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Tetrachloroethylene (Perc) (Final, 2012)

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2,051 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cohort mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants: update and associations with cumulative and maximum exposure

Authors: Schubauer-Berigan, MK; Couch, JR; Petersen, MR; Carreón, T; Jin, Y; Deddens, JA (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:345-353. HERO ID: 667893

[Less] Objectives To extend follow-up of cause-specific mortality in workers at seven beryllium processing . . . [More] Objectives To extend follow-up of cause-specific mortality in workers at seven beryllium processing plants and to estimate associations between mortality risk and beryllium exposure. Methods 9199 workers were followed for mortality from 1940 through 2005. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated based on US population comparisons for lung, nervous system and urinary tract cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and categories containing chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and cor pulmonale. Associations with maximum and cumulative exposure were calculated for a subset of the workers. Results Overall mortality in the cohort compared with the US population was elevated for lung cancer (SMR 1.17; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.28), COPD (SMR 1.23; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.32), and the categories containing CBD (SMR 7.80; 95% CI 6.26 to 9.60) and cor pulmonale (SMR 1.17; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26). Mortality rates for most diseases of interest increased with time-since-hire. For the category including CBD, rates were substantially elevated compared to the US population across all exposure groups. Workers whose maximum beryllium exposure was ≥10 μg/m(3) had higher rates of lung cancer, urinary tract cancer, COPD and the category containing cor pulmonale than workers with lower exposure. Significant positive trends with cumulative exposure were observed for nervous system cancers (p=0.0006) and, when short-term workers were excluded, lung cancer (p=0.01), urinary tract cancer (p=0.003) and COPD (p<0.0001). Conclusion These findings reaffirm that lung cancer and CBD, and suggest that COPD and nervous system and urinary tract cancers, are related to beryllium exposure. Cigarette smoking and exposure to other lung carcinogens are unlikely to explain these elevations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The ghost of methods past: Exposure assessment versus job-exposure matrix studies

Author: Burstyn, I (2011) HERO ID: 667894


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupation and bladder cancer in a population-based case-control study in Northern New England

Authors: Colt, JS; Karagas, MR; Schwenn, M; Baris, D; Johnson, A; Stewart, P; Verrill, C; Moore, LE; Lubin, J; Ward, MH; Samanic, C; Rothman, N; Cantor, KP; Beane Freeman, LE; Schned, A; Cherala, S; Silverman, DT (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:239-249. HERO ID: 668314

[Less] Objectives: We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, . . . [More] Objectives: We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to examine relationships between occupation, industry and bladder cancer risk. Methods: Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by personal interview from 1158 patients newly diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in 2001-2004, and from 1402 population controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and employment in other high-risk occupations. Results: Male precision metalworkers and metalworking/plasticworking machine operators had significantly elevated risks and significant trends in risk with duration of employment (precision metalworkers: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, p(trend)=0.0065; metalworking/plasticworking machine operators: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.6, p(trend)=0.047). Other occupations/industries for which risk increased significantly with duration of employment included: for men, textile machine operators, mechanics/repairers, automobile mechanics, plumbers, computer systems analysts, information clerks, and landscape industry workers; for women, service occupations, health services, cleaning and building services, management-related occupations, electronic components manufacturing and transportation equipment manufacturing. Men reporting use of metalworking fluids (MWF) had a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that some component(s) of MWF may be carcinogenic to the bladder. Our results also corroborate many other previously reported associations between bladder cancer risk and various occupations. More detailed analyses using information from the study's job-specific questionnaires may help to identify MWF components that may be carcinogenic, and other bladder carcinogens associated with a variety of occupations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mortality and end-stage renal disease incidence among dry cleaning workers

Authors: Calvert, GM; Ruder, AM; Petersen, MR (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:709-716. HERO ID: 670877

[Less] Objective: Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning . . . [More] Objective: Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning exposures, particularly PCE, are also associated with renal toxicity. The objective was to follow-up a cohort of dry cleaners to evaluate mortality and assess end-stage renal disease (ESRD) morbidity.

