Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Hexachloroethane (HCE) (Final, 2011)


116 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Toxicological review of Hexachloroethane (CASRN 67-72-1) in support of summary information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

Author: U.S. EPA (2011) HERO ID: 732542


Technical Report
Technical Report

Report on carcinogens: Twelfth edition

Author: NTP (2011) Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health. HERO ID: 737606


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Histopathologic changes in the kidneys of male F344 rats from a 2-year inhalation carcinogenicity study of tetrahydrofuran: A pathology working group review and re-evaluation

Authors: Bruner, RH; Greaves, P; Hard, GC; Regan, KS; Ward, JM; David, RM (2010) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 58:100-105. HERO ID: 711136

[Less] Risk evaluation and hazard classification for tetrahydrofuran (THF) is based partly on the incidences . . . [More] Risk evaluation and hazard classification for tetrahydrofuran (THF) is based partly on the incidences of renal tumors in male F344/N rats reported in a 2-year carcinogenicity study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). A Pathology Working Group (PWG) was commissioned to conduct an independent review of the kidney slides from this bioassay (along with two subchronic studies) to assess renal changes in light of recent scientific work on pathogenesis of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in rat kidney. PWG pathologists confirmed the NTP assessment that adenomas were non-statistically increased in animals exposed to the highest level of THF. However, when pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions were combined, there was no difference between control and THF-exposed groups. Also, the majority of these proliferative lesions were in rats with severe chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN). Accordingly, the PWG concluded that renal lesions in the control and THF-exposed groups resulted primarily from regenerative processes associated with advanced CPN. Based on an alpha(2u)-globulin/hyaline droplet response observed in a 4-week study with THF, the PWG could not exclude the possibility of both advanced CPN and low-grade alpha2u-g nephropathy contributing to the renal proliferative lesions developing chronically in high-dose males. Neither condition has a pathologic counterpart in humans.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Benchmark dose software (BMDS)

Author: U.S. EPA (2009) HERO ID: 783691

[Less] A tool used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant . . . [More] A tool used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Benchmark dose software (BMDS)

Author: U.S. EPA (2009) Available online at http://www.epa.gov/NCEA/bmds. (Dec 7, 2009). [Website] HERO ID: 200772

[Less] EPA has released the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) Version 2.1.2, a tool which is used to facilitate . . . [More] EPA has released the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) Version 2.1.2, a tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD)1 methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chemically induced pheochromocytomas in rats: Mechanisms and relevance for human risk assessment

Authors: Greim, H; Hartwig, A; Reuter, U; Richter-Reichhelm, H; Thielmann, H (2009) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 39:695-718. [Review] HERO ID: 699830

[Less] Pheochromocytomas are tumors originating from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which have been . . . [More] Pheochromocytomas are tumors originating from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which have been observed in numerous carcinogenicity studies. The authors have evaluated pheochromocytoma concurrence with other effects and the possible mechanisms, in order to assess the relevance of such data for the classification of carcinogenic effects and their relevance to humans. The evaluation revealed that pheochromocytomas occur with relatively higher frequency in male rats, especially when the following conditions are involved: hypoxia, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, disturbance in calcium homeostasis, and disturbance of the hypothalamic endocrine axis. The underlying biochemical mechanisms suggest that other substances that interfere with these biochemical endpoints also produce pheochromocytomas. Such endpoints include enzymes involved in catecholamine synthesis, receptor tyrosine kinase (RET), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. To date, there is no indication that the substances inducing pheochromocytomas in animal experiments also induce corresponding tumors in humans. Because the mechanisms of action identified in rats are to be expected in humans, pheochromocytomas may be induced after exposure conditions similar to those used in the animal studies. Whether hereditary mutations represent a risk factor in humans is not clear. Pheochromocytomas that occur in animal experiments currently appear to have little relevance for conditions at the work place. When sufficiently documented and evaluated, such secondary pheochromocytomas are not relevant for classification and human risk assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hepatic injuries of hexachloroethane smoke inhalation: The first analytical epidemiological study

Authors: Loh, C; Liou, S; Chang, Y; Chen, H; Perng, W; Ku, H; Chen, Y (2008) Toxicology 247:119-122. HERO ID: 699845

