Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Naphthalene


393 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental exposure history and vulvodynia risk: A population-based study

Authors: Reed, BD; McKee, KS; Plegue, MA; Park, SK; Haefner, HK; Harlow, SD (2019) Journal of Women's Health 28:69-76. HERO ID: 5018128

[Less] Background: Risk factors for vulvodynia continue to be elusive. We evaluated the association between . . . [More] Background: Risk factors for vulvodynia continue to be elusive. We evaluated the association between past environmental exposures and the presence of vulvodynia.

Materials and Methods: The history of 28 lifetime environmental exposures was queried in the longitudinal population-based Woman-to-Woman Health Study on the 24-month follow-up survey. Relationships between these and vulvodynia case status were assessed using multinomial logistic regression.

Results: Overall, 1585 women completed the 24-month survey, the required covariate responses, and questions required for case status assessment. Screening positive as a vulvodynia case was associated with history of exposures to home-sprayed chemicals (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides—odds ratio [OR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71–3.58, p < 0.0001), home rodent poison and mothballs (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.25–2.09, p < 0.001), working with solvents and paints (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.68–3.70, p < 0.0001), working as a housekeeper/maid (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.42–3.00, p < 0.0001), working as a manicurist/hairdresser (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.53, p < 0.05), and working at a dry cleaning facility (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.08–4.19, p < 0.05). When classified into nine individual environmental exposure categories and all included in the same model, significant associations remained for four categories (home-sprayed chemicals, home rodent poison or mothballs, paints and solvents, and working as a housekeeper).

Conclusions: This preliminary evaluation suggests a positive association between vulvodynia and the reported history of exposures to a number of household and work-related environmental toxins. Further investigation of timing and dose of environmental exposures, relationship to clinical course, and treatment outcomes is warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mechanism of oxidative DNA damage induced by metabolites of carcinogenic naphthalene

Authors: Ohnishi, S; Hiraku, Y; Hasegawa, K; Hirakawa, K; Oikawa, S; Murata, M; Kawanishi, S (2018) Mutation Research 827:42-49. HERO ID: 4298288

[Less] Naphthalene is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, to which humans are exposed as an air . . . [More] Naphthalene is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, to which humans are exposed as an air pollutant. Naphthalene is metabolized in humans to reactive intermediates such as 1,2-hydroxynaphthalene (1,2-NQH2), 1,4-NQH2, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), and 1,4-NQ. We examined oxidative DNA damage by these naphthalene metabolites using32P-labeled DNA fragments from human cancer-relevant genes. 1,2-NQH2and 1,4-NQH2induced DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II). The DNA-damaging activity of 1,2-NQH2was significantly increased in the presence of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), whereas that of 1,4-NQH2was not. In the presence of NADH, 1,2-NQ induced Cu(II)-dependent DNA damage, whereas 1,4-NQ did not. The calculated energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), which corresponds to the reduction potential, was estimated to be -0.67 eV for 1,2-NQ and -0.75 eV for 1,4-NQ. These results suggest that 1,2-NQ was reduced more easily than 1,4-NQ. Furthermore, 1,2-NQH2, 1,4-NQH2, and 1,2-NQ plus NADH formed 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) as an oxidative DNA marker. Catalase and bathocuproine inhibited DNA damage, suggesting that H2O2and Cu(I) were involved. These results indicate that NQH2s are oxidized to the corresponding NQs via semiquinone radicals, and that H2O2and Cu(I) are generated during oxidation. 1,2-NQ is reduced by NADH to form the redox cycle, resulting in enhanced DNA damage. The formation of the corresponding semiquinone radicals was supported by an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study. In conclusion, the redox cycle of 1,2-NQ/1,2-NQH2may play a more important role in the carcinogenicity of naphthalene than that of 1,4-NQ/1,4-NQH2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Naphthalene DNA adduct formation and tolerance in the lung

Authors: Buchholz, BA; Carratt, SA; Kuhn, EA; Collette, NM; Ding, X; Van Winkle, LS (2018) Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. HERO ID: 4715969

