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PCBs (1336-36-3)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Experimental and Theoretical Insights into the Involvement of Radicals in Triclosan Phototransformation

Authors: Kliegman, S; Eustis, SN; Arnold, WA; Mcneill, K (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1609851

[Less] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence . . . [More] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence in the environment and the discovery of 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin as a photoproduct. In this study, photolysis of triclosan resulted in several primary photoproducts including the following: 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin (4%), 4,5'-dichloro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2,2'-diol (10%), 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol (0.5%), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (7%). Trapping studies using d(8)-isopropanol showed deuterium incorporation in 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol, providing strong evidence for the involvement of organic radicals in this reaction. Density functional calculations of the excited states of triclosan support the involvement of a radical intermediate in the mechanisms responsible for the dioxin, biphenyl, and phenoxyphenol photoproducts. The pathways for C-Cl bond cleavage and cyclization reactions are discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparing human exposure to emerging and legacy flame retardants from the indoor environment and diet with concentrations measured in serum

Authors: Cequier, E; Marcé, RM; Becher, G; Thomsen, C (2015) Environment International 74:54-59. HERO ID: 2533386

[Less] This study investigates associations between serum concentrations of emerging and legacy halogenated . . . [More] This study investigates associations between serum concentrations of emerging and legacy halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in 46 Norwegian women and measured indoor air and dust concentrations of the HFRs as well as detailed information on diet and household factors. Hexabromobenzene (median 0.03ng/g lipid) and Dechlorane 602 (median 0.18ng/g lipid) were detected in about 50% of the samples and Dechlorane Plus syn (median 0.45ng/g lipid) and anti (median 0.85ng/g lipid) in more than 78%. The most abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers were 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153; median 0.82ng/g lipid) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47; median 0.49ng/g lipid) detected in more than 70% of the samples. In the bivariate analysis, no consistent associations were observed between the biomonitoring data and measured concentrations in indoor air and dust. On the other hand, consumption of specific food items (mainly lamb/mutton and margarine) correlated significantly with more than two HFR serum concentrations, while this was not the case for household factors (electronic appliances). Only the significant bivariate associations with diet were confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses, which might indicate a higher contribution from food compared to the indoor environment to the variation of the body burden of these HFRs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/F compounds in the atmosphere of Istanbul

Authors: Saral, A; Gunes, G; Karadeniz, A; Goncaloglu, BI (2015) Chemosphere 118:246-252. HERO ID: 2534608

[Less] Gas/particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran . . . [More] Gas/particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) compounds in the ambient atmosphere were investigated at three different sites (urban-industrial, urban and sub-urban) in İstanbul. Average gas and particle phase concentrations were measured as 133fgm(-3) and 1605fgm(-3), respectively. Gas phase concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) compounds were determined to be 128fgm(-3), 50fgm(-3), 153fgm(-3) during summer season and 204fgm(-3), 164fgm(-3), 154fgm(-3) during winter season for the respective three sampling sites. Particle phase concentrations were determined to be 287fgm(-3), 176fgm(-3), 160fgm(-3) during summer and 6586fgm(-3), 2570fgm(-3) and 1861fgm(-3) during winter season for those three sampling sites. Chlorination level and molecular weight of congeners affected gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/F compounds. Gas phase percentages of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and OCDD concentrations were determined to be 47% and 1% respectively. A relatively high correlation was found between total particle matter (TPM) and particle phase PCDD/F concentration during winter season.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary exposure and screening-level risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) in wheat, rice, soil and air along two tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan

Authors: Mahmood, A; Malik, RN; Syed, JH; Li, J; Zhang, G (2015) Chemosphere 118:57-64. HERO ID: 2537557

[Less] No scientific report is available for screening level-risk assessment of newly emerging contaminants, . . . [More] No scientific report is available for screening level-risk assessment of newly emerging contaminants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) in food crops and environmental compartments of Pakistan. Dietary exposure of PBDEs and DP via food crops; screening levels, spatial distribution pattern of PBDEs and DP in air, soil, wheat and rice were assessed along the stretch of upstream feeding tributaries (Nullah Aik and Nullah Palkhu), River Chenab, Pakistan. ∑PBDE levels in air, soil, wheat and rice ranged between 0.59 and 7.80pgm(-3), 6.88 and 37.7ngg(-1), 0.30ngg(-1) and 1.43ngg(-1) and 0.07 and 46.0ngg(-1), respectively. ∑DP concentrations calculated in air, soil, wheat and rice ranged between 0.80 and 0.10pgm(-3), 0.17 and 2.61ngg(-1), 0.90 and 0.49ngg(-1) and 0.00 and 12.5ngg(-1), respectively. The trend of PBDEs and DP distribution pattern was found as follows; industrial/urban areas>industrial/peri-urban areas>agricultural/rural areas. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for wheat and rice was ranged between 0.002 and 0.035pgkg(-1)d(-1) and 0.033 and 0.680pgkg(-1)d(-1). Human health risks for adults on the basis of EDI were lower than the recommended MRL (minimal risk level) and lowest observed adverse effect of level (LOAEL).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A negative correlation between insulin-like peptide 3 and bisphenol A in human cord blood suggests an effect of endocrine disruptors on testicular descent during fetal development

