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Ethylbenzene




  • 1.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Bioremediation of contaminated soil. Development and application of technologies

    Authors: Aamand, J; Jensen, BK; Kvistgaard, M
    (1995)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Bioremediation is a technology for remediation of soil contaminated by hazardous waste chemicals. The . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Bioremediation is a technology for remediation of soil contaminated by hazardous waste chemicals. The application of specific degrading bacteria for the treatment of polluted soil is emphasized. The current market and regulatory framework related to bioremediation are evaluated. Soil polluted by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and light fuel oil often contains indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and degradation is limited by the availability of oxygen or other factors. The degrading biomass may be inhibited or absent in soil heavily polluted by creosote or coal tar, and inoculation may initiate the degradation process. An inoculum may include a range of different bacterial strains. Fungi are more versatile. The degradation of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the environment is limited by the lack of effective degrader organisms. A TCE-degrading bacteria that grows on lactate has been constructed by genetic engineering, and research is being carried out to develop a bacteria with the capability to use the chlorinated aliphatics as growth substrates. Deviations in national guidelines for treatment of contaminated soil may inhibit the technical development of a bioremediation technology. Acceptance of high levels of rest contaminations in particular regions attract foreign soil, creating trans-national transport of polluted material. Prices of treatment are kept artificially low, and competitive incentives, such as technical developments, are inactivated. For easily degradable compounds such as BTEX and light fuel oil, the advantages of inoculation of soil with specific degrading organisms are limited. (AB) (19 refs.)
    Tagged With: Database searches, Toxline, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met

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  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Sulfonamide Derivatives of 2-Amino-1-phenylethane as Suitable Cholinesterase Inhibitors

    Authors: Abbasi, MA; Ahmad, S; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Rasool, S; Khan, KM; Ashraf, M; Nasar, R; Ismail, T
    (2014)
    Tagged With: Database searches, WOS, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Journal
    Article
    1,1-Bis-(1,2,4-triazolyl and 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl) ethane and phenylethane derivatives as potential antibacterial agents

    Authors: Abdelal, AM; Gineinah, MM; Nasr, MN
    (1998)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. IPA COPYRIGHT: ASHP A series of 1,1-bis-(1,2,4-triazolyl and 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl) ethane and phenylethane . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. IPA COPYRIGHT: ASHP A series of 1,1-bis-(1,2,4-triazolyl and 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl) ethane and phenylethane derivatives were synthesized, and their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity was studied. Four compounds showed promising antibacterial activity and 1 compound showed remarkable antifungal activity.
    Tagged With: Database searches, Toxline, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met

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  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    A new organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus pumilus 115b

    Authors: Abd Rahman, RNZR; Mahamad, S; Salleh, AbuB; Basri, M
    (2007)
    Tagged With: Database searches, WOS, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Toxicity of acidization fluids used in California oil exploration

    Authors: Abdullah, K; Malloy, T; Stenstrom, MK; Suffet, IHMel
    (2017) Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 99:78-94.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. There has been considerable public interest regarding the toxicity of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. There has been considerable public interest regarding the toxicity of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, but little is known about its sister technique, acidizing. Little to no research has been done on what the chemicals of acidization are and what impact they could have on humans and the environment. This paper discusses the differences between three acidizing techniques (acid maintenance, matrix acidization, and acid fracturing) and quantifies the amounts of the chemicals used for each. Washington State's Quick Chemical Assessment Tool is used to identify F-graded toxins, which are known carcinogens, mutagens, reproductive toxins, developmental toxins, endocrine disruptors, or high acute toxicity chemicals. The analysis of the present data shows that there have been over 600 instances of acidizing in urbanized Southern and Central California from April 2013 to August 2015. Although most of the chemicals of acidizing are similar to hydraulic fracturing, those used most frequently are different. There are close to 200 specific chemicals used in acidization, with at least 28 of them being F-graded hazardous chemicals. Some are used frequently in the range of 100-1000 kg per treatment, such as hydrofluoric acid, xylene, diethylene glycol, and ethyl benzene. Close to 90 more chemicals are identified using non-specific names as trade secrets or reported with no quantity. Unlike hydraulic fracturing the chemical concentrations in acidizing are high, ranging from 6% to 18%, and the waste returns can be highly acidic, in the range of pH 0-3. With this paper it is hoped that acidization becomes part of the larger discussion on concerns with oil exploration and be evaluated by appropriate authorities.
    Tagged With: Update search - Jan 2017 (private), Database searches - Jan 2017 (private), New - Jan 2017 (private), Database searches, WOS, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met, WOS
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    ACUTE LETHAL TOXICITY OF HYDROCARBONS AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO TWO PLANKTONIC CRUSTACEANS THE KEY ROLE OF ORGANISM-WATER PARTITIONING