[Less] Naphthalene (NA) is a respiratory toxicant and possible human carcinogen. NA is a ubiquitous combustion . . . [More] Naphthalene (NA) is a respiratory toxicant and possible human carcinogen. NA is a ubiquitous combustion product and significant component of jet fuel. The National Toxicology Program found that NA forms tumors in two species, in rats (nose) and mice (lung). However, it has been argued that NA does not pose a cancer risk to humans because NA is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes that have very high efficiency in the lung tissue of rodents but low efficiency in the lung tissue of humans. It is thought that NA carcinogenesis in rodents is related to repeated cycles of lung epithelial injury and repair, an indirect mechanism. Repeated in vivo exposure to NA leads to development of tolerance, with the emergence of cells more resistant to NA insult. We tested the hypothesis that tolerance involves reduced susceptibility to the formation of NA-DNA adducts. NA-DNA adduct formation in tolerant mice was examined in individual, metabolically-active mouse airways exposed ex vivo to 250 μM 14C-NA. Ex vivo dosing was used since it had been done previously and the act of creating a radioactive aerosol of a potential carcinogen posed too many safety and regulatory obstacles. Following extensive rinsing to remove unbound 14C-NA, DNA was extracted and 14C-NA-DNA adducts were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The tolerant mice appeared to have slightly lower NA-DNA adduct levels than non-tolerant controls, but intra-group variations were large and the difference was statistically insignificant. It appears the tolerance may be more related to other mechanisms, such as NA-protein interactions in the airway, than DNA-adduct formation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of airborne particulates on respiratory tract deposition of inhaled toluene and naphthalene in the rat

Authors: Roberts, SM; Rohr, AC; Mikheev, VB; Munson, J; Sabo-Attwood, T (2018) Inhalation Toxicology 30:19-28. HERO ID: 4730996

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) tend to deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while ultrafine (or near ultrafine) particulate matter (PM) (∼100 nm) reaches the lower airways. The objective of this study was to determine whether carbon particle co-exposure carries VOCs/SVOCs deeper into the lungs where they are deposited.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation (nose-only) to radiolabeled toluene (20 ppm) or naphthalene (20 ppm) on a single occasion for 1 h, with or without concurrent carbon particle exposure (∼5 mg/m3). The distribution of radiolabel deposited within the respiratory tract of each animal was determined after sacrifice. The extent of adsorption of toluene and naphthalene to airborne carbon particles under the exposure conditions of the study was also assessed.

RESULTS: We found that in the absence of particles, the highest deposition of both naphthalene and toluene was observed in the upper respiratory tract. Co-exposure with carbon particles tended to increase naphthalene deposition slightly throughout the respiratory tract, whereas slight decreases in toluene deposition were observed. Few differences were statistically significant. Naphthalene showed greater adsorption to the particles compared to toluene, but overall the particle-adsorbed concentration of each of these compounds was a small fraction of the total inspired concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: These studies imply that at the concentrations used for the exposures in this study, inhaled carbon particles do not substantially alter the deposition of naphthalene and toluene within the respiratory tract.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population in a Middle Eastern area

Authors: Hoseini, M; Nabizadeh, R; Delgado-Saborit, JM; Rafiee, A; Yaghmaeian, K; Parmy, S; Faridi, S; Hassanvand, MS; Yunesian, M; Naddafi, K (2018) Environmental Pollution 240:781-792. HERO ID: 5018173

[Less] The aim of this study was to investigate environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to PAHs . . . [More] The aim of this study was to investigate environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to PAHs in the general population in a large city of the Middle East (Tehran) by measuring urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and establishing relationships between PAHs exposure and related factors. Urine samples were collected from 222 randomly chosen subjects who were living in the urban area of Tehran, Iran. Subjects were required to complete a detailed questionnaire aimed to document their personal and sociodemographic information, activities, cooking-related appliances, smoking history/exposure, and consumed foodstuff. Identification and quantification of six OH-PAHs was carried out using a gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The geometric means for 1-OHP, 1-NAP, 2-NAP, 2-FLU, 9-FLU, and 9-PHE for whole population study were 310, 1220, 3070, 530, 330, and 130 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The two naphthalene metabolites contributed on average 77% of the total concentration of six measured OH-PAHs, followed by the 2-FLU, 1-OHP, 9-FLU, and 9-PHE. The most important predictors of urinary PAHs were consumption of grilled/barbecued foods, smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoking. Water pipe smoking was linked to urinary OH-PAH metabolite in a dose-response function. Residential traffic was also related with OH-PAH metabolite concentrations. Other factors including gender, age, exposure to common house insecticides, open burning, and candle burning were found to be statistically associated with the urinary levels of some OH-PAHs. High exposure to PAHs among general population in Middle Eastern large cities and its associated health implications calls for public health measures to reduce PAHs exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Demonstration of the contributions of pulmonary CYPs to naphthalene-induced airway toxicity using lung-Cpr-null mice

Authors: Kovalchuk, N; Zhang, QYu; Van Winkle, L; Ding, X (2018) FASEB Journal 32:529.3. [Abstract] HERO ID: 5019271

[Less] Naphthalene (NA) is an omnipresent air pollutant and respiratory toxicant. NA induces cytotoxicity in . . . [More] Naphthalene (NA) is an omnipresent air pollutant and respiratory toxicant. NA induces cytotoxicity in airways following bioactivation by CYP (P450) enzymes. Previous studies suggested that liver and lung are both capable of bioactivating NA in vitro and in vivo. However, direct evidence for a specific role of pulmonary P450 enzymes in mediating NA-induced airway toxicity, particularly upon exposure to NA via the systemic route, is still lacking.

