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PCBs (1336-36-3)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Experimental and Theoretical Insights into the Involvement of Radicals in Triclosan Phototransformation

Authors: Kliegman, S; Eustis, SN; Arnold, WA; Mcneill, K (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1609851

[Less] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence . . . [More] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence in the environment and the discovery of 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin as a photoproduct. In this study, photolysis of triclosan resulted in several primary photoproducts including the following: 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin (4%), 4,5'-dichloro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2,2'-diol (10%), 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol (0.5%), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (7%). Trapping studies using d(8)-isopropanol showed deuterium incorporation in 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol, providing strong evidence for the involvement of organic radicals in this reaction. Density functional calculations of the excited states of triclosan support the involvement of a radical intermediate in the mechanisms responsible for the dioxin, biphenyl, and phenoxyphenol photoproducts. The pathways for C-Cl bond cleavage and cyclization reactions are discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A negative correlation between insulin-like peptide 3 and bisphenol A in human cord blood suggests an effect of endocrine disruptors on testicular descent during fetal development

Authors: Chevalier, N; Brucker-Davis, F; Lahlou, N; Coquillard, P; Pugeat, M; Pacini, P; Panaïa-Ferrari, P; Wagner-Mahler, K; Fénichel, P (2015) Human Reproduction 30:447-453. HERO ID: 2718038

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Does a relationship exist between insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Does a relationship exist between insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and selected environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) in human cord blood (cb)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: In the whole population (cryptorchid and control boys) cbINSL3 correlated negatively with cb free bisphenol A (BPA) providing indirect evidence for an impact of EEDs on fetal Leydig cell INSL3 production.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: INSL3 is a major regulator of testicular descent. This hormone has been shown to be decreased in cord blood from boys with idiopathic cryptorchidism, the most frequent male malformation. Fetal exposure to several EEDs has been suspected to be involved in the occurrence of idiopathic cryptorchidism.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Correlations between cb INSL3 or testosterone and cb free bioactive BPA and maternal milk polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB153), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and monobutyl phthalate (mBP) were assessed in newborn boys in a prospective case-control study. All boys (n = 6246) born after 34 weeks of gestation were systematically screened at birth for cryptorchidism over a 3-year period (2002-2005), and a diagnosis of cryptorchidism confirmed by a senior paediatrician.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We studied 52 cryptorchid (26 transient, 26 persistent) and 128 control boys born at two hospitals in southern France. INSL3 was assayed in CB by a modified validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Testosterone was measured in CB after diethyl-ether extraction by means of ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free cbBPA was measured after an extraction step with a radioimmunoassay validated after comparison of values obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The xenobiotic analysis in mothers' milk was performed after fat extraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: EED concentrations were not increased in the cryptorchid versus control group although a trend for increased mBP (P = 0.09) was observed. In the whole study population, cb levels of BPA correlated negatively with INSL3 (P = 0.01; R(2) = 0.05) but not with testosterone. No other EED correlated with INSL3 or with testosterone.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The levels of BPA and INSL3 in cb may not reflect chronic fetal exposure to EEDs. The deleterious impact of EEDs on fetal testicular descent during specific windows of development has yet to be demonstrated.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The negative correlation between cb free BPA and INSL3 provides indirect evidence for an impact of EEDs on human fetal Leydig cell INSL3 production and points to cbINSL3 as a possible target of EED action during fetal testis development.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This project was sponsored by the Clinical Research Board of Nice University Hospital and supported by a grant from the French Research Ministry and from the Department of Hormonology and Metabolic Disorders, Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Paris-Descartes University, France. There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the 13-year period from 1999 to 2011

Authors: Nøstbakken, OJ; Hove, HT; Duinker, A; Lundebye, AK; Berntssen, MH; Hannisdal, R; Lunestad, BT; Maage, A; Madsen, L; Torstensen, BE; Julshamn, K (2015) Environment International 74:274-280. HERO ID: 2773196

[Less] BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine pesticides are a global threat to food safety. In particular, the aquatic biota can bioaccumulate many of these contaminants potentially making seafood of concern for chronic exposure to humans.

OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate trends of contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon in light of the derived tolerable intakes.

METHODS: Through an EU-instigated surveillance programme, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) has between 1999 and 2011 collected more than 2300 samples of Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) for contaminant analyses. The fillets of these fish were homogenised and analysed for dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides.

RESULTS: The levels of the contaminants mercury, arsenic, dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and DDT in Norwegian farmed salmon fillet have decreased during our period of analyses. The levels of cadmium, lead and several organochlorine pesticides were too close to the limit of quantification to calculate time trends. For PCB6 and quantifiable amounts of pesticides, except DDT, stable levels were observed.

CONCLUSION: The contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed salmon have generally decreased between 1999 and 2011. Excluding other dietary sources, the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in 2011 allowed consumption of up to 1.3kg salmon per week to reach the tolerable weekly intake. The group of contaminants which was the limiting factor for safe consumption of Norwegian farmed salmon, based on currently established TWI values, is the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes

Authors: Hoogenboom, RL; Kotterman, MJ; Hoek-Van Nieuwenhuizen, M; van Der Lee, MK; Mennes, WC; Jeurissen, SM; van Leeuwen, SP (2015) Chemosphere 123:1-8. HERO ID: 2773227

[Less] Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated . . . [More] Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43pgTEQg(-)(1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Human health risk assessment of multiple contaminants due to consumption of animal-based foods available in the markets of Shanghai, China

Authors: Lei, B; Zhang, K; An, J; Zhang, X; Yu, Y (2015) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22:4434-4446. HERO ID: 2822192

[Less] To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine . . . [More] To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and toxic trace elements (mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic) were estimated based on the animal-based foods collected from markets in Shanghai, China. The estimated daily intake and uptake considering the contaminant bioaccessibility via single food consumption were 9.4-399 and 4.2-282 ng/kg body weight/day for adults, and 10.8-458 and 4.8-323 ng/kg body weight/day for children, respectively. These values were 0.2-104 and 0.05-58.1, and 0.2-119 and 0.06-66.6 ng/kg body weight/day via multiple food consumption for adults and children, respectively. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment method, the non-cancer and cancer health risks posed by the contaminants were estimated using the hazard quotient and the lifetime cancer risk method, respectively. The results showed that the combined hazard quotient values for multiple contaminants via single or multiple food consumption were below 1, suggesting that the residents in Shanghai would not experience a significant non-cancer health risk. Among the contaminants investigated, the potential non-cancer risk of methylmercury was highest. However, the combined cancer risk posed by multiple contaminants in most foods exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6), and inorganic arsenic was the main contributor. The risks caused by polybrominated diphenyl ethers for cancer and non-cancer effects were negligible. The cancer risk of inorganic arsenic is a matter of concern in animal-based foods from Shanghai markets.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A broad cocktail of environmental pollutants found in eggs of three seabird species from remote colonies in Norway

Authors: Huber, S; Warner, NA; Nygård, T; Remberger, M; Harju, M; Uggerud, HT; Kaj, L; Hanssen, L (2015) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34:1296-1308. HERO ID: 2823276

[Less] Three seabird species, Common eider (Somateria mollisima), European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis . . . [More] Three seabird species, Common eider (Somateria mollisima), European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis aristotelis), and European herring gull (Larus argentatus), were selected to survey for a broad range of legacy and emerging pollutants to assess chemical mixture exposure profiles of seabirds from the Norwegian marine environment. A total of 201 chemical substances were targeted for analysis ranging from metals, organotin compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and associated metabolites, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated and non-chlorinated organic pesticides, per- and polyfluroalkyl substances (PFAS), dechlorane plus, octachlorostyrene, brominated flame retardants, organophosphorous compounds (OPCs), brominated and alkyl phenols, cyclic siloxanes, and phthalates. Of the chemicals targeted, 149 substances were found above the detection limits with metals dominating the contaminant profile and comprising 60% of the total contaminant load. PCBs, pesticides, OPCs and PFAS were the dominant contaminant classes of organic pollutants found within seabird species with the highest loads occurring in herring gulls followed by shag and common eider. New generation pollutants (e.g., PFAS, OPCs and some alkylphenols) were detected at similar or higher concentrations than the legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Time trends of reported concentrations of legacy POPs appear to have decreased in the last decades from the Norwegian coastal environment. Concentrations of detected pollutants do not appear to have a negative effect on seabird population development within the sampling area. However, additional stress caused by pollutants may affect seabird health more at the individual level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantum chemical investigation on the mechanism and kinetics of OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of PCB-47

Authors: Sun, Y; Zhang, Q; Wang, H; Wang, W (2015) Chemosphere 133:53-60. HERO ID: 2831355

[Less] The OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-47) . . . [More] The OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-47) was investigated by using quantum chemical calculations. All possible pathways involved in the oxidation process were discussed. Potential barriers and reaction heats have been obtained to assess the energetically favorable reaction pathways and the relatively stable products. The study shows that the OH radicals are more likely to attack the C3 and C5 atom of the aromatic ring in the PCB-47 molecule to form PCB-OH adducts. Subsequent reactions are the addition of O2 or NO2 molecule to the PCB-OH adducts at the ortho position of the OH group. Water molecule plays an important role during the whole degradation process. The individual and overall rate constants were calculated by using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory over the temperature range of 180-370K. At 298K, the atmospheric lifetime of PCB-47 determined by OH radicals is about 9.1d. The computational results are crucial to risk assessment and pollution prevention of PCBs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Permanently compromised NADPH-diaphorase activity within the osmotically activated supraoptic nucleus after in utero but not adult exposure to Aroclor 1254

Authors: Coburn, CG; Watson-Siriboe, A; Hou, B; Cheetham, C; Gillard, ER; Lin, L; León-Olea, M; Sánchez-Islas, E; Mucio-Ramírez, S; Currás-Collazo, MC (2015) NeuroToxicology 47:37-46. HERO ID: 2834884