    Authors: Abernethy, S; Bobra, AM; Shiu, WY; Wells, PG; Mackay, D
    (1986) Aquatic Toxicology AMST:163-174.
    Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM DAPHNIA-MAGNA ARTEMIA SALT WATER FRESH WATER MATHEMATICAL MODEL
    Tagged With: Data set for title/abstract screening, Database searches, Excluded – PECO criteria not met, Previous HERO references, Toxline, WOS

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  • 7.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan

    Authors: Abe, Y; Yamaguchi, M; Mutsuga, M; Kawamura, Y; Akiyama, H
    (2014) 2:236-243.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile-styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 μg/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 μg/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 μg/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed.
    Tagged With: Database searches, PubMed, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    An analysis of nasal irritation thresholds using a new solvation equation

    Authors: Abraham, MH; Andonian-Haftvan, J; Cometto-Muniz, JE; Cain, WS
    (1996) Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 31:71-76.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. In the present paper we have developed a quantitative structure-activity . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. In the present paper we have developed a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) equation for nasal pungency caused by nonreactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Our QSAR was developed upon previously published nasal pungency thresholds in anosmics, i.e., patients lacking a sense of smell and thus responding only to sensory irritation evoked by trigeminal nerve stimulation. The reported solvation equation, which fits the data with considerable precision, describes sensory potency in terms of interaction via electron pairs, dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond acidity and basicity, and hydrophobicity. It correspondingly suggests relevant physicochemical properties of the biophase where the sensory response is brought about. The equation implies that in the range of molecular size where nonreactive VOCs can produce any pungency, transport from the air to the biophase strictly determines potency. In this respect, the potency of nasal pungency shares ch
    Tagged With: Toxline, Database searches, Toxline, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met, Toxline

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  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    An algorithm for nasal pungency thresholds in man

    Authors: Abraham, MH; Kumarsingh, R; Cometto-Muniz, JE; Cain, WS
    (1998) Archives of Toxicology 72:227-232.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. #Nasal pungency thresholds (NPT) in man have been determined by Cometto-Muniz and Cain for 44 varied . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. #Nasal pungency thresholds (NPT) in man have been determined by Cometto-Muniz and Cain for 44 varied compounds, including esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, aromatic hydrocarbons and pyridine. With the exclusion of acetic acid, 43 of these NPT values are well correlated through the general linear free energy equation of Abraham, leading to the algorithm, log(1/NPT) = -8.519 + 2.154 pi(2)H + 3.522 sigma alpha(2)H + 1.397 sigma beta(2)H + 0.860 logL16. N = 43, r2 = 0.955, SD = 0.27, F = 201 (i) where the independent variables are solute descriptors: pi(2)H is the dipolarity/polarizability, sigma alpha(2)H and sigma beta(2)H are the overall or effective hydrogen-bond acidity and basicity, and L16 is the solute Ostwald solubility coefficient on hexadecane at 25 degrees C. Surprisingly, the aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids fit the correlation and with respect to nasal pungency thresholds in man for brief (1-3 s) presentations must be regarded as 'nonreactive' compounds. It is suggested mere transport of the compound from the air stream to the receptor area largely determines the potency to produce pungency. Various chemical properties of the receptor area are deduced from the coefficients in Eq. i.
    Tagged With: Toxline, Database searches, Toxline, Data set for title/abstract screening, Excluded – PECO criteria not met, Toxline

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  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Experimental investigations of the entrapment and persistence of organic liquid contaminants in the subsurface environment

    Authors: Abriola, LM; Bradford, SA
    (1998) Environmental Health Perspectives 106:1083-1095.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Organic liquids are common polluters of the subsurface environment. Once released, these nonaqueous . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Organic liquids are common polluters of the subsurface environment. Once released, these nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) tend to become entrapped within soils and geologic formations where they may serve as long-term contaminant reservoirs. The interphase mass transfer from such entrapped residuals will ultimately control environmental exposure levels as well as the persistence and/or remedial recovery of these contaminants in the subsurface. This paper summarizes National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-sponsored research designed to investigate and quantify NAPL entrapment and interphase mass transfer in natural porous media. Results of soil column and batch experiments are presented that highlight research findings over the past several years. These experiments explore dissolution and volatilization of hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in sandy porous media. Initial concentration levels and long-term recovery rates are shown to depend on fluid flow rate, soil structure, NAPL composition, and soil wetting characteristics. These observations are explained in the context of conceptual models that describe entrapped NAPL morphology and boundary layer transport. The implications of these laboratory findings on the subsurface persistence and recovery of entrapped NAPLs are discussed.
    Tagged With: Data set for title/abstract screening, Database searches, Excluded – PECO criteria not met, Toxline
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