Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Naphthalene


4,962 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HHE-2017-0078-3323, August 2018. Evaluation of Chemical Exposures during Optical Media Production

Authors: Grant, MP; Musolin, K (2018) HERO ID: 5018651

[Less] The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from the employer at an optical media production . . . [More] The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from the employer at an optical media production company who was concerned with the chemical odors generated during the production of compact discs and digital video discs. The company manufactured optical media using primarily resin, lacquer, ink, and screen wash chemicals. We evaluated employee exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs); spoke with managers and employees; observed workplace conditions, processes, and practices; and evaluated ventilation systems. We detected a variety of VOCs in short-term screening samples, but did not detect the target analytes of naphthalene, ethylbenzene, xylene, 2-butoxyethanol, or trimethylbenzene in any of the full-shift air samples. We observed a need for improved hazard communication (updating safety data sheets), training (consistent and proper use of personal protective equipment [PPE]), and availability of appropriate PPE. Although the smoke tests revealed that air moved from the hallways into the molding and printing departments, improvements could be made to local exhaust ventilation in the facility. In the last 6 months, the most commonly reported symptoms by employees were lightheadedness, headache, and dizziness and many employees reported a transient unpleasant odor or taste in their mouth. However, many employees reported their symptoms have recently subsided; some employees attributed the resolution of symptoms to improved ventilation. We recommended additional ventilation changes, improving hazard communication, and employees in the molding and printing departments wear nitrile gloves and long sleeves to prevent unnecessary dermal exposures to solvents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and birth outcomes in Taiyuan, China

Authors: Nie, J; Li, J; Cheng, L; Li, Y; Deng, Y; Yan, Z; Duan, L; Niu, Q; Perera, F; Tang, D (2018) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 17:91. HERO ID: 5018050

[Less] BACKGROUND: Naphthalene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). It is . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Naphthalene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). It is easily emitted into the atmosphere, posing a significant risk to human health. However, limited studies have described the impact of naphthalene exposure on birth outcomes. In this study, we investigated the association between the maternal urinary metabolites of naphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OH NAP), and birth outcomes.

METHOD: In the present study, four urinary PAH metabolites were measured in 263 pregnant women during late pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of 2-OH NAP and birth outcomes, and restricted cubic spline models were further used to examine the shapes of the dose-response association.

RESULT: General linear models showed that prenatal urinary 2-OH NAP was associated with lower birth weight (BW) (- 4.38% for the high vs. low exposure group of 2-OH NAP; p for trend = 0.049) and higher cephalization index (CI) (4.30% for the high vs. low exposure group of 2-OH NAP; p for trend = 0.038). These associations were linear and significant when 2-OH NAP was modeled as a continuous variable in restricted cubic spline models (P linear = 0.0293 for 2-OH NAP and BW; P linear = 0.0326 for 2-OH NAP and CI). Multiple linear regression data indicated that each 1 ln-unit increase in 2-OH NAP was significantly associated with a 2.09 g/cm increase in the CI. The associations among 2-OH NAP, BW, and CI were also observed in a subset of participants residing close to arterial traffic.

CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that prenatal exposure to naphthalene had an adverse effect on fetal birth outcomes, especially the brain development index. Reduced exposure to naphthalene may improve newborn health outcomes. In Taiyuan, naphthalene may result from traffic pollution.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Analytical Chemistry Core