Methods: This study adds 8 years of mortality follow-up for 1704 dry cleaning workers in four cities. Employees eligible for inclusion worked for ≥1 year before 1960 in a shop using PCE as the primary solvent. Life table analyses for mortality and ESRD morbidity were conducted. Only employees alive on 1 January 1977 were included in ESRD analyses.

Results: Overall cancer deaths were in significant excess in this cohort (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.36). Oesophageal, lung and tongue cancers had significant excesses of deaths. Oesophageal cancer risk was highest among those employed in a PCE-using shop for ≥5 years with ≥20 years' latency since first such employment. Deaths from non-malignant underlying diseases of the stomach and duodenum were in significant excess. Hypertensive ESRD morbidity was significantly elevated in the entire cohort (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.98, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.27), and among workers employed only in PCE-using dry cleaning shops for ≥5 years.

Conclusion: Employment in the dry cleaning industry and occupational exposure to PCE are associated with an increased risk for ESRD and for cancer at several sites. The employment duration findings for oesophageal cancer and hypertensive ESRD further support an association with PCE exposure instead of lifestyle or socioeconomic factors

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cancer morbidity in Swedish dry-cleaners and laundry workers: Historically prospective cohort study

Authors: Seldén, AI; Ahlborg, G (2011) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 84:435-443. HERO ID: 699243

[Less] PURPOSE: Despite decades of experimental and observational studies, the carcinogenic risks to humans . . . [More] PURPOSE: Despite decades of experimental and observational studies, the carcinogenic risks to humans associated with occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PER) remain uncertain. The aims of the present study were to further examine the possible associations. METHODS: A national cohort of dry-cleaning and laundry workers (n = 10,389) assembled in 1984 was followed up for new cases of cancer by matching with the Swedish cancer register from 1985 to 2006 (inclusive), and the results were compared with expected frequencies derived from national reference data. RESULTS: Follow-up was complete for 90.9% of the cohort (2,810 men, 6,630 women). The overall standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR) for all subjects was close to unity (SIR 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.02) with a slightly more favourable outcome in women (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.98) than in men (SIR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.23). Significantly elevated rates of lung cancer (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-1.98) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 2.05; 95% CI 1.30-3.07) were seen in men, but for both types of cancer, the point estimates were similar in genuine laundry workers and dry-cleaners exposed to PER, respectively. There was no significant excess of cancer of the oesophagus, larynx, uterine cervix, liver, kidney or urinary bladder. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of individual or collective data on PER exposure from participating dry-cleaning shops and laundries involved and limited information on exposure time hampered the risk assessment related to PER. However, no clear association between PER exposure and subsequent cancer morbidity in the workers was evident from this historically prospective cohort.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning shops in the Nordic countries

Authors: Lynge, E; Tinnerberg, H; Rylander, L; Romundstad, P; Johansen, K; Lindbohm, ML; Heikkilä, P; Westberg, H; Clausen, LB; Piombino, A; Thorsted, BL (2011) Annals of Occupational Hygiene 55:387-396. HERO ID: 716622

[Less] Tetrachloroethylene is the dominant solvent used in dry cleaning worldwide and many workers are potentially . . . [More] Tetrachloroethylene is the dominant solvent used in dry cleaning worldwide and many workers are potentially exposed. We report here on results of 1296 measurements of tetrachloroethylene undertaken in Nordic dry cleaning shops 1947-2001.

We searched documents and files in the Nordic institutes of occupational health for air measurements of tetrachloroethylene. Repeated measurements from the same facility during a short time interval were registered only once using the time-weighted average. We registered also changes over time in occupational exposure limits (OELs) to tetrachloroethylene.

Only scattered measurements were available from the early years, and the exposure level seemed fairly stable up until the mid 1970s. The median exposure level was 20 p.p.m. in 1976 and decreased to 3 p.p.m. in 2000. Exposure levels in the four Nordic countries followed similar trends. In the late 1960s, the OELs varied between the Nordic countries from 30 to 100 p.p.m. Sweden was first to lower the limit, but limits gradually converged over time. At present, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden use 10 p.p.m., while Norway uses 6 p.p.m. Over time, the average observed exposure level was lower than the OEL in all countries, but in Denmark and Sweden, up to one-third of measured exposures exceeded the OEL. Overall, the stationary measurements for maintenance work showed 36 p.p.m., while the personal measurements showed 7.5 p.p.m. for dry cleaners and 6.25 p.p.m. for shop assistants.

