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PCBs (1336-36-3)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Experimental and Theoretical Insights into the Involvement of Radicals in Triclosan Phototransformation

Authors: Kliegman, S; Eustis, SN; Arnold, WA; Mcneill, K (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1609851

[Less] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence . . . [More] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence in the environment and the discovery of 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin as a photoproduct. In this study, photolysis of triclosan resulted in several primary photoproducts including the following: 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin (4%), 4,5'-dichloro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2,2'-diol (10%), 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol (0.5%), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (7%). Trapping studies using d(8)-isopropanol showed deuterium incorporation in 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol, providing strong evidence for the involvement of organic radicals in this reaction. Density functional calculations of the excited states of triclosan support the involvement of a radical intermediate in the mechanisms responsible for the dioxin, biphenyl, and phenoxyphenol photoproducts. The pathways for C-Cl bond cleavage and cyclization reactions are discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity

Author: Sorg, O (In Press) HERO ID: 2149430

[Less] Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in . . . [More] Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of long-range transport, trophic position and diet specialization on legacy contaminant occurrence in great skuas, Stercorarius skua, breeding across the Northeast Atlantic

Authors: Leat, EHK; Bourgeon, S; Hanssen, SA; Petersen, A; Strøm, H; Bjørn, TH; Gabrielsen, GW; Bustnes, JO; Furness, RW; Haarr, A; Borgå, K (2019) HERO ID: 5016857

[Less] High levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) have been found in the marine predatory seabird . . . [More] High levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) have been found in the marine predatory seabird great skua (Stercorarius skua) from breeding colonies in the Northeastern Atlantic, with large unexplained inter-colony variation. The present study aimed at analyzing if the HOCs occurrence in breeding great skuas in remote colonies was explained by local baseline food web exposure determined by long-range transport, or by ecological factors such as diet specialization and relative trophic position in the breeding area. The occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was analyzed in plasma of 204 adult great skuas collected over two years (2008 and 2009) and 5 colonies across the North-Atlantic from Shetland to Svalbard. The ΣHOCs levels in plasma ranged across two orders of magnitude, from 40 to 7600 ng/g (wet weight) and differed significantly across the great skua colonies. The variation in contaminant occurrence among colonies did not reflect long-range transport through a latitudinal or remoteness gradient, as the second northernmost colony (Bjørnøya), had the highest contaminant concentrations. No latitudinal or remoteness gradient was evident in the contaminant pattern among the colonies. The contaminant levels increased significantly with increasing δ15N values, and regurgitated pellets of undigested prey suggested that great skuas with higher δ15N values had a higher proportion of bird prey in their diet, mostly seabirds. In contrast, great skuas from colonies with lower δ15N and lower contaminant level fed mostly on fish. The enrichment of δ13C increased with decreasing δ15N and lower contaminant levels. Therefore, individual behavior of great skuas, such as migration strategies and diet specialization, rather than long-range transport and thus baseline food web exposure, explain among and within colony variance in contaminant occurrence.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminant patterns in soils from landfill mining

Author: Hölzle, I (2019) Waste Management 83:151-160. HERO ID: 5016938

[Less] Landfill mining is used to close the material loops by recovering recyclables from landfills. Previous . . . [More] Landfill mining is used to close the material loops by recovering recyclables from landfills. Previous research has focused on material composition reporting that, worldwide, landfills mainly consist of soil-like materials ("soils") and combustibles. Although soils have been investigated in a few studies, the results are limited to the presentation of substance concentrations without further analysing the substance patterns (e.g. correlation between substances). This research identifies similarities in substance concentrations within and between landfills, analysing approximately 300 soil samples from eight excavated landfills. Statistical tests enabled the determination of substance variations and correlations. Substance concentration correlations were found between several heavy metals (in particular zinc), sulphate and electrical conductivity, as well as ammonium nitrogen and biodegradability. With regard to contamination prediction, sulphate, pH and total organic carbon proved to be the most efficient indicator elements. Legal limit values have proven to be efficient to manage substance flows in terms of chloride, sulphate, cadmium, lead and zinc, but were ineffective with respect to biodegradability, PCB, benzo[a]pyrene and cyanides.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental ototoxicants, a potential new class of chemical stressors

Authors: Fábelová, L; Loffredo, CA; Klánová, J; Hilscherová, K; Horvat, M; Tihányi, J; Richterová, D; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľ; Wimmerová, S; Sisto, R; Moleti, A; Trnovec, T (2019) Environmental Research 171:378-394. [Review] HERO ID: 5039987

[Less] Hearing loss is an injury that can develop over time, and people may not even be aware of it until it . . . [More] Hearing loss is an injury that can develop over time, and people may not even be aware of it until it becomes a severe disability. Ototoxicants are substances that may damage the inner ear by either affecting the structures in the ear itself or by affecting the nervous system. We have examined the possibility that ototoxicants may present a health hazard in association with environmental exposures, adding to existing knowledge of their proven hazards under medical therapeutic conditions or occupational activities. In addition to the already described human environmental ototoxicants, mainly organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), we have examined the ubiquitous chemical stressors phthalates, bisphenol A/S/F/, PFCs, flame retardants (FRs) and cadmium for potential ototoxic properties, both as single substances or as chemical mixtures. Our literature review confirmed that these chemicals may disturb thyroid hormones homeostasis, activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and induce oxidative stress, which in turn may initiate a chain of events resulting in impairment of cochlea and hearing loss. With regard to auditory plasticity, diagnostics of a mixture of effects of ototoxicants, potential interactions of chemical and physical agents with effects on hearing, parallel deterioration of hearing due to chemical exposures and ageing, metabolic diseases or obesity, even using specific methods as brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) registration, may be difficult, and establishment of concentration-response relationships problematic. This paper suggests the establishment of a class of environmental oxotoxicants next to the established classes of occupational and drug ototoxicants. This will help to properly manage risks associated with human exposure to chemical stressors with ototoxic properties and adequate regulatory measures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Differential occurrence, profiles and uptake of dust contaminants in the Barcelona urban area

Authors: Velázquez-Gómez, M; Hurtado-Fernández, E; Lacorte, S (2019) HERO ID: 5043338

[Less] Dust is a complex but increasingly used matrix to assess human exposure to organic contaminants both . . . [More] Dust is a complex but increasingly used matrix to assess human exposure to organic contaminants both in indoor and outdoor environments. Knowledge concerning the effects of organic pollution towards health outcome is crucial. This study is aimed to determine the presence of legacy compounds (DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs), compounds used in recent times (organophosphorous flame retardants, organophosphorous pesticides, BPA, phthalates and alkylphenols) and compounds originated from combustion processes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) as well as nicotine in indoor environments along the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Monitored sites include public areas with high turnout (high schools, museums samples) and libraries and private spaces (houses and cars). Almost all compounds (57 over the 59 targeted) were found in each dust sample and libraries and schools were the most contaminated, with concentrations of ∑phthalates and ∑OPFRs up to 15 and 10 mg g-1, respectively. One-way ANOVA tests, Tukey contrasts and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that sampling place influenced the observed contamination profiles and public and private environments were clearly differentiated. Finally, based on the concentrations detected, a deterministic calculation was performed to estimate the total daily intakes of each compound via dust. This information was used to evaluate the human exposure for toddlers, teenagers and adult workers. Consistently, the highest concentrations coming from plasticisers and flame retardants gave the major exposure rates. As expected, toddlers were the most affected group followed by museum and library workers, although the levels were below the reference doses.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of pops contaminated sites and the need for stringent soil standards for food safety for the protection of human health

Authors: Weber, R; Bell, L; Watson, A; Petrlik, J; Paun, MC; Vijgen, J (2019) Environmental Pollution 249:703-715. HERO ID: 5080555

[Less] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are . . . [More] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most important and hazardous pollutants of soil. Food producing animals such as chicken, beef, sheep and goats can take up soil while grazing or living outdoors (free-range) and this can result in contamination. In recent decades, large quantities of brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and per- and polyfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been produced and released into the environment and this has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and other environmental matrices. These POPs also bioaccumulate and can contaminate food of animal origin resulting in indirect exposure of humans. Recent assessments of chicken and beef have shown that surprisingly low concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil can result in exceedances of regulatory limits in food. Soil contamination limits have been established in a number of countries for PCDD/Fs but it has been shown that the contamination levels which result in regulatory limits in food (the maximum levels in the European Union) being exceeded, are below all the existing soil regulatory limits. 'Safe' soil levels are exceeded in many areas around emission sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. On the other hand, PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB levels in soil in rural areas, without a contamination source, are normally safe for food producing animals housed outdoors resulting in healthy food (e.g. meat, eggs, milk). For the majority of POPs (e.g. PBDEs, PFOS, PFOA, SCCP) no regulatory limits in soils exist. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop appropriate and protective soil standards minimising human exposure from food producing animals housed outdoors. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to eliminate POPs pollution sources for soils and to control, secure and remediate contaminated sites and reservoirs, in order to reduce exposure and guarantee food safety.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of glycerophospholipid metabolism after exposure to PCB153 in PC12 cells through targeted lipidomics by UHPLC-MS/MS