Authors: Chevalier, N; Brucker-Davis, F; Lahlou, N; Coquillard, P; Pugeat, M; Pacini, P; Panaïa-Ferrari, P; Wagner-Mahler, K; Fénichel, P (2015) Human Reproduction 30:447-453. HERO ID: 2718038

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Does a relationship exist between insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Does a relationship exist between insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and selected environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) in human cord blood (cb)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: In the whole population (cryptorchid and control boys) cbINSL3 correlated negatively with cb free bisphenol A (BPA) providing indirect evidence for an impact of EEDs on fetal Leydig cell INSL3 production.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: INSL3 is a major regulator of testicular descent. This hormone has been shown to be decreased in cord blood from boys with idiopathic cryptorchidism, the most frequent male malformation. Fetal exposure to several EEDs has been suspected to be involved in the occurrence of idiopathic cryptorchidism.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Correlations between cb INSL3 or testosterone and cb free bioactive BPA and maternal milk polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB153), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and monobutyl phthalate (mBP) were assessed in newborn boys in a prospective case-control study. All boys (n = 6246) born after 34 weeks of gestation were systematically screened at birth for cryptorchidism over a 3-year period (2002-2005), and a diagnosis of cryptorchidism confirmed by a senior paediatrician.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We studied 52 cryptorchid (26 transient, 26 persistent) and 128 control boys born at two hospitals in southern France. INSL3 was assayed in CB by a modified validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Testosterone was measured in CB after diethyl-ether extraction by means of ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free cbBPA was measured after an extraction step with a radioimmunoassay validated after comparison of values obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The xenobiotic analysis in mothers' milk was performed after fat extraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: EED concentrations were not increased in the cryptorchid versus control group although a trend for increased mBP (P = 0.09) was observed. In the whole study population, cb levels of BPA correlated negatively with INSL3 (P = 0.01; R(2) = 0.05) but not with testosterone. No other EED correlated with INSL3 or with testosterone.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The levels of BPA and INSL3 in cb may not reflect chronic fetal exposure to EEDs. The deleterious impact of EEDs on fetal testicular descent during specific windows of development has yet to be demonstrated.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The negative correlation between cb free BPA and INSL3 provides indirect evidence for an impact of EEDs on human fetal Leydig cell INSL3 production and points to cbINSL3 as a possible target of EED action during fetal testis development.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This project was sponsored by the Clinical Research Board of Nice University Hospital and supported by a grant from the French Research Ministry and from the Department of Hormonology and Metabolic Disorders, Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Paris-Descartes University, France. There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the 13-year period from 1999 to 2011

Authors: Nøstbakken, OJ; Hove, HT; Duinker, A; Lundebye, AK; Berntssen, MH; Hannisdal, R; Lunestad, BT; Maage, A; Madsen, L; Torstensen, BE; Julshamn, K (2015) Environment International 74:274-280. HERO ID: 2773196

[Less] BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine pesticides are a global threat to food safety. In particular, the aquatic biota can bioaccumulate many of these contaminants potentially making seafood of concern for chronic exposure to humans.

OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate trends of contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon in light of the derived tolerable intakes.

METHODS: Through an EU-instigated surveillance programme, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) has between 1999 and 2011 collected more than 2300 samples of Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) for contaminant analyses. The fillets of these fish were homogenised and analysed for dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides.

RESULTS: The levels of the contaminants mercury, arsenic, dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and DDT in Norwegian farmed salmon fillet have decreased during our period of analyses. The levels of cadmium, lead and several organochlorine pesticides were too close to the limit of quantification to calculate time trends. For PCB6 and quantifiable amounts of pesticides, except DDT, stable levels were observed.