The Nordic data illustrate that it is possible over time to control chemical exposures even in an industry consisting of many small and scattered work places.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Trichloroacetic acid: Updated estimates of its bioavailability and its contribution to trichloroethylene-induced mouse hepatomegaly

Author: Chiu, WA (2011) Toxicology 285:114-125. HERO ID: 729640

[Less] Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a common drinking water disinfection byproduct that produces a spectrum . . . [More] Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a common drinking water disinfection byproduct that produces a spectrum of liver effects, including hepatomegaly and liver tumors, in mice. It is also an oxidative metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE), a solvent used in degreasing with widespread environmental exposure, which also produces hepatomegaly and liver tumors in mice. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of TCE and TCA can be used to quantitatively compare the dose-responses for hepatomegaly for these two chemicals on the basis of internal TCA dose, and thereby test the hypothesis that TCA could fully explain TCE-induced hepatomegaly. Previously, using a PBPK model calibrated using kinetic data from i.v. and gavage dosing of TCA and from TCA produced from TCE, it was concluded that TCA accounted for only about one-fifth of the degree of hepatomegaly produced by TCE. However, recently available data suggest a non-linear change in internal TCA dose attributed to a dose-dependent fractional absorption of TCA administered in drinking water, the primary route of exposure of TCA both environmentally and in experimental toxicity studies. Therefore, in the present reanalysis, the PBPK modeling of TCA was updated using these data and the comparison between TCA- and TCE-induced hepatomegaly was revisited using updated internal dose predictions. With respect to updated PBPK modeling results, incorporating less than complete absorption of TCA administered in drinking water substantially improves the PBPK model fit to the newly available data, based on goodness-of-fit comparison. However, inter-experimental variability is high, with nearly complete absorption estimated for some studies. With respect to the comparison of TCA and TCA-induced hepatomegaly, this reanalysis predicts that TCA can account for roughly one-third to one-half of the effect observed with TCE - greater than previously reported, but still inconsistent with TCA being the sole active moiety for this effect. However, given uncertainty as to the precise degree of contribution of TCA and due to high inter-experimental variability in estimated fractional absorption, a more precise quantitative estimate of the relative contribution of TCA may obtained through an appropriate experiment in mice simultaneously measuring TCA kinetics and TCE- and TCA-induced hepatomegaly.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carcinogenicity of chemicals in industrial and consumer products, food contaminants and flavourings, and water chlorination byproducts

Authors: Grosse, Y; Baan, R; Secretan-Lauby, B; El Ghissassi, F; Bouvard, V; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L; Guha, N; Islami, F; Galichet, L; Straif, K (2011) Lancet Oncology 12:328-329. HERO ID: 730457


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Visual contrast sensitivity in children exposed to tetrachloroethylene

Authors: Storm, JE; Mazor, KA; Aldous, KM; Blount, BC; Brodie, SE; Serle, JB (2011) Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 66:166-177. HERO ID: 735838

[Less] This study examined relationships between indoor air, breath, and blood tetrachloroethylene (perc) levels . . . [More] This study examined relationships between indoor air, breath, and blood tetrachloroethylene (perc) levels and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) among adult and child residents of buildings with or without a colocated dry cleaner using perc. Decreasing trends in proportions of adults or children with maximum VCS scores indicated decreased VCS at a single spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree [cpd]) among children residing in buildings with colocated dry cleaners when indoor air perc level averaged 336 μg/m3; breath perc level averaged 159.5 μg/m3; and blood perc level averaged 0.51 μg/L. Adjusted logistic regression indicated that increases in indoor air, breath, and blood perc levels among all child participants significantly increased the odds for decreased VCS at 12 cpd. Adult VCS was not significantly decreased by increasing indoor air, breath, or blood perc level. These results suggest that elevated residential perc exposures may alter children's VCS, a possible subclinical central nervous system effect.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

PERC risk assessment model

Authors: Chiu, WA; Ginsberg, GL (2011) [MCSim Code]. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Database] HERO ID: 784005

Abstract: Use GNU MCSim Monte Carlo Simulation Software version 5.x to run attached code.