(2017) HERO ID: 5018576

[Less] ABSTRACT: CORE A The Analytical Core A functions as an integral part of the Superfund Research Center . . . [More] ABSTRACT: CORE A The Analytical Core A functions as an integral part of the Superfund Research Center at UC Davis. Methods are developed to detect biomarkers of exposure to hazardous substances in the environment, and to assess the impact these substances have on human health. Core A provides the analytical support critical to solving collaborative research problems. Sophisticated instrumentation is used to develop chromatographic and spectrometric methods necessary for the elucidation of biomarkers. Specifically, Core A provides compound identification and assesses chemical purity; identifies remediation products, potential ligands associated with xenobiotics, and targeted metabolites (Projects 1, 4 and 5); provides reference methods for biosensor validation and immunochemical detection of environmental substances (Projects 2 and 3); and provides metabolomics support (Projects 1, 4 and 5). Core A offers assistance to investigators interested in obtaining and interpreting spectra generated at other campus service laboratories such as the NMR and proteomic facility. Instrument training and education is also offered to investigators in conjunction with the Training Core (Core E). A range of innovative services is offered by Core A, with emphasis on analytical method development. The Core has 3 LC-MS/MSs, 1 LC-ToF-MS, 2 GC-MSs, and an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Hazardous substances and their metabolites are measured in human or animal samples, and can be detected with high sensitivity. For example, the AMS has a detection limit of ~1 amol 14C, and is 100 000 times more sensitive than the traditional liquid scintillation counter. Another technique used to assess biomarkers of hazardous substances is metabolomics analysis, a high throughput method that screens for metabolites within biological samples. Here, an innovative LC-MS/MS method is used to screen for 87 lipid metabolites to determine the consequence of hazardous substances on regulatory lipids. Core A is a significant collaborative component of the UC Davis Superfund Center, driving forward Superfund research projects. This Core advances the analytical techniques required to assess biomarkers of hazardous substances. Researchers within Core A continue to work on expanding the metabolomics platform in order to provide more sensitivity and higher throughput. The AMS throughput is also increasing, allowing for efficient sample analysis. By providing innovative and advanced technology, this Core is a valued part of the research program. It generates solutions to problems surrounding the environmental contamination of hazardous substances, and interrogates the risk these substances pose on human health.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Investigation of Ocular Disease and Household Fuel Use in Kaski District, Nepal

(2017) HERO ID: 5018649

[Less] ? DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Solid fuels (coal and biomass) are used for cooking and heating . . . [More] ? DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Solid fuels (coal and biomass) are used for cooking and heating by approximately 3 billion people worldwide-- almost all in the developing world. Kerosene is also widely used for cooking and lighting. These fuels emit into the kitchen high concentrations of pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide and other organic compounds known to affect the eye, such as formaldehyde and naphthalene. Usually, women doing the cooking are the most exposed. There is evidence linking solid fuels to a wide range of health effects, but the impact on eye diseases has not been extensively investigated. Virtually no studies have investigated kerosene use and eye disease. In every part of the world, females are at higher risk of eye disease at all ages. About 90% of visually impaired and blind people lived in developing countries. These two closely related ocular disease studies, which focus on cataract of the lens and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the first and third most common causes of blindness in the world, and dry eye disease, a major cause of pain and discomfort, take advantage of the established infrastructure, including offices, vehicles and trained field staff, and prior data collection-household cooking, heating and lighting appliance use, and air pollution monitoring data--of an earlier NIH-funded epidemiologic study of TB and indoor fuel use, in Pokhara, Nepal. The ocular disease studies are a cross-sectional study investigating cataract and dry eye disease, and a case-control study investigating AMD. In the cross-sectional study, women, aged 40-70 years, from TB study households, chosen on the basis of their cooking, heating and lighting appliance use, will be transported to the Manipal Teaching Hospital in Pokhara, where they will receive a free and comprehensive eye examination. Slit-lamp photos of the crystalline lens will be taken and tests done for dry eye disease. Separately, a case-control study of AMD diagnosed in women attending the hospital will be carried out. Statistical analysis in both studies will focus on examining associations between household fuel uses, for cooking, heating and lighting, and the ocular outcome measures. Together, these will comprise the most comprehensive investigation ever of these potentially causal relationships. Results will have implications for policy and for health interventions. In particular, if evidence is produced that kerosene is a risk factor for eye diseas, then this will strengthen arguments for not treating kerosene as a clean fuel alternative to biomass, as is currently the policy of some international agencies, including WHO. The studies will provide data for reworking cost-benefit analyses of replacing biomass stoves and fuel-based lighting sources with alternatives, such as LPG stoves or electric lighting.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Metabolic mechanisms of naphthalene toxicity in lung

