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PCBs (1336-36-3)

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1,212 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from the maternal diet may be associated with immunosuppressive effects that persist into early childhood

Authors: Stølevik, SB; Nygaard, UC; Namork, E; Haugen, M; Meltzer, HM; Alexander, J; Knutsen, HK; Aaberge, I; Vainio, K; van Loveren, H; Løvik, M; Granum, B (2013) Food and Chemical Toxicology 51:165-172. HERO ID: 1510358

[Less] We investigated whether prenatal exposure from the maternal diet to the toxicants polychlorinated biphenyls . . . [More] We investigated whether prenatal exposure from the maternal diet to the toxicants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with the development of immune-related diseases in childhood. Children participating in BraMat, a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), were followed in the three first years of life using annual questionnaires (0-3years; n=162, 2-3years; n=180), and blood parameters were examined at three years of age (n=114). The maternal intake of the toxicants was calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from MoBa. Maternal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with an increased risk of wheeze and more frequent upper respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, maternal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with reduced antibody response to a measles vaccine. No associations were found between prenatal exposure and immunophenotype data, allergic sensitization and vaccine-induced antibody responses other than measles. Our results suggest that prenatal dietary exposure to PCBs and dioxins may increase the risk of wheeze and the susceptibility to infectious diseases in early childhood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain

Authors: Noble, KG; Houston, SM; Kan, E; Sowell, ER (2012) Developmental Science 15:516-527. HERO ID: 1241229

[Less] Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional . . . [More] Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that language, memory, social-emotional processing, and cognitive control exhibit relatively large differences across SES. Here we investigated whether volumetric differences could be observed across SES in several neural regions that support these skills. In a sample of 60 socioeconomically diverse children, highly significant SES differences in regional brain volume were observed in the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, SES × age interactions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increasing SES differences with age in these regions. These results were not explained by differences in gender, race or IQ. Likely mechanisms include differences in the home linguistic environment and exposure to stress, which may serve as targets for intervention at a time of high neural plasticity.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs based on total diet study results

Author: Egan, K (2012) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 1289955


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pre- and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and longitudinal measures of thymus volume in infants

Authors: Jusko, TA; Sonneborn, D; Palkovicova, L; Kocan, A; Drobna, B; Trnovec, T; Hertz-Picciotto, I (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:595-600. HERO ID: 994227

[Less] BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported an association between higher maternal polychlorinated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported an association between higher maternal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and smaller thymus volume in newborns in a birth cohort residing in eastern Slovakia.

OBJECTIVE: In the present report we address whether thymus volume at later ages is influenced by prenatal and early postnatal PCB exposure.

METHODS: At the time of delivery, 1,134 mother-infant pairs were enrolled. Maternal and 6- and 16-month infant blood samples were collected and analyzed for 15 PCB congeners. Thymus volume was measured in infants shortly after birth and at ages 6 and 16 months using ultrasonography.

RESULTS: Higher maternal PCB concentration was associated with reduced thymus volume at birth [a 0.21 SD reduction in thymus volume for an increase in total maternal PCB concentration from the 10th to the 90th percentile; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.37, -0.05], whereas maternal PCB concentration was not predictive of 6- and 16-month thymus volume. Six-month infant PCB concentration was associated with a 0.40 SD decrease in 6-month thymus volume (95% CI: -0.76, -0.04). There was also some suggestion that thymus volume at 16 months was positively associated with concurrent infant PCB concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: The potential adverse effects of in utero PCB exposure on thymic development may extend beyond the neonatal period. Results from this highly exposed cohort provide suggestive evidence that postnatal PCB concentrations may be influential, but a smaller set of 6-month PCB measurements limited statistical power at that time point. Implications regarding impaired immunologic maturation or long-term clinical implications remain to be determined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neurodevelopmental and behavioral toxicity via lactational exposure to the sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like-polychlorinated biphenyls (∑6 NDL-PCBs) in mice

Authors: Elnar, AA; Diesel, B; Desor, F; Feidt, C; Bouayed, J; Kiemer, AK; Soulimani, R (2012) Toxicology 299:44-54. HERO ID: 1323584

