Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Tetrachloroethylene (Perc) (Final, 2012)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupation and risk of lymphoma: A multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC) - Erratum

Authors: Neasham, D; Sifi, A; Nielsen, KR; Overvad, K; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Tjønneland, A; Barricarte, A; González, CA; Navarro, C; Rodriguez Suarez, L; Travis, RC; Key, T; Linseisen, J; Kaaks, R; Crosignani, P; Berrino, F; Rosso, S; Mattiello, A; Vermeulen, RC; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Berglund, G; Manjer, J; Zackrisson, S; Hallmans, G; Malmer, B; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Bergmann, MM; Boeing, H; Trichopoulou, A; Masala, G; Tumino, R; Lund, E; Slimani, N; Ferrari, P; Boffetta, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:550. [Erratum] HERO ID: 3449167


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Risk of lung cancer associated with quantitative beryllium exposure metrics within an occupational cohort

Authors: Schubauer-Berigan, MK; Deddens, JA; Couch, JR; Petersen, MR (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:354-360. HERO ID: 667892

[Less] Objectives Beryllium has been identified as a human carcinogen on the basis of animal and epidemiological . . . [More] Objectives Beryllium has been identified as a human carcinogen on the basis of animal and epidemiological studies. The authors recently reported updated associations between lung cancer and beryllium exposure in a large, pooled occupational cohort. The authors conducted the present study to evaluate the shape of exposure-response associations between different exposure metrics and lung cancer in this cohort, considering potential confounders (race, plant, professional and short-term work status, and exposure to other lung carcinogens). Methods The authors conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of lung cancer risk with cumulative, mean and maximum 'daily weighted average' (DWA) exposure among 5436 workers, using age-based risk sets. Different exposure-response curves were fitted to the exposure metrics, including categorical, power, restricted cubic spline and piecewise log-linear fits. Results The authors found significant positive associations between lung cancer and mean (p<0.0001) and maximum (p<0.0001) exposure, adjusting for age, birth cohort and plant, and for cumulative (p=0.0017) beryllium exposure, adjusting for these factors plus short-term work status and exposure to asbestos. The best-fitting models were generally categorical or piecewise log-linear, with the steepest increase in lung cancer risk between 0 and 10 μg/m(3) for both mean and maximum DWA exposure and between 0 and 200 μg/m(3)-days for cumulative DWA exposure. The estimated mean DWA beryllium exposure associated with 10(-3) excess lifetime risk based on the piecewise log-linear model is 0.033 μg/m(3). Conclusion This study provides evidence that lung cancer risk is elevated at levels near the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration beryllium exposure limit of 2.0 μg/m(3) DWA for workers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cohort mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants: update and associations with cumulative and maximum exposure

Authors: Schubauer-Berigan, MK; Couch, JR; Petersen, MR; Carreón, T; Jin, Y; Deddens, JA (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:345-353. HERO ID: 667893

[Less] Objectives To extend follow-up of cause-specific mortality in workers at seven beryllium processing . . . [More] Objectives To extend follow-up of cause-specific mortality in workers at seven beryllium processing plants and to estimate associations between mortality risk and beryllium exposure. Methods 9199 workers were followed for mortality from 1940 through 2005. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated based on US population comparisons for lung, nervous system and urinary tract cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and categories containing chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and cor pulmonale. Associations with maximum and cumulative exposure were calculated for a subset of the workers. Results Overall mortality in the cohort compared with the US population was elevated for lung cancer (SMR 1.17; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.28), COPD (SMR 1.23; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.32), and the categories containing CBD (SMR 7.80; 95% CI 6.26 to 9.60) and cor pulmonale (SMR 1.17; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26). Mortality rates for most diseases of interest increased with time-since-hire. For the category including CBD, rates were substantially elevated compared to the US population across all exposure groups. Workers whose maximum beryllium exposure was ≥10 μg/m(3) had higher rates of lung cancer, urinary tract cancer, COPD and the category containing cor pulmonale than workers with lower exposure. Significant positive trends with cumulative exposure were observed for nervous system cancers (p=0.0006) and, when short-term workers were excluded, lung cancer (p=0.01), urinary tract cancer (p=0.003) and COPD (p<0.0001). Conclusion These findings reaffirm that lung cancer and CBD, and suggest that COPD and nervous system and urinary tract cancers, are related to beryllium exposure. Cigarette smoking and exposure to other lung carcinogens are unlikely to explain these elevations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The ghost of methods past: Exposure assessment versus job-exposure matrix studies

Author: Burstyn, I (2011) HERO ID: 667894


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study

Authors: Peters, S; Vermeulen, R; Cassidy, A; Mannetje, AT; van Tongeren, M; Boffetta, P; Straif, K; Kromhout, H (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:148-153. HERO ID: 667997