[Less] Stimulated vasopressin (VP) release from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus . . . [More] Stimulated vasopressin (VP) release from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hyperosmotic rats is inhibited by treatment with the industrial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254. Because VP responses to hyperosmotic stimulation are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling, we studied NO synthase (NOS) activity in the SON of hyperosmotic rats as potential target of PCB-induced disruption of neuroendocrine processes necessary for osmoregulation. To examine PCB-induced changes in NOS activity under normosmotic and hyperosmotic conditions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Aroclor 1254 (30mg/kg/day) in utero and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity was assessed in SON sections at three ages: postnatal day 10, early adult (3-5 months) or late adult (14-16 months). Hyperosmotic treatment increased mean NADPH-d staining density of oil hyperosmotic controls by 19.9% in early adults and 58% in late adulthood vs normosmotic controls. In utero exposure to PCBs reduced hyperosmotic-induced upregulation of NADPH-d activity to control levels in early adults and by 28% in late adults. Basal NADPH-d was reduced in postnatal rats. Rats receiving PCB exposure as early adults orally for 14 days displayed normal responses. Our findings show that developmental but not adult exposure to PCBs significantly reduces NOS responses to hyperosmolality in neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, reduced NADPH-d activity produced by in utero exposure persisted in stimulated late adult rats concomitant with reduced osmoregulatory capacity vs oil controls (375±9 vs 349±5mOsm/L). These findings suggest that developmental PCBs permanently compromise NOS signaling in the activated neuroendocrine hypothalamus with potential osmoregulatory consequences.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study of Using Solar Thermal Power for the Margarine Melting Heat Process

Authors: Sharaf Eldean, MA; Soliman, AM (2015) Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 137:0210041-2100413. HERO ID: 2836917

[Less] The heating process of melting margarine requires a vast amount of thermal energy due to its high melting . . . [More] The heating process of melting margarine requires a vast amount of thermal energy due to its high melting point and the size of the reservoir it is contained in. Existing methods to heat margarine have a high hourly cost of production and use fossil fuels which have been shown to have a negative impact on the environment. Thus, we perform an analytical feasibility study of using solar thermal power as an alternative energy source for the margarine melting process. In this study, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) solar field are compared with that of a steam boiler. Different working fluids (water vapor and Therminol-VP1 heat transfer oil (HTO)) through the solar field are also investigated. The results reveal the total hourly cost ($/h) by the conventional configuration is much greater than the solar applications regardless of the type of working fluid. Moreover, the conventional configuration causes a negative impact to the environment by increasing the amount of CO2, CO, and NO2 by 117.4 kg/day, 184 kg/day, and 74.7 kg/day, respectively. Optimized period of melt and tank volume parameters at temperature differences not exceeding 25 °C are found to be 8-10 h and 100 m(3), respectively. The solar PTC operated with water and steam as the working fluid is recommended as a vital alternative for the margarine melting heating process.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Regulation of Liver Enriched Transcription Factors in Rat Hepatocytes Cultures on Collagen and EHS Sarcoma Matrices

Authors: Borlak, J; Singh, PK; Rittelmeyer, I (2015) PLoS ONE 10:e0124867. HERO ID: 2845416

[Less] Liver-enriched transcription factors (LETF) play a crucial role in the control of liver-specific gene . . . [More] Liver-enriched transcription factors (LETF) play a crucial role in the control of liver-specific gene expression and for hepatocytes to retain their molecular and cellular functions complex interactions with extra cellular matrix (ECM) are required However, during cell isolation ECM interactions are disrupted and for hepatocytes to regain metabolic competency cells are cultured on ECM substrata. The regulation of LETFs in hepatocytes cultured on different ECM has not been studied in detail. We therefore compared two common sources of ECM and evaluated cellular morphology and hepatocyte differentiation by investigating DNA binding activity of LETFs at gene specific promoters and marker genes of hepatic metabolism. Furthermore, we studied testosterone metabolism and albumin synthesis to assess the metabolic competence of cell cultures. Despite significant difference in morphological appearance and except for HNF1β (p<0.001) most LETFs and several of their target genes did not differ in transcript expression after Bonferroni adjustment when cultured on collagen or Matrigel. Nonetheless, Western blotting revealed HNF1β, HNF3α, HNF3γ, HNF4α, HNF6 and the smaller subunits of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ to be more abundant on Matrigel cultured cells. Likewise, DNA binding activity of HNF3α, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6 and gene expression of hepatic lineage markers were increased on Matrigel cultured hepatocytes. To further investigate hepatic gene regulation, the effects of Aroclor 1254 treatment, e.g. a potent inducer of xenobiotic defense were studied in vivo and in vitro. The gene expression of C/EBP-α increased in rat liver and hepatocytes cultured on collagen and this treatment induced DNA binding activity of HNF4α, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ and gene expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vivo and in vitro. Taken collectively, two sources of ECM greatly affected hepatocyte morphology, activity of liver enriched transcription factors, hepatic gene expression and metabolic competency that should be considered when used in cell biology studies and drug toxicity testing.