[Less] In this study, the neurobehavioral toxicity of lactational exposure to a representative mixture of the . . . [More] In this study, the neurobehavioral toxicity of lactational exposure to a representative mixture of the six indicator non-dioxin-like-polychlorinated biphenyls (∑6 NDL-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) found in contaminated fish matrices were assessed in neonatal (postnatal day 0) to adult (postnatal day 275) mice. Thus, a battery of developmental, behavioral and cognitive tests was performed. The performance of mice whose mothers were orally exposed to ∑6 NDL-PCBs at environmental doses of 1 ng/kg, 10 ng/kg or 100 ng/kg was compared to that of mice whose mothers were orally exposed to vehicle. Our results showed that neonatal offspring mice exposed to ∑6 NDL-PCBs through lactation exhibited significantly longer turning reflexes on postnatal days 7 and 9 (p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively) at 100 ng/kg and showed a reduction in their general activity at 1 ng/kg (p=0.002) and 10 ng/kg (p=0.001) compared to controls. However, these developmental alterations were sex-dependent; only the female reflexes and male locomotor activity were affected. These disturbances were transient, and they disappeared with age. In addition, the males' visuomotor integration was also altered at the doses of 1 ng/kg (p=0.02) and 100 ng/kg (p=0.004), as revealed by the WESPOC test. Nevertheless, lactational exposure to ∑6 NDL-PCBs (1-100 ng/kg) resulted in persistent disturbances despite a long post-weaning period; the exposed mice exhibited anxious behavior that was detected at more progressive life stages, i.e., at postnatal days 40 and 160, using an elevated plus maze and the light/dark choice test, respectively. This persistent anxious behavior could be related to the overexpression of RyR₃ in the cerebellum via the disruption of calcium signaling in the neurons. We found no differences in the offspring mice with regard to their cognitive function and mood or mRNA neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in several brain areas, including 5-HT(1A), MOR₁ and GABA(Aα1), suggesting the absence of adverse effects of postnatal exposure to ∑6 NDL-PCBs under these conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that regular consumption of contaminated fish matrices by lactating women could be detrimental to the neurodevelopment of their newborns.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pre-natal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and infant lower respiratory tract infections and wheeze

Authors: Gascon, M; Vrijheid, M; Martínez, D; Ballester, F; Basterrechea, M; Blarduni, E; Esplugues, A; Vizcaino, E; Grimalt, JO; Morales, E; Sunyer, J; Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) (INMA) project (2012) European Respiratory Journal 39:1188-1196. HERO ID: 1509479

[Less] The aim of our study was to examine whether pre-natal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) . . . [More] The aim of our study was to examine whether pre-natal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and wheeze in infants. The study is based on a birth cohort of 1,455 mother-child pairs. Maternal serum concentrations of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured during pregnancy. Parental reports on LRTI and wheeze were obtained when children were 12-14 months old. 35.4% of children developed at least one LRTI episode and 33.6% at least one wheezing episode during their first 12-14 months of life. Median DDE, PCBs and HCB concentrations were 116.3, 113.7 and 46.4 ng · g(-1) lipid, respectively. DDE concentrations were associated with LRTI risk (relative risk (RR) per 10% increase 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), also after adjustment for PCBs and HCB. In all quartiles of DDE exposure, the risk of LRTI was increased compared with the lowest quartile, but the increase was statistically significant only in the third quartile (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.62). No association was observed for PCBs and HCB. Results were similar for wheeze. This study suggests that pre-natal DDE exposure is associated with a higher risk of LRTI and wheeze in infants independently of exposure to other organochlorine compounds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson's disease neuropathology

Authors: Hatcher-Martin, JM; Gearing, M; Steenland, K; Levey, AI; Miller, GW; Pennell, KD (2012) NeuroToxicology 33:1298-1304. HERO ID: 1510283

[Less] Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in . . . [More] Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson's disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson's disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson's disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and laboratory studies reporting a link between PCB exposure and an increased risk for Parkinson's disease, including greater susceptibility of females.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls with IL-8 mRNA expression in blood samples from asthmatic and non-asthmatic Japanese children

Authors: Tsuji, M; Vogel, CFA; Koriyama, C; Akiba, S; Katoh, T; Kawamoto, T; Matsumura, F (2012) Chemosphere 87:1228-1234. HERO ID: 1510368

[Less] BACKGROUND: One of the suggested health outcomes of PCB exposure is childhood asthma.
[More] BACKGROUND: One of the suggested health outcomes of PCB exposure is childhood asthma.

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to find health relevant biomarkers providing the molecular epidemiological evidence for the positive relationship between exposure to PCBs and childhood asthma.

