Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


4,305 References Were Found:

Archival Material
Archival Material

2014 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) Available online at https://www.epa.gov/national-air-toxics-assessment. (Aug 2, 2018). [Website] HERO ID: 4779368

[Less] The 2014 NATA assessment includes emissions, ambient concentrations, and exposure estimates for about . . . [More] The 2014 NATA assessment includes emissions, ambient concentrations, and exposure estimates for about 180 of the 187 Clean Air Act air toxics plus diesel particulate matter (diesel PM). For about 140 of these air toxics (those with health data based on long-term exposure), the assessment estimates cancer risks, from the potential for noncancer health effects, or both. This includes noncancer health effects for diesel PM. We did not include eight air toxics in this NATA assessment because either no emissions data were reported for them in 2014 or we couldn’t reliably make emissions or health-related estimates (radionuclides, for example).

NATA includes four steps:

1. Compile a national inventory of air toxics emissions from outdoor sources from emissions year 2014.
2. Estimate ambient concentrations of air toxics across the United States.
3. Estimate population exposures.
4. Characterize potential public health risks due to breathing air toxics (including both cancer and noncancer effects).

Journal Article
Journal Article

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) . HERO ID: 4198322


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carcinogenicity of quinoline, styrene, and styrene-7,8-oxide

Author: IARC Monograph Working Group (2018) The Lancet Oncology 19:728-729. HERO ID: 4337444

[Less] In March, 2018, a Working Group of 23 scientists from 12 countries met at the International Agency for . . . [More] In March, 2018, a Working Group of 23 scientists from 12 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of quinoline, styrene, and styrene-7,8-oxide. This assessment will be published in Volume 121 of the IARC Monographs.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Styrene, styrene-7,8-oxide, and quinoline

Author: IARC Monograph Working Group (2018) Lyon, France: IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [IARC Monograph] HERO ID: 4338178


Data/Software
Data/ Software

2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) data

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (Version 2). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 4440637


Technical Report
Technical Report

An umbrella Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for PBPK Models

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (ORD QAPP ID No: B-0030740-QP-1-1). Research Triangle Park: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 4326432

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection (EPA) Agency requires project managers and planners to develop a Quality . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection (EPA) Agency requires project managers and planners to develop a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) as a tool for documenting the type and quality of data and model information that are needed for making environmental decisions. This document provides a QAPP that covers the basic data collection and modeling methodologies for physiologicallybased pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. It is an “Umbrella” QAPP and intended to be applicable to multiple PBPK modeling projects. This QAPP conforms to EPA QA/G-5 (U.S. EPA, 2002a) and is an internal QA Project Plan in support of the U.S. EPA’s Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) research plan.

A PBPK model is a mathematical representation that describes the disposition of one or more chemicals in the body of a human or experimental animal in which organs or tissue groups are represented as compartments linked by blood flow that carries the chemical(s) between compartments. Put another way, a PBPK model is a quantitative statement of a set of hypotheses regarding the major determinants of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). A key advantage of these models is that they can be used for various types of extrapolation including cross-species (animal to human), cross-route (e.g. inhalation to oral), and among exposure scenarios (Krishnan and Andersen, 1994), all of which can be used to facilitate human health risk evaluation and the setting of regulatory exposure levels. In addition to PBPK models, simpler pharmacokinetic (PK) with more empirically derived parameters can be used for the same types of extrapolation. Either form of PK model (PBPK models being a subset of all PK models) can be linked to a model describing some level of biological response, in which the combined dosimetry-response model is referred to as a biologically-based doseresponse (BBDR) model. In this QAPP the term “PBPK” will be used since it is presently the most commonly evaluated and applied model form of model expected to be evaluated and used. However, this QAPP is intended to apply equally well to classical PK and BBDR model forms.

Guidance on the use or application of PBPK models in U.S. EPA risk assessments is not the subject of this document, but can be found in U.S. EPA (2006).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Intoxication and biochemical responses of freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa to ethylbenzene

Authors: Zheng, S; Zhou, Q (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:189-198. HERO ID: 3491107