[Less] Objectives Retrospective exposure assessment remains a problematic aspect of population-based case-control . . . [More] Objectives Retrospective exposure assessment remains a problematic aspect of population-based case-control studies. Different methods have been developed, including case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEM). The present analyses compare exposure prevalence and risk estimates derived by different exposure assessment methods. Methods In the context of a case-control study conducted in seven European countries, exposure was estimated for asbestos, diesel motor emissions (DME) and crystalline silica, using three different assessment methods. First, experts assigned exposures to all reported jobs on a case-by-case basis. Second, a population-specific JEM (PSJEM) was developed using the expert assessments of controls only, and re-applied to all study subjects. Third, an independent general population JEM (GPJEM) was created by occupational exposure experts not involved in the original study, and applied to study subjects. Results from these methods were compared. Results There was poor to fair agreement in assigned exposure between expert assessment and the GPJEM (kappas: asbestos 0.17; DME 0.48; silica 0.38). Exposure prevalence was significantly heterogeneous (p<0.01) between countries for all three agents and assessment methods. For asbestos and DME, significant country heterogeneity in risk estimates was observed when using expert assessment. When applying the GPJEM, the heterogeneity in risk estimates for asbestos and, to some extent, silica diminished. Conclusions It has been previously advocated that the expert assessment approach to assign exposures based on detailed questionnaire responses provides more accurate exposure estimates than JEM-based results. However, current results demonstrated little, if any, advantage of case-by-case assessment when compared to a JEM approach.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupation and risk of lymphoma: A multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC)

Authors: Neasham, D; Sifi, A; Nielsen, KR; Overvad, K; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Tjønneland, A; Barricarte, A; González, CA; Navarro, C; Rodriguez Suarez, L; Travis, RC; Key, T; Linseisen, J; Kaaks, R; Crosignani, P; Berrino, F; Rosso, S; Mattiello, A; Vermeulen, RC; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Berglund, G; Manjer, J; Zackrisson, S; Hallmans, G; Malmer, B; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Bergmann, MM; Boeing, H; Trichopoulou, A; Masala, G; Tumino, R; Lund, E; Slimani, N; Ferrari, P; Boffetta, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:77-81. HERO ID: 668156

[Less] Objectives Evidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of . . . [More] Objectives Evidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective study.

Methods We investigated occupational risks for lymphomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The mean follow-up time for 348 555 subjects was 9 years (SD: 2 years). The analysis was based on 866 and 48 newly diagnosed cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). These were identified in the EPIC subcohorts with occupational data. Data on 52 occupations were collected through standardised questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between occupation and risk of malignant lymphoma.

Results The following occupations were positively associated with malignant NHL after adjustment for study centre, age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking and alcohol: butchers (HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.48, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.66, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma) and car repair workers (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.00, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.31, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma). HL was associated with gasoline station occupation (HR=4.59, 95% CI 1.08 to 19.6).

Conclusion The findings in this current study of a higher risk of NHL among car repair workers and butchers and a higher risk of HL among gasoline station workers suggest a possible role from occupationally related exposures, such as solvents and zoonotic viruses, as risk factors for malignant lymphoma.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupation and bladder cancer in a population-based case-control study in Northern New England

Authors: Colt, JS; Karagas, MR; Schwenn, M; Baris, D; Johnson, A; Stewart, P; Verrill, C; Moore, LE; Lubin, J; Ward, MH; Samanic, C; Rothman, N; Cantor, KP; Beane Freeman, LE; Schned, A; Cherala, S; Silverman, DT (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:239-249. HERO ID: 668314

[Less] Objectives: We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, . . . [More] Objectives: We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to examine relationships between occupation, industry and bladder cancer risk. Methods: Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by personal interview from 1158 patients newly diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in 2001-2004, and from 1402 population controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and employment in other high-risk occupations. Results: Male precision metalworkers and metalworking/plasticworking machine operators had significantly elevated risks and significant trends in risk with duration of employment (precision metalworkers: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, p(trend)=0.0065; metalworking/plasticworking machine operators: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.6, p(trend)=0.047). Other occupations/industries for which risk increased significantly with duration of employment included: for men, textile machine operators, mechanics/repairers, automobile mechanics, plumbers, computer systems analysts, information clerks, and landscape industry workers; for women, service occupations, health services, cleaning and building services, management-related occupations, electronic components manufacturing and transportation equipment manufacturing. Men reporting use of metalworking fluids (MWF) had a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that some component(s) of MWF may be carcinogenic to the bladder. Our results also corroborate many other previously reported associations between bladder cancer risk and various occupations. More detailed analyses using information from the study's job-specific questionnaires may help to identify MWF components that may be carcinogenic, and other bladder carcinogens associated with a variety of occupations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mortality and end-stage renal disease incidence among dry cleaning workers

Authors: Calvert, GM; Ruder, AM; Petersen, MR (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:709-716. HERO ID: 670877

[Less] Objective: Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning . . . [More] Objective: Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning exposures, particularly PCE, are also associated with renal toxicity. The objective was to follow-up a cohort of dry cleaners to evaluate mortality and assess end-stage renal disease (ESRD) morbidity.

