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PCBs (1336-36-3)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Experimental and Theoretical Insights into the Involvement of Radicals in Triclosan Phototransformation

Authors: Kliegman, S; Eustis, SN; Arnold, WA; Mcneill, K (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1609851

[Less] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence . . . [More] The phototransformation of triclosan has been a matter of longstanding interest due to both its prevalence in the environment and the discovery of 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin as a photoproduct. In this study, photolysis of triclosan resulted in several primary photoproducts including the following: 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin (4%), 4,5'-dichloro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2,2'-diol (10%), 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol (0.5%), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (7%). Trapping studies using d(8)-isopropanol showed deuterium incorporation in 5-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenol, providing strong evidence for the involvement of organic radicals in this reaction. Density functional calculations of the excited states of triclosan support the involvement of a radical intermediate in the mechanisms responsible for the dioxin, biphenyl, and phenoxyphenol photoproducts. The pathways for C-Cl bond cleavage and cyclization reactions are discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the 13-year period from 1999 to 2011

Authors: Nøstbakken, OJ; Hove, HT; Duinker, A; Lundebye, AK; Berntssen, MH; Hannisdal, R; Lunestad, BT; Maage, A; Madsen, L; Torstensen, BE; Julshamn, K (2015) Environment International 74:274-280. HERO ID: 2773196

[Less] BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine pesticides are a global threat to food safety. In particular, the aquatic biota can bioaccumulate many of these contaminants potentially making seafood of concern for chronic exposure to humans.

OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate trends of contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon in light of the derived tolerable intakes.

METHODS: Through an EU-instigated surveillance programme, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) has between 1999 and 2011 collected more than 2300 samples of Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) for contaminant analyses. The fillets of these fish were homogenised and analysed for dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides.

RESULTS: The levels of the contaminants mercury, arsenic, dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and DDT in Norwegian farmed salmon fillet have decreased during our period of analyses. The levels of cadmium, lead and several organochlorine pesticides were too close to the limit of quantification to calculate time trends. For PCB6 and quantifiable amounts of pesticides, except DDT, stable levels were observed.

CONCLUSION: The contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed salmon have generally decreased between 1999 and 2011. Excluding other dietary sources, the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in 2011 allowed consumption of up to 1.3kg salmon per week to reach the tolerable weekly intake. The group of contaminants which was the limiting factor for safe consumption of Norwegian farmed salmon, based on currently established TWI values, is the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes

Authors: Hoogenboom, RL; Kotterman, MJ; Hoek-Van Nieuwenhuizen, M; van Der Lee, MK; Mennes, WC; Jeurissen, SM; van Leeuwen, SP (2015) Chemosphere 123:1-8. HERO ID: 2773227

[Less] Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated . . . [More] Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43pgTEQg(-)(1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Human health risk assessment of multiple contaminants due to consumption of animal-based foods available in the markets of Shanghai, China

Authors: Lei, B; Zhang, K; An, J; Zhang, X; Yu, Y (2015) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22:4434-4446. HERO ID: 2822192

[Less] To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine . . . [More] To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and toxic trace elements (mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic) were estimated based on the animal-based foods collected from markets in Shanghai, China. The estimated daily intake and uptake considering the contaminant bioaccessibility via single food consumption were 9.4-399 and 4.2-282 ng/kg body weight/day for adults, and 10.8-458 and 4.8-323 ng/kg body weight/day for children, respectively. These values were 0.2-104 and 0.05-58.1, and 0.2-119 and 0.06-66.6 ng/kg body weight/day via multiple food consumption for adults and children, respectively. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment method, the non-cancer and cancer health risks posed by the contaminants were estimated using the hazard quotient and the lifetime cancer risk method, respectively. The results showed that the combined hazard quotient values for multiple contaminants via single or multiple food consumption were below 1, suggesting that the residents in Shanghai would not experience a significant non-cancer health risk. Among the contaminants investigated, the potential non-cancer risk of methylmercury was highest. However, the combined cancer risk posed by multiple contaminants in most foods exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6), and inorganic arsenic was the main contributor. The risks caused by polybrominated diphenyl ethers for cancer and non-cancer effects were negligible. The cancer risk of inorganic arsenic is a matter of concern in animal-based foods from Shanghai markets.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A broad cocktail of environmental pollutants found in eggs of three seabird species from remote colonies in Norway

Authors: Huber, S; Warner, NA; Nygård, T; Remberger, M; Harju, M; Uggerud, HT; Kaj, L; Hanssen, L (2015) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34:1296-1308. HERO ID: 2823276

[Less] Three seabird species, Common eider (Somateria mollisima), European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis . . . [More] Three seabird species, Common eider (Somateria mollisima), European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis aristotelis), and European herring gull (Larus argentatus), were selected to survey for a broad range of legacy and emerging pollutants to assess chemical mixture exposure profiles of seabirds from the Norwegian marine environment. A total of 201 chemical substances were targeted for analysis ranging from metals, organotin compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and associated metabolites, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated and non-chlorinated organic pesticides, per- and polyfluroalkyl substances (PFAS), dechlorane plus, octachlorostyrene, brominated flame retardants, organophosphorous compounds (OPCs), brominated and alkyl phenols, cyclic siloxanes, and phthalates. Of the chemicals targeted, 149 substances were found above the detection limits with metals dominating the contaminant profile and comprising 60% of the total contaminant load. PCBs, pesticides, OPCs and PFAS were the dominant contaminant classes of organic pollutants found within seabird species with the highest loads occurring in herring gulls followed by shag and common eider. New generation pollutants (e.g., PFAS, OPCs and some alkylphenols) were detected at similar or higher concentrations than the legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Time trends of reported concentrations of legacy POPs appear to have decreased in the last decades from the Norwegian coastal environment. Concentrations of detected pollutants do not appear to have a negative effect on seabird population development within the sampling area. However, additional stress caused by pollutants may affect seabird health more at the individual level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Permanently compromised NADPH-diaphorase activity within the osmotically activated supraoptic nucleus after in utero but not adult exposure to Aroclor 1254

