Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (Final, 2011)


306 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, superoxide anion, myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the peritoneal lavage cells of mice after prolonged exposure to dichloroacetate and trichloroacetate

Authors: Hassoun, EA; Spildener, J; Cearfoss, J (2010) Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 24:136-144. HERO ID: 758810

[Less] The induction of phagocytic activation in response to prolonged treatment with different doses of dichloroacetate . . . [More] The induction of phagocytic activation in response to prolonged treatment with different doses of dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) has been investigated in mice. Groups of B6C3F1 male mice were administered 7.7, 77, 154, and 410 mg of DCA or TCA/kg/day, postorally, for 4- and 13-weeks. Peritoneal lavage cells (PLCs) were isolated and assayed for the different biomarkers of phagocytic activation, including superoxide anion (SA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In addition, the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the SA production was also assessed. DCA and TCA produced significant and dose-dependent increases in SA and TNF-alpha production and in MPO activity, but the increases in response to the high doses of the compounds (>77 mg/kg/day) in the 13-week treatment period were less significant than those produced in the 4-week treatment period. Also, dose-dependent increases in SOD activity were observed in both periods of treatments. In general, the results demonstrate significant induction of the biomarkers of phagocytic activation by doses of DCA and TCA that were previously shown to be noncarcinogenic, with significantly greater increases observed at the earlier period of exposure, as compared with later period. These findings may argue against the contribution of those mechanisms to the hepatotoxicity/hepatocarcinogenicity of the compounds and suggest them to be early adaptive/ protective mechanisms against their long-term effects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha--independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate also activates the constitutive-activated receptor

Authors: Ren, H; Aleksunes, L; Wood, C; Vallanat, B; George, M; Klaassen, C; Corton, J (2010) Toxicological Sciences 113:45-59. HERO ID: 697411

[Less] Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte . . . [More] Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha. Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) increased the incidence of liver tumors in PPARalpha-null mice. We hypothesized that some PPC, including DEHP, induce transcriptional changes independent of PPARalpha but dependent on other nuclear receptors, including the constitutive-activated receptor (CAR) that mediates phenobarbital (PB) effects on hepatocyte growth and liver tumor induction. To determine the potential role of CAR in mediating effects of PPC, a meta-analysis was performed on transcript profiles from published studies in which rats and mice were exposed to PPC and compared the profiles to those produced by exposure to PB. Valproic acid, clofibrate, and DEHP in rat liver and DEHP in mouse liver induced genes, including Cyp2b family members that are known to be regulated by CAR. Examination of transcript changes by Affymetrix ST 1.0 arrays and reverse transcription-PCR in the livers of DEHP-treated wild-type, PPARalpha-null, and CAR-null mice demonstrated that (1) most (approximately 94%) of the transcriptional changes induced by DEHP were PPARalpha-dependent, (2) many PPARalpha-independent genes overlapped with those regulated by PB, (3) induction of genes Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and metallothionine-1 by DEHP was CAR dependent but PPARalpha-independent, and (4) induction of a number of genes (Cyp8b1, Gstm4, and Gstm7) was independent of both CAR and PPARalpha. Our results indicate that exposure to PPARalpha activators including DEHP leads to activation of multiple nuclear receptors in the rodent liver.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of haloacetic acids using microplate-based cytotoxicity test and CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assay

Authors: Zhang, SH; Miao, DY; Liu, AL; Zhang, L; Wei, W; Xie, H; Lu, WQ (2010) Mutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 703:174-179. HERO ID: 730076

[Less] Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the second most prevalent class of disinfection byproducts found in drinking . . . [More] Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the second most prevalent class of disinfection byproducts found in drinking water. The implications of HAAs presence in drinking water are a public health concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of six common HAAs using a microplate-based cytotoxicity test and a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) gene mutation assay in Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells. We found that their chronic cytotoxicities (72h exposure) to CHO-K1 cells varied, and we ranked their levels of toxicity in the following descending order: iodoacetic acid (IA)>bromoacetic acid (BA)>dibromoacetic acid (DBA)>chloroacetic acid (CA)>dichloroacetic acid (DCA)>trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The toxicity of IA is 1040-fold of that of TCA. All HAAs except TCA were shown to be mutagenic to CHO-K1 cells in the HGPRT gene mutation assay. The mutagenic potency was compared and ranked as follows: IA>DBA>BA>CA>DCA>TCA. There was a statistically significant correlation between cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the HAAs in CHO-K1 cells. The microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and HGPRT gene mutation assay were suitable methods to monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HAAs, particularly for comparing the toxic intensities quantitatively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dichloroacetate- and trichloroacetate-induced oxidative stress in the hepatic tissues of mice after long-term exposure

Authors: Hassoun, EA; Cearfoss, J; Spildener, J (2010) Journal of Applied Toxicology 30:450-456. HERO ID: 758809

[Less] Dichoroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) were found to be hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic . . . [More] Dichoroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) were found to be hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in the long-term hepatotoxicity of the compounds, groups of mice were administered 7.7, 77, 154 and 410 mg kg(-1) per day, of either DCA or TCA, by gavage, for 4 weeks (4-W) and 13 weeks (13-W), and superoxide anion (SA), lipid peroxidation (LP) and DNA-single strand breaks (SSBs) were determined in the hepatic tissues. Significant increases in all of the biomarkers were observed in response to the tested doses of both compounds in the two test periods, with significantly greater increases observed in the 13-W, as compared with the 4-W, period. Hepatomegaly was only observed with a DCA dose of 410 mg kg(-1) per day in the 13-W treatment period, and that was associated with significant declines in the biomarkers, when compared with the immediately lower dose. With the exception of LP production in the 13-W treatment period that was similarly induced by the two compounds, the DCA-induced increases in all of the biomarkers were significantly greater than those of TCA. Since those biomarkers were significantly induced by the compounds' doses that were shown to be carcinogenic but at earlier periods than those demonstrating hepatotoxicity/haptocarcinogencity, they can be considered as initial events that may lead to later production of those long-term effects. The results also suggest LP to be a more significant contributing mechanism than SA and DNA damage to the long-term hepatotoxicity of TCA.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's draft IRIS assessment of tetrachloroethylene

Author: NRC (2010) Washington, DC: National Academies Press. HERO ID: 713711

[Less] Tetrachloroethylene is a volatile, chlorinated organic hydrocarbon that is widely used as a solvent . . . [More] Tetrachloroethylene is a volatile, chlorinated organic hydrocarbon that is widely used as a solvent in the dry-cleaning and textile-processing industries and as an agent for degreasing metal parts. It is an environmental contaminant that has been detected in the air, groundwater, surface waters, and soil. In June 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released its draft Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (CAS No. 127-18-4) in Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The draft IRIS assessment provides quantitative estimates of cancer and noncancer effects of exposure to tetrachloreothylene, which will be used to establish airquality and water-quality standards to protect public health and to set cleanup standards for hazardous waste sites.

At the request of EPA, the National Research Council conducted an independent scientific review of the draft IRIS assessment of tetrachloroethylene from toxicologic, epidemiologic, and human clinical perspectives. The resulting book evaluates the adequacy of the EPA assessment, the data and methods used for deriving the noncancer values for inhalation and oral exposures and the oral and inhalation cancer unit risks posed by tetrachloroethylene; evaluates whether the key studies underlying the draft IRIS assessment are of requisite quality, reliability, and relevance to support the derivation of the reference values and cancer risks; evaluates whether the uncertainties in EPA's risk assessment were adequately described and, where possible, quantified; and identifies research that could reduce the uncertainty in the current understanding of human health effects associated with tetrachloroethylene exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Microgram-order ammonium perfluorooctanoate may activate mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, but not human PPARalpha

Authors: Nakamura, T; Ito, Y; Yanagiba, Y; Ramdhan, DH; Kono, Y; Naito, H; Hayashi, Y; Li, Y; Aoyama, T; Gonzalez, FJ; Nakajima, T (2009) Toxicology 265:27-33. HERO ID: 758808

[Less] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, which exhibits marked species differences in expression and function, especially between rodents and humans. We investigated the functional difference in PFOA response between mice and humans, using a humanized PPARalpha transgenic mouse line. Three genotyped mice, 129/Sv wild-type (mPPARalpha), Pparalpha-null mice and humanized PPARalpha (hPPARalpha) mice (8-week-old males) were divided into three groups: the first was treated with water daily for 2 weeks by gavage (control group), and the remaining two groups were treated with 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg ammonium perflurooctanate (APFO), respectively, for 2 weeks by gavage. The APFO dosages used did not influence the plasma triglyceride or total cholesterol levels in any mouse line, but the high dose increased both hepatic lipid levels only in mPPARalpha mice. APFO increased mRNA and/or protein levels of PPARalpha target genes cytochrome P450 Cyp4a10, peroxisomal thiolase and bifunctional protein only in the liver of mPPARalpha mice, but not in Pparalpha-null or hPPARalpha mice. This chemical also increased expression of mitochondrial very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase only in the liver of mPPARalpha mice. Taken together, human PPARalpha may be less responsive to PFOA than that of mice when a relatively low dose is applied. This information may be very valuable in considering whether PFOA influences the lipid metabolism in humans.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

MSW time to tumor model and supporting documentation

Author: U.S. EPA (2009) HERO ID: 783477

[Less] The multistage Weibull (MSW) time-to-tumor model and related documentation were developed principally . . . [More] The multistage Weibull (MSW) time-to-tumor model and related documentation were developed principally (but not exclusively) for conducting time-to-tumor analyses to support risk assessments under the IRIS program. These programs and related documentation are made available publicly to insure that the methods and calculations used for such analyses are transparent and reproducible.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Science and decisions: Advancing risk assessment

Author: NRC (2009) In National Academies Press (pp. 422). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. HERO ID: 180073

[Less] Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, . . . [More] Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. It has been instrumental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as other federal agencies in evaluating public health concerns, informing regulatory and technological decisions, prioritizing research needs and funding, and in developing approaches for cost-benefit analysis.

However, risk assessment is at a crossroads. Despite advances in the field, risk assessment faces a number of significant challenges including lengthy delays in making complex decisions; lack of data leading to significant uncertainty in risk assessments; and many chemicals in the marketplace that have not been evaluated and emerging agents requiring assessment.

Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. This book is a complement to the widely used 1983 National Academies book, Risk Assessment in he Federal Government (also known as the Red Book). The earlier book established a framework for the concepts and conduct of risk assessment that has been adopted by numerous expert committees, regulatory agencies, and public health institutions. The new book embeds these concepts within a broader framework for risk-based decision-making. Together, these are essential references for those working in the regulatory and public health fields.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A reexamination of the PPAR-alpha activation mode of action as a basis for assessing human cancer risks of environmental contaminants

Authors: Guyton, KZ; Chiu, WA; Bateson, TF; Jinot, J; Scott, CS; Brown, RC; Caldwell, JC (2009) Environmental Health Perspectives 117:1664-1672. [Review] HERO ID: 635847

[Less] BACKGROUND: Diverse environmental contaminants, including the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Diverse environmental contaminants, including the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), are hepatocarcinogenic peroxisome proliferators in rodents. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) activation and its sequelae have been proposed to constitute a mode of action (MOA) for hepatocarcinogenesis by such agents as a sole causative factor. Further, based on a hypothesized lower sensitivity of humans to this MOA, prior reviews have concluded that rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by PPAR-alpha agonists is irrelevant to human carcinogenic risk. DATA SYNTHESIS: Herein, we review recent studies that experimentally challenge the PPAR-alpha activation MOA hypothesis, providing evidence that DEHP is hepatocarcinogenic in PPAR-alpha-null mice and that the MOA but not hepatocarcinogenesis is evoked by PPAR-alpha activation in a transgenic mouse model. We further examine whether relative potency for PPAR-alpha activation or other steps in the MOA correlates with tumorigenic potency. In addition, for most PPAR-alpha agonists of environmental concern, available data are insufficient to characterize relative human sensitivity to this rodent MOA or to induction of hepatocarcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our review and analyses raise questions about the hypothesized PPAR-alpha activation MOA as a sole explanation for rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by PPAR-alpha agonists and therefore its utility as a primary basis for assessing human carcinogenic risk from the diverse compounds that activate PPAR-alpha. These findings have broad implications for how MOA hypotheses are developed, tested, and applied in human health risk assessment. We discuss alternatives to the current approaches to these key aspects of mechanistic data evaluation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) activates the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR): a novel signalling pathway sensitive to phthalates

Authors: Eveillard, A; Mselli-Lakhal, L; Mogha, A; Lasserre, F; Polizzi, A; Pascussi, JM; Guillou, H; Martin, PG; Pineau, T (2009) Biochemical Pharmacology 77:1735-1746. HERO ID: 673636

[Less] Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, is detected in consumer's body fluids. . . . [More] Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, is detected in consumer's body fluids. Contamination occurs through environmental and food chain sources. In mouse liver, DEHP activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and regulates the expression of its target genes. Several in vitro investigations support the simultaneous recruitment of additional nuclear receptor pathways. We investigated, in vivo, the hepatic impact of low doses of DEHP on PPARalpha activation, and the putative activation of additional signalling pathways. Wild-type and PPARalpha-deficient mice were exposed to different doses of DEHP. Gene expression profiling delineated the role of PPARalpha and revealed a PPARalpha-independent regulation of several prototypic constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) target genes. Thus, we developed an original hepatic cell line expressing CAR to investigate its activation by DEHP. By means of a pharmacological inhibitor or CAR-targeting shRNAs, we established that CAR is required for the effect of DEHP on Cyp2b10, a recognized CAR target gene. Moreover, DEHP dose-dependently induced CYP2B6 in human primary hepatocyte cultures. This finding demonstrates that CAR also represents a transcriptional regulator sensitive to phthalates. CAR-mediated effects of DEHP provide a new rationale for most endpoints of phthalates toxicity described previously, including endocrine disruption, hepatocarcinogenesis and the metabolic syndrome.