Methods: This study adds 8 years of mortality follow-up for 1704 dry cleaning workers in four cities. Employees eligible for inclusion worked for ≥1 year before 1960 in a shop using PCE as the primary solvent. Life table analyses for mortality and ESRD morbidity were conducted. Only employees alive on 1 January 1977 were included in ESRD analyses.

Results: Overall cancer deaths were in significant excess in this cohort (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.36). Oesophageal, lung and tongue cancers had significant excesses of deaths. Oesophageal cancer risk was highest among those employed in a PCE-using shop for ≥5 years with ≥20 years' latency since first such employment. Deaths from non-malignant underlying diseases of the stomach and duodenum were in significant excess. Hypertensive ESRD morbidity was significantly elevated in the entire cohort (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.98, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.27), and among workers employed only in PCE-using dry cleaning shops for ≥5 years.

Conclusion: Employment in the dry cleaning industry and occupational exposure to PCE are associated with an increased risk for ESRD and for cancer at several sites. The employment duration findings for oesophageal cancer and hypertensive ESRD further support an association with PCE exposure instead of lifestyle or socioeconomic factors

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cancer morbidity in Swedish dry-cleaners and laundry workers: Historically prospective cohort study

Authors: Seldén, AI; Ahlborg, G (2011) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 84:435-443. HERO ID: 699243

[Less] PURPOSE: Despite decades of experimental and observational studies, the carcinogenic risks to humans . . . [More] PURPOSE: Despite decades of experimental and observational studies, the carcinogenic risks to humans associated with occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PER) remain uncertain. The aims of the present study were to further examine the possible associations. METHODS: A national cohort of dry-cleaning and laundry workers (n = 10,389) assembled in 1984 was followed up for new cases of cancer by matching with the Swedish cancer register from 1985 to 2006 (inclusive), and the results were compared with expected frequencies derived from national reference data. RESULTS: Follow-up was complete for 90.9% of the cohort (2,810 men, 6,630 women). The overall standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR) for all subjects was close to unity (SIR 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.02) with a slightly more favourable outcome in women (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.98) than in men (SIR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.23). Significantly elevated rates of lung cancer (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-1.98) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 2.05; 95% CI 1.30-3.07) were seen in men, but for both types of cancer, the point estimates were similar in genuine laundry workers and dry-cleaners exposed to PER, respectively. There was no significant excess of cancer of the oesophagus, larynx, uterine cervix, liver, kidney or urinary bladder. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of individual or collective data on PER exposure from participating dry-cleaning shops and laundries involved and limited information on exposure time hampered the risk assessment related to PER. However, no clear association between PER exposure and subsequent cancer morbidity in the workers was evident from this historically prospective cohort.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lung cancer and occupation: A New Zealand cancer registry-based case-control study

Authors: Corbin, M; Mclean, D; Mannetje, A; Dryson, E; Walls, C; Mckenzie, F; Maule, M; Cheng, S; Cunningham, C; Kromhout, H; Blair, A; Pearce, N (2011) American Journal of Industrial Medicine 54:89-101. HERO ID: 699244

[Less] There are many proven and suspected occupational causes of lung cancer, which will become relatively . . . [More] There are many proven and suspected occupational causes of lung cancer, which will become relatively more important over time, as smoking prevalence decreases.

We interviewed 457 cases aged 20-75 years notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2007-2008, and 792 population controls. We collected information on demographic details, potential confounders, and employment history. Associations were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic status.

Among occupations of a priori interest, elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for sawmill, wood panel and related wood-processing plant operators (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.05-20.29), butchers (OR 8.77, 95% CI 1.06-72.55), rubber and plastics products machine operators (4.27; 1.16-15.66), heavy truck drivers (2.24; 1.19-4.21) and workers in petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (1.80; 1.11-2.90); non-significantly elevated risks were also observed for loggers (4.67; 0.81-27.03), welders and flame-cutters (2.50; 0.86-7.25), pressers (5.74; 0.96-34.42), and electric and electronic equipment assemblers (3.61; 0.96-13.57). Several occupations and industries not of a priori interest also showed increased risks, including nursing associate professionals (5.45; 2.29-12.99), enrolled nurses (7.95; 3.10-20.42), care givers (3.47; 1.40-8.59), plant and machine operators and assemblers (1.61; 1.20-2.16), stationary machine operators and assemblers (1.67; 1.22-2.28), food and related products processing machine operators (1.98; 1.23-3.19), laborers and related elementary service workers (1.45; 1.05-2.00), manufacturing (1.34; 1.02-1.77), car retailing (3.08; 1.36-6.94), and road freight transport (3.02; 1.45-6.27).

Certain occupations and industries have increased lung cancer risks in New Zealand, including wood workers, metal workers, meat workers, textile workers and drivers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54:89-101, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.