Authors: Coburn, CG; Watson-Siriboe, A; Hou, B; Cheetham, C; Gillard, ER; Lin, L; León-Olea, M; Sánchez-Islas, E; Mucio-Ramírez, S; Currás-Collazo, MC (2015) NeuroToxicology 47:37-46. HERO ID: 2834884

[Less] Stimulated vasopressin (VP) release from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus . . . [More] Stimulated vasopressin (VP) release from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hyperosmotic rats is inhibited by treatment with the industrial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254. Because VP responses to hyperosmotic stimulation are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling, we studied NO synthase (NOS) activity in the SON of hyperosmotic rats as potential target of PCB-induced disruption of neuroendocrine processes necessary for osmoregulation. To examine PCB-induced changes in NOS activity under normosmotic and hyperosmotic conditions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Aroclor 1254 (30mg/kg/day) in utero and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity was assessed in SON sections at three ages: postnatal day 10, early adult (3-5 months) or late adult (14-16 months). Hyperosmotic treatment increased mean NADPH-d staining density of oil hyperosmotic controls by 19.9% in early adults and 58% in late adulthood vs normosmotic controls. In utero exposure to PCBs reduced hyperosmotic-induced upregulation of NADPH-d activity to control levels in early adults and by 28% in late adults. Basal NADPH-d was reduced in postnatal rats. Rats receiving PCB exposure as early adults orally for 14 days displayed normal responses. Our findings show that developmental but not adult exposure to PCBs significantly reduces NOS responses to hyperosmolality in neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, reduced NADPH-d activity produced by in utero exposure persisted in stimulated late adult rats concomitant with reduced osmoregulatory capacity vs oil controls (375±9 vs 349±5mOsm/L). These findings suggest that developmental PCBs permanently compromise NOS signaling in the activated neuroendocrine hypothalamus with potential osmoregulatory consequences.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Accumulation of organochlorines in the European clam (Ruditapes decussatus) and sediment of the Oualidia lagoon (Morocco)

Authors: Jayed, M; Benbrahim, S; Bakkas, S; Ramdani, M; Flower, R (2015) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 94:614-621. HERO ID: 2915581

[Less] This study focused on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in tissue samples of the clam, . . . [More] This study focused on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in tissue samples of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus, in the Oualidia lagoon. Tissue assays were conducted during February to December 2005 and sediment (October 2005) was also tested. 13 organochlorine compounds and eight PCBs congeners were investigated, is HCB, γ-HCH, chlordane, cis-chlordane and trans-nonachlor, DDT and its metabolites DDD, DDE, heptachlor, its epoxide, mirex and PCBs (PCB28 + 50, PCB52, PCB101, PCB 118, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180). Analysis of these compounds was performed using a gas chromatography capillary column and an electron capture detector. Organochlorine contamination of clams and sediments in the lagoon did not exceed tolerable thresholds according to European standards. The levels of tPCB, tDDT and tOCP in clams are high at 49.4, 22.2, and 7.1 ng g(-1) dw respectively. Concentrations of trans nonachlor and mirex are low compared to other chlorinated pesticides. PCB28 + 50, PCB52 and PCB101 show typical values in sediment, at 18.5, 10.8 and 17.8 ng g(-1) dw respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between several persistent organic pollutants and thyroid hormone levels in cord blood serum and bloodspot of the newborn infants of Korea : Supplemental materials

Authors: Kim, S; Park, J; Kim, HJ; Lee, JJ; Choi, G; Choi, S; Kim, S; Kim, SY; Moon, HB; Kim, S; Choi, K (2015) PLoS ONE 10:e0125213. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3123095

[Less] Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among . . . [More] Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Persistent organic pollutants and promoter hypermethylation of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene : Supplemental materials

Authors: Park, SY; Kim, KS; Lee, YM; Kim, MJ; Jacobs, DR; Porta, M; Kim, DS; Lee, DH (2015) Biomarkers 20:136-142. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3350252

[Less] Promoter hypermethylation of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair gene is . . . [More] Promoter hypermethylation of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair gene is important during carcinogenesis. We explored whether organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were associated with hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter in peripheral leukocytes among 368 Koreans without cancer. Hypermethylation decreased as OCPs increased (Ptrend = 0.02), while PCB concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association (Pquadratic < 0.01). The prevalence of MGMT promoter hypermethylation was highest within the 2nd quintile of the PCB summary score (28.4%), while it was only 2.7% in the upper 10% score. Chronic exposure to these chemicals may affect methylation of the MGMT promoter, with possibly non-monotonic dose response relationships.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Endocrine disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome

Authors: Casati, L; Sendra, R; Sibilia, V; Celotti, F (2015) 3:37. [Review] HERO ID: 2919730

[Less] Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three . . . [More] Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include "both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable." These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs). These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ), and methoxychlor (MXC) promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor.