was working at a poultry plant facility when an explosion occurred exposing him to toxic levels of anhydrous ammonia. Our patient developed end-stage lung disease after sustaining a severe ammonia inhalation injury. Despite aggressive pulmonary rehabilitation, the patient continued to deteriorate, and his only option for a chance at improved quality of life was a double-lung transplant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bloodless lung transplantation for inhalational lung injury in the literature. Further study is needed to better understand the effects of ammonia on lung physiology in order to better manage and treat patients who develop acute and chronic lung complications after exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ammonia in breath and emitted from skin

Authors: Schmidt, FM; Vaittinen, O; Metsälä, M; Lehto, M; Forsblom, C; Groop, PH; Halonen, L (2013) Journal of Breath Research 7:017109. HERO ID: 1510722

[Less] Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH3) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line . . . [More] Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH3) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line with a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer and compared to saliva pH and plasma ammonium ion (NH+4), urea and creatinine concentrations. Special attention was given to mouth, nose and skin sampling procedures and the accurate quantification of ammonia in humid gas samples. The obtained median concentrations were 688 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for mouth-eNH3, 34 ppbv for nose-eNH3, and 21 ppbv for both mouth- and nose-eNH3 after an acidic mouth wash (MW). The median ammonia emission rate from the lower forearm was 0.3 ng cm−2 min−1. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the breath, skin and plasma ammonia/ammonium concentrations were not found. However, mouth-eNH3 strongly (p < 0.001) correlated with saliva pH. This dependence was also observed in detailed measurements of the diurnal variation and the response of eNH3 to the acidic MW. It is concluded that eNH3 as such does not reflect plasma but saliva and airway mucus NH+4 concentrations and is affected by saliva and airway mucus pH. After normalization with saliva pH using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, mouth-eNH3 correlated with plasma NH+4, which points to saliva and plasma NH+4 being linked via hydrolysis of salivary urea.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A quantitative study of the influence of inhaled compounds on their concentrations in exhaled breath

Authors: Španěl, P; Dryahina, K; Smith, D (2013) Journal of Breath Research 7:017106. HERO ID: 1592035

[Less] Throughout the development of breath analysis research, there has been interest in how the concentrations . . . [More] Throughout the development of breath analysis research, there has been interest in how the concentrations of trace compounds in exhaled breath are related to their concentrations in the ambient inhaled air. In considering this, Phillips introduced the concept of 'alveolar gradient' and judged that the measured exhaled concentrations of volatile organic compounds should be diminished by an amount equal to their concentrations in the inhaled ambient air. The objective of the work described in this paper was to investigate this relationship quantitatively. Thus, experiments have been carried out in which inhaled air was polluted by seven compounds of interest in breath research, as given below, and exhaled breath has been analysed by SIFT-MS as the concentrations of these compounds in the inhaled air were reduced. The interesting result obtained is that all the exogenous compounds are partially retained in the exhaled breath and there are close linear relationships between the exhaled and inhaled air concentrations for all seven compounds. Thus, retention coefficients, a, have been derived for the following compounds: pentane, 0.76 ± 0.09; isoprene, 0.66 ± 0.04; acetone, 0.17 ± 0.03; ammonia, 0.70 ± 0.13, methanol, 0.29 ± 0.02; formaldehyde, 0.06 ± 0.03; deuterated water (HDO), 0.09 ± 0.02. From these data, correction to breath analyses for inhaled concentration can be described by coefficients specific to each compound, which can be close to 1 for hydrocarbons, as applied by Phillips, or around 0.1, meaning that inhaled concentrations of such compounds can essentially be neglected. A further deduction from the experimental data is that under conditions of the inhalation of clean air, the measured exhaled breath concentrations of those compounds should be increased by a factor of 1/(1 - a) to correspond to gaseous equilibrium with the compounds dissolved in the mixed venous blood entering the alveoli. Thus, for isoprene, this is a factor of 3, which we have confirmed experimentally by re-breathing experiments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupational risk factors associated with work-exacerbated asthma in Quebec

Authors: Lemiere, C; Bégin, D; Camus, M; Forget, A; Boulet, L-P; Gérin, M (2012) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 69:901-907. HERO ID: 1510869

[Less] Background There is limited information regarding the occupational exposures of subjects with a diagnosis . . . [More] Background There is limited information regarding the occupational exposures of subjects with a diagnosis of work-exacerbated asthma (WEA). Objectives To: (1) identify potential specific occupational, chemical, biological and physical agents associated with incident cases of WEA and (2) compare these agents with occupational exposures of occupational asthma (OA) and non-work-related asthma (NWRA) cases. Methods Subjects were workers with work-related asthma (WRA) or NWRA referred between 2005 and 2008 to two Quebec clinics specialised in the field of WRA. Specific inhalation challenges were performed to differentiate OA from WEA. Work exposures were assessed using a detailed occupational questionnaire. Exposures to 41 chemical and biological agents were coded in a semiquantitative way according to a combination of indices for concentration in workplace air, frequency and confidence of exposure by an occupational hygienist expert in occupational exposure coding. This expert was blind to the medical status of WEA, OA or NWRA. Five physical agents were coded on a yes/no scale. Results 153 subjects were enrolled (53 WEA, 67 OA and 33 NWRA). WEA cases were significantly more exposed to ammonia, engine exhaust fumes, silica, mineral fibres, aerosol propellants and solvents, and significantly less exposed to animal derived dust and enzymes than were OA cases. Exposure to physical conditions did not differ between WEA and OA. Conclusions Exposures associated with WEA differ from those associated with OA in this study. A proportion of subjects with WEA may suffer from low-dose irritant asthma, which remains a hypothesis to be tested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupational exposure to cleaning products and asthma in hospital workers

Authors: Dumas, O; Donnay, C; Heederik, DJ; Héry, M; Choudat, D; Kauffmann, F; Le Moual, N (2012) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 69:883-889. HERO ID: 1510860

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Cleaning products may cause work-related asthma, but information regarding the specific . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Cleaning products may cause work-related asthma, but information regarding the specific exposures involved is scarce. We aimed to determine the associations between asthma and occupational exposure to cleaning agents in hospital workers. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in 179 (136 women) hospital workers and a reference population of 545 subjects (18-79 years) from the French case-control and familial Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (2003-2007). Exposures to cleaning agents were estimated using three methods: self-report, expert assessment and an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). Associations between cleaning products and current asthma were evaluated by logistic regressions, stratified by sex and adjusted for age and smoking status. RESULTS: According to expert assessment, 55% of male and 81% of female hospital workers were exposed to cleaning/disinfecting tasks weekly (p<0.001). No association was observed between cleaning/disinfecting tasks and current asthma in men or in women whatever the assessment method used. In women, exposure to decalcifiers (expert assessment) was associated with current asthma (OR (95% CI):2.38 (1.06 to 5.33)). In hospital workers classified as exposed according to both the expert assessment and the JEM, additional associations were observed for exposure to ammonia (3.05 (1.19 to 7.82)) and to sprays with moderate/high intensity (2.87 (1.02 to 8.11)). CONCLUSIONS: Female hospital workers are often exposed to numerous cleaning products, some of which were markedly associated with current asthma. Low numbers prevented a meaningful analysis in men. Objective and more accurate estimates of occupational exposure to cleaning products are needed to better understand the adverse effects of cleaning products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between cleaning-related chemicals and work-related asthma and asthma symptoms among healthcare professionals

Authors: Arif, AA; Delclos, GL (2012) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 69:35-40. HERO ID: 1001536

[Less] Objectives Work-related asthma (WRA) is an important public health problem affecting one quarter of . . . [More] Objectives Work-related asthma (WRA) is an important public health problem affecting one quarter of adults with asthma. Although cleaning substances are routinely used in hospitals, few studies have addressed their potential adverse respiratory health effects on healthcare professionals (HCPs). This study attempts to identify relationship between work-related exposure to cleaning-related chemicals and development of WRA among HCPs. Methods Of 5600 HCPs surveyed, 3650 responded to a validated questionnaire about their occupation, asthma diagnosis, variability of asthma symptoms at and away from work, and exposure to individual cleaning substances. Workplace asthma was defined as a categorical variable with four mutually exclusive categories: work-related asthma symptoms (WRAS), work-exacerbated asthma (WEA), occupational asthma (OA) and none. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-reported use of cleaning substances and asthma outcomes among HCPs. Results Prevalences of WRAS, WEA and OA were 3.3%, 1.1% and 0.8%, respectively. The prevalence estimates were generally higher among female than male HCPs. The odds of WRAS and WEA increased in a dose-dependent manner for exposure in the longest job to cleaning agents and disinfectants/sterilants, respectively. For exposure in any job, the odds of WRAS were significantly elevated for both factor 1 (bleach, cleaners/abrasives, toilet cleaners, detergents and ammonia) and factor 2 (glutaraldehyde/ortho-phtaldehyde, chloramines and ethylene oxide). Significantly elevated odds of WEA were observed for exposure to bleach, factor 2 and formalin/formaldehyde. Exposure to chloramines was significantly associated with an almost fivefold elevated odds of OA. Conclusions HCPs are at risk of developing WRA from exposure to cleaning substances.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Benchmark dose technical guidance

Author: U.S. EPA (2012) (EPA/100/R-12/001). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum. HERO ID: 1239433


Archival Material
Archival Material

EPA announces NAS' review of IRIS assessment development process

Author: U.S. EPA (2012) Available online at http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/1ce2a7875daf093485257a000054df54?OpenDocument. [Website] HERO ID: 1578548


Technical Report
Technical Report

Advances in inhalation gas dosimetry for derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) and use in risk assessment

Author: U.S. EPA (2012) (1-140). (EPA/600/R-12/044). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 1502936

[Less] This status report provides a review of advances in the state of the science for interspecies inhalation . . . [More] This status report provides a review of advances in the state of the science for interspecies inhalation gas dosimetry related to extrathoracic (ET) or upper respiratory tract (URT), tracheobronchial (TB), pulmonary (PU), and extrarespiratory (systemic, SYS) effects.

The RfC Methods document (Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry; EPA/600/8-90/066F, October 1994) provides the basis for EPA extrapolation of data from animal toxicology studies to estimate delivered dose in humans as part of the development of inhalation reference values (i.e., RfC values). This report evaluates and summarizes the pertinent scientific developments and advancements in gas dosimetry focusing on extrathoracic (ET) or upper respiratory tract (URT), tracheobronchial (TB), pulmonary (PU), and extrarespiratory (systemic, SYS) effects as they relate to the current methodology used by EPA. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of data from animal studies to estimate a comparable dose in humans for inhaled chemicals. In addition, this report summarizes available data pertaining to inhalation dosimetry throughout the respiratory tract of children as it relates to derivation of an RfC. This report provides the scientific foundation necessary for ensuring that methods and guidance used and implemented by EPA in inhalation risk assessment of gases reflects the state of the science.