Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


4,281 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Styrene, styrene-7,8-oxide, and quinoline

Author: IARC Monograph Working Group (2018) Lyon, France: IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [IARC Monograph] HERO ID: 4338178


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carcinogenicity of quinoline, styrene, and styrene-7,8-oxide

Author: IARC Monograph Working Group (2018) The Lancet Oncology. HERO ID: 4337444

[Less] In March, 2018, a Working Group of 23 scientists from 12 countries met at the International Agency for . . . [More] In March, 2018, a Working Group of 23 scientists from 12 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of quinoline, styrene, and styrene-7,8-oxide. This assessment will be published in Volume 121 of the IARC Monographs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a wide range of polarities in urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Authors: Song, HN; Kim, CH; Lee, WY; Cho, SH (2017) Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 31:613-622. HERO ID: 3491053

[Less] RATIONALE: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants . . . [More] RATIONALE: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that have a high vapor pressure at room temperature. Some VOCs have been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), because they can bind to DNA and cause cell mutations. Therefore, monitoring of VOCs in human urine is very important to evaluate the correlation between exposure to VOCs and human disease.

METHODS: We have developed an improved analytical method for the simultaneous determination of VOCs with a wide range of polarities in human urine samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the improved method, a bi-polar carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for the optimized extraction of 15 VOCs with a wide range of polarities, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), alkylbenzenes, cresols, and naphthalene, in human urine samples.. Extracted VOCs from the human urine were effectively separated by GC using a mid-polarity column (DB-35, 35% phenylmethylpolysiloxane) and monitored by mass spectrometry using extracted ion monitoring (EIM) mode.

RESULTS: Under the optimized method, the linearity of the calibration curves was greater than 0.993. The limits of detection (LODs) at a signal to noise (S/N) ratio of 3 were 0.3-0.6 ng/mL. The coefficients of variation were in the range of 0.1 - 9.7 % for within-day variation and 0.2 - 14.2 % for day-to-day variation.

CONCLUSIONS: The method was shown to be rapid and simple for the simultaneous determination of VOCs with a wide range of polarities in human urine and it could be applied to monitoring and to biomedical investigations to check exposure of VOCs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Seasonal and diurnal variations of BTEX compounds in the semi-urban environment of Orleans, France

Authors: Jiang, Z; Grosselin, B; Daële, V; Mellouki, A; Mu, Y (2017) Science of the Total Environment 574:1659-1664. HERO ID: 3466746

[Less] Atmospheric concentrations of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were measured at a semi-urban . . . [More] Atmospheric concentrations of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were measured at a semi-urban site in Orleans, France, from October 2010 to August 2011. Air samples were collected by multi-bed adsorbent tubes. The BTEX concentrations were determined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detector (TD-GC-MSD) technique. The average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during spring, summer, autumn and winter were 724.2, 337.4, 682.3, 823.0ppt, respectively. Maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened during rush hours in the morning and late afternoon, and the minimal values in the daytime usually happened in around noontime. The diurnal variation of BTEX in four seasons and the correlations between BTEX and NO indicated that vehicular exhaust might be the primary source of BTEX. Benzene was found in relatively high levels and the B/T ratio was significant high in spring, indicating an irregular emission source of benzene other than traffic-related emissions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Intoxication and biochemical responses of freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa to ethylbenzene

Authors: Zheng, S; Zhou, Q (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:189-198. HERO ID: 3491107