Authors: Ding, X; Van Winkle, LS (2017) RePORTER Database, National Institutes of Health. HERO ID: 5018652

[Less] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are . . . [More] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are widely exposed. NA causes tumors in rats and mice, and has been classified as a Possible Human Carcinogen. The mechanism of NA carcinogenicity is believed to involve repeated cycles of NA-induced acute lung injury and repair. A prerequisite for NA cytotoxicity is its bioactivation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes; the reactive metabolites formed, which derive from the NA-epoxide (NA-O), can deplete cellular glutathione (GSH) and, at higher concentrations, bind covalently to tissue proteins. NA-O can be produced by both lung and liver. The major enzymes responsible for NA bioactivation in the mouse include CYP2A5 and CYP2F2; Cyp2f2-null mice are highly resistant to NA lung toxicity, whereas Cyp2a5-null mice are partially protected against NA nasal toxicity. Both human lung and human liver are capable of metabolizing NA, although large interindividual variations exist in the rates of microsomal NA metabolism and bioactivation. However, the roles of human CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 (orthologs of mouse CYP2A5 and CYP2F2, respectively) in NA bioactivation are not well understood, and the potential impact of variations in hepatic P450 function on an individual's risks of developing NA- mediated lung toxicity remains undefined. The objectives of this application are to define the role of CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 in NA bioactivation and toxicity in the lungs of CYP2A13/2F1-humanized mice; identify human lung regions that are enriched in CYP2A13/2F1 expression; and determine whether P450- mediated NA bioactivation and/or detoxification in the liver could contribute to, or otherwise influence, NA lung toxicity. The central hypothesis is that NA has the potential to cause lung toxicity in humans and that the metabolism of NA in both lung and liver influence the outcome on an individual basis. This hypothesis will be tested in two specific aims that will 1) define the role of CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 in NA bioactivation and toxicity in the lung; 2) define whether hepatic NA metabolism could influence the risks of NA lung toxicity. We will employ a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, and utilize a number of genetically modified mouse models, as well as human tissues and cells, to address the specific aims. The long-term goal of these studies is to define the metabolic mechanisms that influence NA-mediated lung toxicity in experimental animals and humans.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean

Authors: Ma, Y; Halsall, CJ; Xie, Z; Koetke, D; Mi, W; Ebinghaus, R; Gao, G (2017) Environmental Pollution 227:498-504. HERO ID: 3868252

[Less] Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surficial sediments along a marine . . . [More] Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surficial sediments along a marine transect from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The highest average Σ18PAHs concentrations were observed along the continental slope of the Canada Basin in the Arctic (68.3 ± 8.5 ng g(-1) dw), followed by sediments in the Chukchi Sea shelf (49.7 ± 21.2 ng g(-1) dw) and Bering Sea (39.5 ± 11.3 ng g(-1) dw), while the Bering Strait (16.8 ± 7.1 ng g(-1) dw) and Central Arctic Ocean sediments (13.1 ± 9.6 ng g(-1) dw) had relatively lower average concentrations. The use of principal components analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) indicated that on average oil related or petrogenic sources contributed ∼42% of the measured PAHs in the sediments and marked by higher concentrations of two methylnaphthalenes over the non-alkylated parent PAH, naphthalene. Wood and coal combustion contributed ∼32%, and high temperature pyrogenic sources contributing ∼26%. Petrogenic sources, such as oil seeps, allochthonous coal and coastally eroded material such as terrigenous sediments particularly affected the Chukchi Sea shelf and slope of the Canada Basin, while biomass and coal combustion sources appeared to have greater influence in the central Arctic Ocean, possibly due to the effects of episodic summertime forest fires.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of selenium to alleviate naphthalene induced oxidative stress in Trifolium repens L

Authors: Huang, Y; Huang, J; Song, Y; Liu, H (2017) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 143:1-5. HERO ID: 3987303

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous of environmental contaminants, . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous of environmental contaminants, due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. This study investigated the use of selenium (Se) to protect plants from the toxic effects of naphthalene (NPH). Exposing Trifolium repens L. (white clover) to a high concentration of NPH (soil spiked to 500mgkg(-1)) for 60 d significantly decreased biomass, CO2 assimilation rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), while inducing production of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA). Application of Se (soil spiked to 0.5mgkg(-1)) to plants exposed to NPH clearly protected the plants; biomass, Pn, Gs and Ci were significantly higher and contents of MDA and H2O2 decreased. The protection provided to Trifolium repens L. by Se is attributed primarily to an increase in photosynthesis and a decrease in oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that a low concentration of Se protects plants against oxidative stress induced by NPH and can provide a means for improving phytoremediation in PAHs contaminated soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China

Authors: Liu, Z; Li, Q; Wu, Q; Kuo, DTF; Chen, S; Hu, X; Deng, M; Zhang, H; Luo, M (2017) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14. HERO ID: 3993852

[Less] The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined . . . [More] The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in an inverted A²/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal). Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP) were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Microbial degradation of petrochemical waste-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Author: Fulekar, MH (2017) 4:28. HERO ID: 3993864

[Less] BACKGROUND: Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment. The bioremediation will be the innovative techniques to remove the persistent pollutants in the environment.

RESULT: Petrochemical contaminated site was found to be a rich source of microbial consortium degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indigenous microbial consortiums were identified and used for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and anthracene) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm. The potential microorganism was also identified for naphthalene and anthracene, and their bioremediation was studied at varying concentrations. The bioremediation with consortium was found to be comparatively more effective than the potential microorganism used for bioremediation of each compound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential organism was identified by 16S rRNA and further studied for the gene responsible for the PAH compounds.

CONCLUSION: Indigenous microorganism as a consortium has been found effective and efficient source for remediation of organic compound-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and this will also be applicable to remediate the toxic compounds to clean up the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evolutionary, computational, and biochemical studies of the salicylaldehyde dehydrogenases in the naphthalene degradation pathway

Authors: Jia, B; Jia, X; Hyun Kim, K; Ji Pu, Z; Kang, MS; Ok Jeon, C (2017) Scientific Reports 7:43489. HERO ID: 3994070

[Less] Salicylaldehyde (SAL) dehydrogenase (SALD) is responsible for the oxidation of SAL to salicylate using . . . [More] Salicylaldehyde (SAL) dehydrogenase (SALD) is responsible for the oxidation of SAL to salicylate using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a cofactor in the naphthalene degradation pathway. We report the use of a protein sequence similarity network to make functional inferences about SALDs. Network and phylogenetic analyses indicated that SALDs and the homologues are present in bacteria and fungi. The key residues in SALDs were analyzed by evolutionary methods and a molecular simulation analysis. The results showed that the catalytic residue is most highly conserved, followed by the residues binding NAD(+) and then the residues binding SAL. A molecular simulation analysis demonstrated the binding energies of the amino acids to NAD(+) and/or SAL and showed that a conformational change is induced by binding. A SALD from Alteromonas naphthalenivorans (SALDan) that undergoes trimeric oligomerization was characterized enzymatically. The results showed that SALDan could catalyze the oxidation of a variety of aromatic aldehydes. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues binding NAD(+) and/or SAL affected the enzyme's catalytic efficiency, but did not eliminate catalysis. Finally, the relationships among the evolution, catalytic mechanism, and functions of SALD are discussed. Taken together, this study provides an expanded understanding of the evolution, functions, and catalytic mechanism of SALD.