Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


4,491 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stimulation of pulmonary vagal C-fibers by trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene induces bradycardiac and depressor reflex in rats: Role of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors

Authors: Teófilo, TM; Duarte, GP; Borges, RS; Santos, AA; Magalhães, PJC; Lahlou, S (2019) European Journal of Pharmacology 849:154-159. HERO ID: 5073910

[Less] Previously, we showed that the synthetic nitroderivative trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (T4MeN) induced . . . [More] Previously, we showed that the synthetic nitroderivative trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (T4MeN) induced vasorelaxant effects in rat isolated aortic rings. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of T4MeN in normotensive rats. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of T4MeN (0.03-0.5 mg/kg) induced a rapid (onset time of 1-2 s) and dose-dependent bradycardia and hypotension. These cardiovascular responses to T4MeN were abolished by bilateral cervical vagotomy or selective blockade of neural conduction of vagal C-fiber afferents by perineural treatment of both cervical vagus nerves with capsaicin. Hypotension and bradycardia were also recorded when T4MeN was directly injected in the right, but not into the left ventricle. Furthermore, they were significantly reduced by i.v. pretreatment with capsazepine but remained unaltered by ondansetron or suramin. In conscious rats, the dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia evoked by T4MeN were abolished by i.v. methylatropine pretreatment. In conclusion, bradycardiac and depressor responses induced by T4MeN has a vago-vagal reflex origin resulting from the vagal pulmonary afferents stimulation. The transduction mechanism seems to involve the activation of vanilloid TRPV1, but not purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on vagal pulmonary sensory nerves.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Highly selective, high capacity separation of o-xylene from C8 aromatics by a switching adsorbent layered material

Authors: Zaworotko, M; Wang, SQ; Mukherjee, S; Patyk-Kaźmierczak, E; Darwish, S; Bajpai, A; Yang, QY (2019) Angewandte Chemie (International Edition). HERO ID: 5068477

[Less] Adsorbent materials that exhibit high selectivity without sacrificing adsorption capacity can significantly . . . [More] Adsorbent materials that exhibit high selectivity without sacrificing adsorption capacity can significantly reduce energy costs for industrial separation/purification processes and thus facilitate a transition away from energy-intensive processes such as conventional distillation. Purification of the C8 aromatics (xylenes and ethylbenzene) is particularly challenging because of their similar physical properties. It is also relevant because of their industrial utility. In this context, physisorptive separation of C8 aromatics has long been suggested as an energy efficient solution but no physisorbent has yet combined high selectivity (>5) with high adsorption capacity (>50 wt%). Herein, we report a counterintuitive approach to the adsorptive separation of o-xylene from other C8 aromatics by the study of a known nonporous layered material, [Co(bipy)2(NCS)2]n (sql-1-Co-NCS). We observe that sql-1-Co-NCS can reversibly switch to C8 aromatics loaded phases with different switching pressures and kinetics, manifesting benchmark o-xylene selectivity (SOX/EB ~ 60) and high saturation capacity (> 80 wt%). Structural insight into the observed selectivity and capacity is gained via analysis of the crystal structures of C8 aromatics loaded phases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Controllable sulfur, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon for ethylbenzene oxidation: the role of nano-CaCO₃

Authors: Qin, Y; Guo, H; Wang, B; Li, J; Gao, R; Qiu, P; Sun, M; Chen, L (2019) Chemistry - An Asian Journal. HERO ID: 5068497

[Less] Heteroatom doped porous carbon materials have exhibited promising applications in various fields. In . . . [More] Heteroatom doped porous carbon materials have exhibited promising applications in various fields. In this work, sulfur, nitrogen co-doped carbon materials (SNCs) with abundant pore structure were prepared by pyrolysis of sulfur, nitrogen-containing porous organic polymers (POPs) mixed with nano-CaCO₃ at high temperature. Among the resultant materials, SNC-Ca-850 possesses a relatively high level of doped heteroatoms and exhibits an excellent catalytic performance for the selective oxidation of benzylic C-H bonds. It is noteworthy that nano-CaCO₃ elevates the doped sulfur content in the synthesized carbon materials to a large extent, and has impact on the existence modes of sulfur. Besides, it enhances the porous structure and specific surface area of resultant SNCs significantly. This work provides a viable strategy to promote the doping of sulfur into carbon materials during pyrolysis process.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structures and dimensions of micelle-templated nanoporous silicas derived from swollen spherical micelles of temperature-dependent size