[Less] No acute toxic data of ethylbenzene on gastropod is available in literature. In the present study, the . . . [More] No acute toxic data of ethylbenzene on gastropod is available in literature. In the present study, the acute toxicity of ethylbenzene was assessed on a freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa, which was exposed to ethylbenzene concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L for 96 h. No mortality occurred, but a manifestation of intoxication (distress syndrome) was observed in part of exposed snails, and meanwhile, another part was moved normally. The distress syndrome showed clear dose- and time-dependent effects, and the 96-h EC50 value for distress syndrome was 13.3 mg/L in snail. The biochemical responses induced by ethylbenzene to the snail, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the whole body and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the hepatopancreas, were evaluated both for distressed snail and moved snail. The AChE activity of distressed snail was all inhibited more than 45 %, and the inhibition of AChE activity in the moved snail was all less than 30 % and more than 20 %, demonstrating that ethylbenzene exerted nervous toxicity to both distressed snail and moved snail. Meanwhile, the difference for AChE activity between the two different response snails was significant. Among the antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH), only GST displayed significant difference between the distressed snail and moved snail. However, the activities of enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GST) in the moved snail were greater than those in the distressed snail, no matter significantly or insignificantly, which indicated that the ability of antioxidant defense in the distressed snail was weaker than that in the moved snail. The findings here reported manifest that ethylbenzene exerted nervous toxicity to snail, and the snail with intoxication response (distress syndrome) presented larger inhibition on AChE activity and weaker antioxidant ability in comparison with the moved snail.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mutagenic products are promoted in the nitrosation of tyramine

Authors: González-Jiménez, M; Arenas-Valgañón, J; García-Santos, M; Calle, E; Casado, J (2017) Food Chemistry 216:60-65. HERO ID: 3491292

[Less] Tyramine is a biogenic compound derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, and is . . . [More] Tyramine is a biogenic compound derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, and is therefore present at important concentrations in a broad range of raw and fermented foods. Owing to its chemical properties, tyramine can react with nitrite, a common food additive, in the acidic medium of stomach to form N- and C-nitroso compounds. Since toxicology studies have shown that the product of C-nitrosation of tyramine is mutagenic, in the present article tyramine nitrosation mechanisms have been characterized in order to discern which of them are favoured under conditions similar to those in the human stomach lumen. To determine the kinetic course of nitrosation reactions, a systematic study of the nitrosation of ethylbenzene, phenethylamine, and tyramine was carried out, using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that, under conditions mimicking those of the stomach lumen, the most favoured reaction in tyramine is C-nitrosation, which generates mutagenic products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The interaction of surfactants with plastic and copper plumbing materials during decontamination

Authors: Casteloes, KS; Mendis, GP; Avins, HK; Howarter, JA; Whelton, AJ (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 325:8-16. HERO ID: 3491029

[Less] The study goal was to examine the effectiveness of surfactants to decontaminate plastic and copper potable . . . [More] The study goal was to examine the effectiveness of surfactants to decontaminate plastic and copper potable water plumbing components. Several common potable water pipe and gasket plastics were examined as well as Alconox(®) detergent, Dawn(®) soap, and MAGIT-DG 100 surfactants. Results showed that the MAGIT-DG 100 solutions permeated all plastics within 3days, effectively compromising tensile strength (-82%), physical dimension (+43% volume, +45% weight), and oxidative resistance (-15%). A variety of MAGIT-DG 100 solution compounds permeated plastic samples, not just the declared major ingredient. PVC and cPVC pipes sorbed the least amount of this solution's components of all the plastic pipes tested. Alconox(®) and Dawn(®) solutions caused minimal changes to the physical and mechanical properties of all plastics examined. Crosslinked polyethylene type A (PEX-a) pipe was more susceptible to crude oil contamination than copper pipe. Flushing with a pure water Alconox(®) solution mixture removed all benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes (BTEX) from copper pipe. No decontamination method affected BTEX removal from PEX pipe. Under certain conditions surfactant solutions have the potential to alter material integrity and may not be a viable option in removing hydrophobic organic compounds from plastic pipe.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In situ chemical oxidation of BTEX and MTBE by ferrate: pH dependence and stability

Authors: Pepino Minetti, RC; Macaño, HR; Britch, J; Allende, MC (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 324:448-456. HERO ID: 3491036