CONCLUSION: The contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed salmon have generally decreased between 1999 and 2011. Excluding other dietary sources, the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in 2011 allowed consumption of up to 1.3kg salmon per week to reach the tolerable weekly intake. The group of contaminants which was the limiting factor for safe consumption of Norwegian farmed salmon, based on currently established TWI values, is the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes

Authors: Hoogenboom, RL; Kotterman, MJ; Hoek-Van Nieuwenhuizen, M; van Der Lee, MK; Mennes, WC; Jeurissen, SM; van Leeuwen, SP (2015) Chemosphere 123:1-8. HERO ID: 2773227

[Less] Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated . . . [More] Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43pgTEQg(-)(1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples

Authors: Xing, HZ; Wang, X; Chen, XF; Wang, ML; Zhao, RS (2015) Journal of Separation Science 38:1419-1425. HERO ID: 2816890

[Less] A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was . . . [More] A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng g(-1) ), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83ng g(-1) ), and excellent reproducibility (<10%) for phenols. Four real soil samples were analyzed by the proposed method to assess its applicability. Experimental results showed that the soil samples were free of our target compounds, and average recoveries were in the range of 87.9-110%.These findings indicate that accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products on the cellular and mitochondrial toxicity of BDE 47

Authors: Yeh, A; Kruse, SE; Marcinek, DJ; Gallagher, EP (2015) Toxicology In Vitro 29:672-680. HERO ID: 2819226

[Less] High levels of the flame retardant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) have been detected in . . . [More] High levels of the flame retardant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) have been detected in Pacific salmon sampled near urban areas, raising concern over the safety of salmon consumption. However, salmon fillets also contain the antioxidants eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whose oxidation products induce cellular antioxidant responses. Because oxidative stress is a mechanism of BDE 47 toxicity, we hypothesized that oxidized EPA and DHA can ameliorate the cellular and mitochondrial toxicity of BDE 47. HepG2 cells were treated with a mixture of oxidized EPA and DHA (oxEPA/oxDHA) at a ratio relevant to salmon consumption (1.5/1 oxEPA/oxDHA) followed by exposure to 100μM BDE 47. Pretreatment with oxEPA/oxDHA for 12h prior to BDE 47 exposure prevented BDE 47-mediated depletion of glutathione, and increased expression of antioxidant response genes. oxEPA/oxDHA also reduced the level of reactive oxygen species production by BDE 47. The oxEPA/oxDHA antioxidant responses were associated with partial protection against BDE 47-induced loss of viability and also mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial electron transport system functional analysis revealed extensive inhibition of State 3 respiration and maximum respiratory capacity by BDE 47 were partially reversed by oxEPA/oxDHA. Our findings indicate that the antioxidant effects of oxEPA/oxDHA protect against short exposures to BDE 47, including a protective role of these compounds on maintaining cellular and mitochondrial function.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Primary Role of Cytochrome P450 2B6 in the Oxidative Metabolism of 2,2',4,4',6-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-100) to Hydroxylated BDEs

Authors: Gross, MS; Butryn, DM; Mcgarrigle, BP; Aga, DS; Olson, , JR (2015) Chemical Research in Toxicology 28:672-681. HERO ID: 2819229

[Less] Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through various routes poses deleterious health . . . [More] Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through various routes poses deleterious health effects. PBDEs are biotransformed into hydroxylated metabolites (OH-BDEs) via cytochrome P450s (P450s), which may add to their neurotoxic effects. This study characterizes the in vitro metabolism of 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), one of the most abundant PBDE congeners found in humans, by recombinant human P450s and pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Ten recombinant P450s were individually incubated with BDE-100 to monitor P450-specific metabolism. P450 2B6 was found to be the predominant enzyme responsible for nearly all formation of six mono-OH-pentaBDE and two di-OH-pentaBDE metabolites. Four metabolites were identified as 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-100), 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-100), 6'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (6'-OH-BDE-100), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-103) through use of reference standards. The two remaining mono-OH-pentaBDE metabolites were hypothesized using mass spectral fragmentation characteristics of derivatized OH-BDEs, which allowed prediction of an ortho-OH-pentaBDE and a para-OH-pentaBDE positional isomer. Additional information based on theoretical boiling point calculations using COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) and experimental chromatographic retention times were used to identify the hypothesized metabolites as 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-119) and 4-hydroxy-2,2',4',5,6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-91), respectively. Kinetic studies of BDE-100 metabolism using P450 2B6 and HLMs revealed Km values ranging from 4.9 to 7.0 μM and 6-10 μM, respectively, suggesting a high affinity toward the formation of OH-BDEs. Compared to the metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) reported in previous studies, BDE-100 appears to be more slowly metabolized by P450s due to the presence of a third ortho-substituted bromine atom.