[Less] No acute toxic data of ethylbenzene on gastropod is available in literature. In the present study, the . . . [More] No acute toxic data of ethylbenzene on gastropod is available in literature. In the present study, the acute toxicity of ethylbenzene was assessed on a freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa, which was exposed to ethylbenzene concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L for 96 h. No mortality occurred, but a manifestation of intoxication (distress syndrome) was observed in part of exposed snails, and meanwhile, another part was moved normally. The distress syndrome showed clear dose- and time-dependent effects, and the 96-h EC50 value for distress syndrome was 13.3 mg/L in snail. The biochemical responses induced by ethylbenzene to the snail, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the whole body and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the hepatopancreas, were evaluated both for distressed snail and moved snail. The AChE activity of distressed snail was all inhibited more than 45 %, and the inhibition of AChE activity in the moved snail was all less than 30 % and more than 20 %, demonstrating that ethylbenzene exerted nervous toxicity to both distressed snail and moved snail. Meanwhile, the difference for AChE activity between the two different response snails was significant. Among the antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH), only GST displayed significant difference between the distressed snail and moved snail. However, the activities of enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GST) in the moved snail were greater than those in the distressed snail, no matter significantly or insignificantly, which indicated that the ability of antioxidant defense in the distressed snail was weaker than that in the moved snail. The findings here reported manifest that ethylbenzene exerted nervous toxicity to snail, and the snail with intoxication response (distress syndrome) presented larger inhibition on AChE activity and weaker antioxidant ability in comparison with the moved snail.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mutagenic products are promoted in the nitrosation of tyramine

Authors: González-Jiménez, M; Arenas-Valgañón, J; García-Santos, M; Calle, E; Casado, J (2017) Food Chemistry 216:60-65. HERO ID: 3491292

[Less] Tyramine is a biogenic compound derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, and is . . . [More] Tyramine is a biogenic compound derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, and is therefore present at important concentrations in a broad range of raw and fermented foods. Owing to its chemical properties, tyramine can react with nitrite, a common food additive, in the acidic medium of stomach to form N- and C-nitroso compounds. Since toxicology studies have shown that the product of C-nitrosation of tyramine is mutagenic, in the present article tyramine nitrosation mechanisms have been characterized in order to discern which of them are favoured under conditions similar to those in the human stomach lumen. To determine the kinetic course of nitrosation reactions, a systematic study of the nitrosation of ethylbenzene, phenethylamine, and tyramine was carried out, using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that, under conditions mimicking those of the stomach lumen, the most favoured reaction in tyramine is C-nitrosation, which generates mutagenic products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Classification of nine malathion emulsion samples by using carbon isotope ratios and the ratio of organic solvents

Authors: Suto, N; Kawashima, H (2017) Science and Justice 57:1-5. HERO ID: 3491054

[Less] The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental . . . [More] The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental and forensics field. On November 2013, Aqli Foods Corporation in Japan dealt with complaints about stench from frozen foods produced. Subsequently, very high concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide as malathion, ethylbenzene and xylene were detected in recovered frozen foods. In particular case, we present the method to measure the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) to identify the source. The δ(13)C values of malathion ranged from -30.6‰ to -29.5‰. Because malathion used in all malathion emulsions sold in Japan is imported from the same overseas company, Cheminova, Denmark. The δ(13)C values of ethylbenzene ranged from -28.2‰ to -20.8‰ and those of m,p-xylene from -28.7‰ to -25.2‰. The differences in the δ(13)C values may be because of the material itself and chemical processing. We also determined the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene and finally categorized the nine malathion samples into five groups on the basis of this ratio and the δ(13)C values of ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene. The results of isotopic fractionation during volatilization (refrigerate, room temperature and incubator) was negligible small.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers by atom transfer radical polymerization for the solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters in edible oil

Authors: Chen, N; He, J; Wu, C; Li, Y; Suo, A; Wei, H; He, L; Zhang, S (2017) Journal of Separation Science 40:1327-1333. HERO ID: 3491055

[Less] Novel molecularly imprinted polymers of phthalate esters were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization . . . [More] Novel molecularly imprinted polymers of phthalate esters were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization using methyl methacrylate as functional monomer, cyclohexanone as solvent, cuprous chloride as catalyst, 1-chlorine-1-ethyl benzene as initiator and 2,2-bipyridyl as cross-linker in the mixture of methanol and water (1:1, v/v). The effect of reaction conditions such as monomer ratio and template on the adsorption properties was investigated. The optimum condition was obtained by an orthogonal experiment. The obtained polymers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The binding property was studied with both static and dynamic methods. Results showed that the polymers exhibited excellent recognition capacity and outstanding selectivity for ten phthalate esters. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction were systematically investigated. An analytical method based on the molecularly imprinted coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection was successfully developed for the simultaneous determination of ten phthalate esters from edible oil. The method detection limits were 0.10-0.25 μg/mL, and the recoveries of spiked samples were 82.5-101.4% with relative standard deviations of 1.24-5.37% (n = 6). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.