Authors: Wang, X; Xu, Y; Song, X; Jia, Q; Zhang, X; Qian, Y; Qiu, J (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 169:120-127. HERO ID: 5101419

[Less] Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have neurotoxicity, reproductive . . . [More] Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity in both animals and humans. Few studies have focused on the changes to endogenous glycerophospholipid metabolism caused by PCB153. To evaluate the relationships between exposure to PCB153 and specific endogenous glycerophospholipid metabolism, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was implemented in this study. Twenty-two endogenous glycerophospholipids in PC12 cells were analyzed after exposure to PCB153 at dosages of 0.05 μg mL-1, 0.5 μg mL-1 or 20 μg mL-1 for 120 h. PC(14:0/14:0), PE(16:0/18:1), PE(16:0/18:2), PS(18:0/18:1) and PI(16:0/18:1) were identified as potential biomarkers under the rules of t-test (P) value < 0.05 and variable importance at projection (VIP) value > 1. It was also found that the alterations at 0.05 μg mL-1 and 20 μg mL-1 PCB153 were similar at 120 h, while 0.5 μg mL-1 PCB153 presented an opposite trend. Additionally, significant upregulation of PC, PE and PS with the same fatty acid chains of 18:0/18:2 was found after exposure to 0.05 μg mL-1 and 20 μg mL-1 PCB153 at 120 h. This study revealed that PCB153 exposure modulated 22 endogenous glycerophospholipids in PC12 cells and provided the basis for the further study of PCB153 on the effects of glycerophospholipids on PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Design of a simple and novel photoelectrochemical aptasensor for detection of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl

Authors: Fan, L; Zhang, C; Shi, H; Zhao, G (2019) HERO ID: 5115044

[Less] In view of the urgent need of determining polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment, we developed . . . [More] In view of the urgent need of determining polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment, we developed a highly sensitive and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for determination of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) by immobilizing aptamer on N-doped TiO2 nanotubes (N-doped TiO2 NTs). To improve analytical performance of the PEC sensor, the complementary DNA functionalized CdS quantum dots (DNA-CdS QDs) were introduced onto N-doped TiO2 NTs by hybridization. In addition of PCB77, owing to high affinity of aptamer to PCB77, PCB77-aptamer complexes were formed by being bound of PCB77 whilst DNA-CdS QDs were released from the sensing surface. The complexes with poor conductivity hindered the interfacial electron transfer, leading to the photocurrent decrease. The more important is the release of DNA-CdS QDs enhanced the photocurrent decrease, playing the role of signal amplification. The photocurrent change was utilized to detect PCB77 quantitatively. The PEC aptasensor exhibited excellent analytical performance for detection of PCB77 with wide linear range of 0.1-100 ng/L and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng/L. It manifested outstanding selectivity for PCB77 in control experiments by employing six interferents which had similar structure or coexisted with PCB77. Besides, the PEC aptasensor was used to detect the content of PBC77 in the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impacts of hazardous metals and PAHs in fine and coarse particles with long-range transports in Taipei City

Authors: Hsu, CY; Chiang, HC; Chen, MJ; Yang, TT; Wu, YS; Chen, YC (2019) HERO ID: 5119809

[Less] This study assessed the impact on air quality and health risk by long-range transported (LRT) PM2.5-10- . . . [More] This study assessed the impact on air quality and health risk by long-range transported (LRT) PM2.5-10- and PM2.5-bound metals and PAHs in Taipei City, Taiwan. Several methods with receptor aerosol measurements were used to quantify the effect of LRT. The hybrid single particle lagrangian integrated trajectory model (HYSPLIT) was used in conjunction with the potential source contribution function (PSCF) to distinguish the LRT aerosols. By using a general linear model (GLM) with a marginal mean and positive matrix fraction (PMF), this study also evaluated the annual increased level of LRT (AIRLRT) for each source contribution to the concentration and the resultant health risk of particle-bound metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The LRT influenced fine-sized metals and PAHs rather than coarse-sized ones. We found that the level of PM2.5-bound toxic metals (Pb, Cd, and As) and PAHs (Benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene) could increase by 90% under the influence of LRT in 2014, while an AIRLRT value of 25% for the PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. Overall, the excess cancer risk (ECR) resulting from PM2.5-bound metal and PAH exposures was 6.40 × 10-5 in relation to coal combustions (20.7%), traffic-related emissions (59.7%) and re-suspended aerosols (19.6%). Among these contributors, LRT-related metals and PAHs in PM2.5 accounted for 51% of the total ECR.