[Less] There has been no human epidemiological data regarding the hepatic injuries of hexachloroethane-zinc . . . [More] There has been no human epidemiological data regarding the hepatic injuries of hexachloroethane-zinc oxide (HC/ZnO) inhalation. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate whether HC/ZnO inhalation exposure can induce hepatic dysfunction in exposed soldiers. Twenty soldiers, exposed to high concentration of HC/ZnO smoke for 3-10 min in a narrow tunnel (0.6 m in width) during military training, were recruited as exposed group and they were divided into high-exposed group (n=10) and low-exposed group (n=10) by the distance from the explosion locale as a surrogate of exposure condition. Another 64 soldiers, not visiting the explosion areas, were recruited as referents. Venous blood was collected for liver function analyses. After log transformation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and adjustment for potential confounders, serum ALT in high-exposed soldiers was statistically significantly higher than those of referents for the 3 weeks following exposure. The serum ALT in low exposed soldiers was statistically significantly higher than those of referents at the 3rd week following exposure. The mean ALT levels also showed decreasing gradients by the distance from exposure locale. In addition, the proportions of abnormality on ALT (>40U/L) were also significantly different among three exposure conditions. Follow-up study showed that the hepatic dysfunction started from 1 to 2 weeks and peaked from 3rd to 5th week after exposure. ALT level was then returned to normal within 6-8 weeks after removing from HC/ZnO smoke exposure. No sequelas in hepatic dysfunction were found until 72 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSION: We concluded that inhalation of HC/Zn smoke can induce acute, dose-dependent and definite temporal relationship hepatic dysfunction.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Toxicological profile for 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane

Author: ATSDR (2008) HERO ID: 699906

[Less] The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . [More] The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adrenergic differentiation and Ret expression in rat pheochromocytomas

Authors: Powers, J; Picard, K; Nyska, A; Tischler, A (2008) Endocrine Pathology 19:9-16. HERO ID: 699855

[Less] Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors of the adult adrenal medulla. They are rare in . . . [More] Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors of the adult adrenal medulla. They are rare in humans and most other species but common in laboratory rats. However, the relevance of rat pheochromocytomas as a model for their human counterparts is uncertain. Previous studies of spontaneous and drug-induced rat pheochromocytomas and the PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line suggested a distinctive noradrenergic phenotype, possibly reflecting origin from a progenitor not present in the adult human adrenal. In this study, we studied 31 pheochromocytomas derived from test and control male and female rats in toxicologic studies for expression of the epinephrine-synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret. PNMT, which defines adrenergic chromaffin cells, is frequently expressed in human pheochromocytomas, often in tumors that also overexpress RET. We also tested for the expression of the cell cycle checkpoint protein p27(Kip1), which recently was reported absent in pheochromocytomas from a strain of rats with a hereditary mixed multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-like syndrome. Using immunoblots, we demonstrated PNMT expression in almost 50% of the 31 tumors, although often at lower levels than in normal rat adrenal medulla. The majority of tumors overexpressed Ret. There was no apparent correlation between PNMT and Ret. However, in this study, PNMT expression was strongly associated with tumors arising in female rats, while overexpression of Ret did not show a sex predilection. Robust expression of p27(Kip1) was seen in all tumors from the toxicologic studies and also in a small sample of pheochromocytomas from Long-Evans rats, which were reported to have a mixed MEN-like syndrome in the 1980s. The present results show that rat pheochromocytomas have greater phenotypic diversity than previously believed and greater similarity to their human counterparts with respect to these two important markers. Loss of p27(Kip1) does not appear to account for the high frequency of pheochromocytomas in commonly utilized rat strains.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Halogenated volatile organic compounds from the use of chlorine-bleach-containing household products

Author: Odabasi, M (2008) Environmental Science and Technology 42:1445-1451. HERO ID: 699852

[Less] Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and many organic chemicals contained in household cleaning products may . . . [More] Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and many organic chemicals contained in household cleaning products may react to generate halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Halogenated VOC emissions from eight different chlorine bleach containing household products (pure and diluted) were investigated by headspace experiments. Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were the leading compounds along with several halogenated compounds in the headspace of chlorine bleach products. One of the most surprising results was the presence of carbon tetrachloride (a probable human carcinogen and a powerful greenhouse gas that was banned for household use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) in very high concentrations (up to 101 mg m(-3)). By mixing surfactants or soap with NaOCl, it was shown that the formation of carbon tetrachloride and several other halogenated VOCs is possible. In addition to quantitatively determined halogenated VOCs (n = 15), several nitrogen-containing (n = 4), chlorinated (n = 10), oxygenated compounds (n = 22), and hydrocarbons (n = 14) were identified in the headspace of bleach products. Among these, 1,1-dichlorobutane and 2-chloro-2-nitropropane were the most abundant chlorinated VOCs, whereas trichloronitromethane and hexachloroethane were the most frequently detected ones. Indoor air halogenated VOC concentrations resulting from the use of four selected household products were also measured before, during, and 30 min after bathroom, kitchen, and floor cleaning applications. Chloroform (2.9-24.6 microg m(-3)) and carbon tetrachloride (0.25-459 microg m(-3)) concentrations significantly increased during the use of bleach containing products. During/ before concentration ratios ranged between 8 and 52 (25 +/- 14, average +/- SD) for chloroform and 1-1170 (146 +/- 367, average +/- SD) for carbon tetrachloride, respectively. These results indicated that the bleach use can be important in terms of inhalation exposure to carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and several other halogenated VOCs.