The aim of this study was to examine the specific contribution of pulmonary CYPs to airway toxicity of NA using a lung-Cpr-null mouse. We predicted that lung epithelial cells that lack Cpr expression, which would have little microsomal P450 activity, would be resistant to NA-induced cytotoxicity. Cre-mediated deletion of Cpr in the lung-Cpr-null mouse occurred in a substantial proportion of the Club cells, which, before undergoing Cpr deletion, had high ability to bioactivate NA. Under the conditions used, doxycycline-induced deletion of Cpr occurred in 66% of Club cells in proximal airways and 86% of Club cells in distal airways, based on the results of a dual immunofluorescence study. Levels of NA and NA-GSH (a biomarker of NA bioactivation) were similar in the plasma of lung-Cpr-null mice and their control littermates after administration of a single bolus dose of NA (200 mg/kg). Histological examination of airways revealed that NA-induced damage of epithelial cells is focal and mild in lung-Cpr-null mice compared to severe exfoliation of epithelial cells in most airways in NA-treated control mice. Moreover, the number of proliferating (BrdU-positive) airway epithelial cells was 4-fold lower in NA-treated lung-Cpr-null mice than in NA-treated control littermates.

These results confirm that CYPs in the lung can mediate NA-induced airway epithelial damage in vivo.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

2-Naphthol Levels and Allergic Disorders in Children

Authors: Lin, TJ; Guo, YL; Hsu, JC; Wang, IJ (2018) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15. HERO ID: 5019338

[Less] BACKGROUND: The measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air is quite difficult to perform. Using urine biomarkers of PAH such as 2-naphthol is one approach to this problem. This study explored the association between urine 2-naphthol levels and allergic diseases. The associations between 2-naphthol levels and oxidative stress biomarkers for the possible disease pathogenesis were also investigated.

METHOD: A total of 453 kindergarten children from the (Childhood Environment and Allergic Diseases Study) CEAS cohort with urine samples were recruited. Urine 2-naphthol levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and markers of oxidative stress (8OHdG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Information on environmental risk factors and allergic diseases were also collected. The association between 2-naphthol levels, 8OHdG levels, IgE, and allergic diseases were evaluated by multivariate linear regression and logistic regression.

RESULTS: Levels of 2-naphthol were positively correlated with 8OHdG levels. A one ln-unit increase in the 2-naphthol level was positively associated to 8OHdG levels (per ln-unit: β = 100.61, p < 0.001). When dividing 2-naphthol levels into quartiles, asthma was significantly associated with 2-naphthol levels at a concentration of >1.60 ng/mL (adjusted OR: 3.14, 95% CI 1.34⁻7.35).

CONCLUSION: Urine 2-naphthol levels are associated with markers of oxidative stress and the risk of allergic diseases in young children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Severe hemolytic anemia due to ingesting naphthalene-containing moth repellent balls

Authors: Wills, B; Willis, D; Bullock, A; Cumpston, K (2018) Clinical Toxicology 56:1082-1082. [Abstract] HERO ID: 5019503

[Less] Background: The vast majority of pediatric mothball ingestions result in minimal toxicity. In 2016 the . . . [More] Background: The vast majority of pediatric mothball ingestions result in minimal toxicity. In 2016 the National Poison Data System reported only three major outcomes from naphthalene. We report a case of severe hemolytic anemia after ingestion of moth repellent balls containing naphthalene.
Case report: A 14-month-old male with history of sickle cell trait on no daily medications, presented to the emergency department with lethargy. His mother reported finding him eating naphthalene-containing mothballs 2 d prior. He initially vomited twice, then developed irritability, lethargy and fever over the following 24 to 48 h. Fragments of moth balls were noted by the mother in his diaper. On arrival, vital signs included: temperature of 38.9; HR 178 bpm; BP 102/82 mmHg; respiratory rate 40; SpO2 95%. Physical exam revealed mild distress, crying, tachypnea and scleral icterus. Heart and lung exam was normal. Initial laboratory studies included hemoglobin 3.6 g/dl (10.9 g/dl 20 d earlier), indirect bilirubin 1.8 mg/dl, LDH 3331 u/l (0–85), haptoglogin 43 mg/dl (35–200) and methemoglobin of 6%. The patient was treated with a single transfusion of packed red blood cells and supportive care. Methylene blue was not used. Additional workup while hospitalized included peripheral blood smear and G6PD. He recovered fully and was discharged after a 2-d hospitalization.
Case Discussion: Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia have been reported from exposures to naphthalene but is rare. Toxicity can be more severe in those with G6PD deficiency, infants, sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait. Methylene blue was not used due to the combination of low methemoglobin level and concern for further hemolysis.
Conclusion: This was a case of severe hemolytic anemia due to ingestion of naphthalene moth balls, likely magnified due to his concomitant sickle cell trait.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Latent class analysis of the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures and body mass index