METHODS: Blood samples from fifteen asthmatic children as well as an equal number of non-asthmatic children (average 2 year old) were collected, and were analyzed for PCBs and their select marker expression by using qRT-PCR.

RESULTS: Among biomarkers examined IL-8 expression was significantly correlated to serum levels of PCB #163+164 (P=0.022), #170 (P=0.046), #177 (P=0.022), #178 (P=0.022) and #180+193 (P=0.046) in a dose-dependent manner, which was found only among asthmatic children. In contrast, COX-2 correlations to individual congener levels were recognized only among control subjects, not among asthmatic subjects.

CONCLUSION: Serum concentrations of PCB#163+164, #170, #177, #178 and #180+193 correlate significantly with IL-8 mRNA expressions among asthmatic children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and neuropsychological status among older adults in New York

Authors: Fitzgerald, EF; Shrestha, S; Gomez, MI; Mccaffrey, RJ; Zimmerman, EA; Kannan, K; Hwang, SA (2012) NeuroToxicology 33:8-15. HERO ID: 1510253

[Less] Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are emerging environmental contaminants, but little is known . . . [More] Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are emerging environmental contaminants, but little is known about their possible human health effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PBDEs and neuropsychological function among older adults and the possibility of effect modification with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Serum samples were analyzed for concentrations of 9 PBDE and 30 PCB congeners and 34 tests of cognitive and motor function, affective state, and olfactory function were assessed among 144 men and women of 55-74 years of age. After adjustment for relevant confounders, no overall associations were observed between the sum of the PBDE congener concentrations in serum (∑ PBDE) and scores on the neuropsychological tests. However, statistically significant interactions were found between PBDEs and PCBs for some measures of verbal learning and memory. Among persons with ∑ PCB concentrations at or above the median of 467ppb (lipid basis), an increase in ∑ PBDE concentrations from the 25th to 75th percentile was associated with decreases between 7% and 12% on scores for certain subscales of the California Verbal Learning Test. In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed for PBDEs among persons with ∑ PCB levels below the median. The results suggest that PBDEs and PCBs may interact to affect verbal memory and learning among persons 55-74 years old. This is the first study to evaluate the neuropsychological effects of PBDEs in adults and the possibility of synergy with PCBs in humans.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Upstream adverse effects in risk assessment: A model of polychlorinated biphenyls, thyroid hormone disruption and neurological outcomes in humans

Authors: Wise, A; Parham, F; Axelrad, DA; Guyton, KZ; Portier, C; Zeise, L; Zoeller, RT; Woodruff, TJ (2012) Environmental Research 117:90-99. HERO ID: 1510266

[Less] Background: Increasing data on early biological changes from chemical exposures requires new interpretation . . . [More] Background: Increasing data on early biological changes from chemical exposures requires new interpretation tools to support decision-making. Objectives: To test the possibility of applying a quantitative approach using human data linking chemical exposures and upstream biological perturbations to overt downstream outcomes. Methods:Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and maternal thyroid hormone (TH) perturbations as a case study, we model three relationships: (1) prenatal PCB exposures and TH changes, using free T4 (FT4); (2) prenatal TH and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes; and (3) prenatal PCB exposures and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes (IQ). We surveyed the epidemiological literature; extracted relevant quantitative data; and developed models for each relationship, applying meta-analysis where appropriate. Results: For relationship 1, a meta-analysis of 3 studies gives a coefficient of −0.27 pg/mL FT4 per ln(sum of PCBs) (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.82 to 0.27). For relationship 2, regression coefficients from three studies of maternal FT4 levels and cognitive scores ranged between 0.99 IQ points/(pg/mL FT4) (95% CI −0.31 to 2.2) and 7.6 points/(pg/mL FT4) (95% CI 1.2 to 16.3). For relationship 3, a meta-analysis of five studies produces a coefficient of −1.98 IQ points (95% CI −4.46 to 0.50) per unit increase in ln(sum of PCBs). Combining relationships 1 and 2 yields an estimate of −2.0 to −0.27 points of IQ per unit increase in ln(sum of PCBs). Conclusions: Combining analysis of chemical exposures and early biological perturbations (PCBs and FT4) with analysis of early biological perturbations and downstream overt effects (FT4 and IQ) yields estimates within the range of studies of exposures and overt effects (PCBs and IQ). This is an example approach using upstream biological perturbations for effect prediction.