[Less] Gasoline spills from underground storage tanks are a worldwide environmental problem. BTEX and MtBE . . . [More] Gasoline spills from underground storage tanks are a worldwide environmental problem. BTEX and MtBE are the compounds of gasoline that present the highest degree of migration due to their chemical properties, and are therefore able to impact groundwater reservoirs. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an emerging technology for groundwater remediation. Several compounds such as permanganate and hydrogen peroxide among others have been used as oxidants, a strong impact of pH on the relative stabilities and reduction potentials having been in each case determined. This paper presents a study of stability and degradation of BTEX and MtBE at different pH ranges of a novel oxidant for ISCO, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4). To carry out this study, BTEX and MtBE solutions were prepared in different phosphate buffers (pH 5,8; 7; 9; 10 and 11) in concentration ratio of (FeO4(-2))/(BTEX+MtBE)=100:1. Each solution was analyzed at different times by gas chromatography with photoionization and tandem mass spectrometer detector. The results show a higher degree of degradation at pH 7 for Benzene and Toluene, and at pH 9 for Ethyl benzene and Xylenes, while MtBE proved recalcitrant to degradation by ferrate. The most favorable pH for stability of FeO4(-2) solution was confirmed in 9-10.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The ecology of anaerobic degraders of BTEX hydrocarbons in aquifers

Author: Lueders, T (2017) FEMS Microbiology Ecology 93. HERO ID: 3491040

[Less] The degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) contaminants in groundwater relies . . . [More] The degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) contaminants in groundwater relies largely on anaerobic processes. While the physiology and biochemistry of selected relevant microbes have been intensively studied, research has now started to take the generated knowledge back to the field, in order to trace the populations truly responsible for the anaerobic degradation of BTEX hydrocarbons in situ and to unravel their ecology in contaminated aquifers. Here, recent advances in our knowledge of the identity, diversity and ecology of microbes involved in these important ecosystem services are discussed. At several sites, distinct lineages within the Desulfobulbaceae, the Rhodocyclaceae and the Gram-positive Peptococcaceae have been shown to dominate the degradation of different BTEX hydrocarbons. Especially for the functional guild of anaerobic toluene degraders, specific molecular detection systems have been developed, allowing researchers to trace their diversity and distribution in contaminated aquifers. Their populations appear enriched in hot spots of biodegradation in situ (13)C-labelling experiments have revealed unexpected pathways of carbon sharing and obligate syntrophic interactions to be relevant in degradation. Together with feedback mechanisms between abiotic and biotic habitat components, this promotes an enhanced ecological perspective of the anaerobic degradation of BTEX hydrocarbons, as well as its incorporation into updated concepts for site monitoring and bioremediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatial characteristics of urinary BTEX concentrations in the general population

Authors: Tsangari, X; Andrianou, XD; Agapiou, A; Mochalski, P; Makris, KC (2017) Chemosphere 173:261-266. HERO ID: 3491050

[Less] Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) are ubiquitous outdoor and indoor air pollutants . . . [More] Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) are ubiquitous outdoor and indoor air pollutants associated with both environmental and health effects. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine the magnitude and variability of urinary BTEX levels among residents of two areas located in the same city (Nicosia, Cyprus). The two areas differed with respect to their proximity to an industrial cluster and an intercity-highway. First morning urine voids were collected during a random campaign from selected households in the two urban areas (n = 48). Urinary BTEX measurements were obtained using headspace solid phase micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The majority of participants were females (65%) and non-smokers (85%) with a mean age of 49 years. Median urinary BTEX levels were: 118 ng L(-1), 124 ng L(-1), 9 ng L(-1), 29 ng L(-1) and 28 ng L(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, (p + m)-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. With the exception of benzene, participants from area 2 (closer to the industrial cluster and an intercity road than area 1) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher urinary BTEX levels than those from area 1 (regression analysis). The residence location (in area 2) was the sole significant (p < 0.05) predictor of urinary BTEX levels after adjusting for sex, smoking, age, body mass index, and educational level. This observational study showed differences in BTEX exposures between two urban areas of the same city. This baseline BTEX dataset may prove useful for future activities of natural gas extraction and handling nearby urban settings.