Authors: Hendryx, M; Luo, J (2018) Environment International 121:227-231. HERO ID: 5018149

[Less] BACKGROUND: People experience multiple co-occurring exposures to environmental pollutants, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: People experience multiple co-occurring exposures to environmental pollutants, but analyses of multiple exposures have rarely been reported.

OBJECTIVES: We used latent class analysis to estimate co-exposures to multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and tested the associations of latent classes to body mass index.

METHODS: We analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 data. The sample included 2354 people aged 6-80 years. Measures included seven urinary PAH metabolites, BMI, and demographic and behavioral covariates. People were classified into mutually exclusive latent classes characterized by unique profiles of multiple PAH exposures. These classes were used as categorical independent variables in weighted multiple regression models with BMI as the dependent measure. Models were analyzed overall and by age groups (6-19, 20-59, and 60 and over.) We compared results using latent classes to results using a summed PAH exposure measure.

RESULTS: Five latent classes were identified. Two of these classes were significantly associated with higher BMI overall (p < .0001) and for the two youngest age groups. One of these classes was characterized by high multiple exposures across all PAHs, and one by moderate exposures but relatively high naphthalene and phenanthrene. The summed PAH score was associated with higher BMI only for the youngest age group.

CONCLUSIONS: Persons experience multiple co-exposures to PAHs that are related to BMI and obesity across age groups. Latent class analysis provides information on higher order interactions among multiple chemicals that a summed score does not. Future work may apply this approach to other outcomes or types of co-exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between maternal residential proximity to air emissions from industrial facilities and low birth weight in Texas, USA

Authors: Gong, X; Lin, Y; Bell, ML; Zhan, FB (2018) Environment International 120:181-198. HERO ID: 4885055

[Less] BACKGROUND: Most previous studies examining associations between maternal exposures . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Most previous studies examining associations between maternal exposures to air pollutants during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) in offspring focused on criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and Pb). The relationship between non-criteria air pollutants and LBW is understudied and requires greater coverage.

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between maternal residential exposure to industrial air pollutants during pregnancy and LBW in offspring.

METHODS: This study used a case-control study design that included 94,106 term LBW cases and 376,424 controls. It covered 78 air pollutants common to both the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and ground air quality monitoring databases in Texas during 1996-2008. A modified version of the Emission Weighted Proximity Model (EWPM), calibrated with ground monitoring data, was used to estimate maternal residential exposure to industrial air pollutants during pregnancy. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) reflecting the associations of maternal exposure to industrial air pollutants and LBW in offspring, adjusted for child's sex, gestational weeks, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, marital status, prenatal care, tobacco use during pregnancy, public health region of maternal residence, and year of birth. In addition, the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied to the results of logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: Relative to the non-exposed reference group, maternal residential exposure to benzene (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.08), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), cumene (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.07), cyclohexane (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), dichloromethane (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03, 1.07), ethylbenzene (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), ethylene (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03, 1.09), mercury (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), naphthalene (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05), n-hexane (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04, 1.08), propylene (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03, 1.10), styrene (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04, 1.08), toluene (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.07), and zinc (fume or dust) (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06, 1.13) was found to have significantly higher odds of LBW in offspring. When the estimated exposures were categorized into four different groups (zero, low, medium, and high) in the analysis, eleven of the fourteen air pollutants, with the exception of benzo(g,h,i)perylene, ethylene, and propylene, remained as significant risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that maternal residential proximity to industrial facilities emitting any of the fourteen pollutants identified by this study during pregnancy may be associated with LBW in offspring. With the exception of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and zinc, the rest of the fourteen air pollutants are identified as LBW risk factors for the first time by this study. Further epidemiological, biological, and toxicological studies are suggested to verify the findings from this study.