Authors: Ke, F; Yi, J; Zhang, S; Zhou, S; Ravikovitch, PI; Kruk, M (2019) HERO ID: 5068503

[Less] Subambient temperatures are employed in Pluronic-block-copolymer-templated syntheses of many large-pore . . . [More] Subambient temperatures are employed in Pluronic-block-copolymer-templated syntheses of many large-pore silicas: SBA-15 (2-D hexagonal with cylindrical mesopores), FDU-12 (face-centered cubic with spherical mesopores), nanotubes and hollow nanospheres. Herein, the origin of a significant temperature dependence of the unit-cell parameter and pore diameter of silicas templated by swollen micelles of Pluronics under subambient conditions was elucidated. The temperature dependence of size of swollen spherical micelles of Pluronic F127 (EO106PO70EO106) in 2 M HCl solution was studied in 12-25 °C range using dynamic light scattering and was correlated with structure types, unit-cell sizes and pore sizes of silicas synthesized at four silica-precursor/Pluronic ratios with a swelling agent (toluene, ethylbenzene). The increase in size of swollen micelles with temperature decrease was paralleled by the increase in the unit-cell size and pore diameter, even if the micelle shape changed in the process of formation of the micelle-templated silica. The decrease in the silica-precursor/Pluronic F127 ratio at constant temperature triggered a succession of phases, including SBA-15 - nanotube sequence that may involve an intermediate nanotube bundle structure, which is uncommon and potentially useful. The temperature decrease also led to a succession of phases, including FDU-12 - SBA-15, hollow nanospheres - nanotube bundles, and nanotubes - SBA-15 sequences.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimation of C2H5-Benzenes in Refinery Streams

Authors: Sugumaran, V; Sarkar, M; Singh, R; Chopra, A; Jayaraj, C (2019) HERO ID: 5068505

[Less] A simple and direct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for routine estimation of C2 H5-alkylbenzenes . . . [More] A simple and direct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for routine estimation of C2 H5-alkylbenzenes (or C2-alkylbenzenes), namely, ethylbenzene and m/p- and o-xylenes in the boiling range of 80°C-400°C, including diesel range streams using deuterated ethylbenzene as internal standard has been described. Estimation of C2-alkylbenzenes in feeds and products is important for monitoring the reaction kinetics in certain secondary processes which involve conversion of low value, aromatic-rich diesel range boiling streams to produce aromatic-based petrochemical feedstocks upto xylenes. The method developed takes advantage of chromatographic separation and resolution masses of fragment ions of the compounds of interest for estimation. Linearity in estimation has been established in the range of 300 ppm to 5% (w/w) for ethylbenzene, m/p-xylenes and o-xylenes. Correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.99 was obtained for the three compounds for calibration mixtures. Total 15 samples obtained from refineries, pilot plant for mono-aromatic enrichment studies, and commercial diesel samples were analyzed by this method for estimation of ethylbenzene, m/p- and o-xylenes content.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Compact, Automated, Inexpensive, and Field-Deployable Vacuum-Outlet Gas Chromatograph for Trace-Concentration Gas-Phase Organic Compounds

Authors: Skog, KM; Xiong, F; Kawashima, H; Doyle, E; Soto, R; Gentner, DR (2019) HERO ID: 5068510

[Less] The identification and quantification of gas-phase organic compounds, such as volatile organic compounds . . . [More] The identification and quantification of gas-phase organic compounds, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), frequently use gas chromatography (GC), which typically requires high-purity compressed gases. We have developed a new instrument for trace-concentration measurements of VOCs and intermediate-volatility compounds of up to 14 carbon atoms in a fully automated (computer-free), independent, low-cost, compact GC-based system for the quantitative analysis of complex mixtures without the need for compressed, high-purity gases or expensive detectors. Through adsorptive analyte preconcentration, vacuum GC, photoionization detectors, and need-based water-vapor control, we enable sensitive and selective measurements with picogram-level limits of detection (i.e., under 15 ppt in a 4 L sample for most compounds). We validate performance against a commercial pressurized GC, including resolving challenging isomers of similar volatility, such as ethylbenzene and  m/ p-xylene. We employ vacuum GC across the whole column with filtered air as a carrier gas, producing long-term system stability and performance over a wide range of analytes. Through theory and experiments, we present variations in analyte diffusivities in the mobile phase, analyte elution temperatures, optimal linear velocities, and separation-plate heights with vacuum GC in air at different pressures, and we optimize our instrument to exploit these differences. At 2-6 psia, the molecular diffusion coefficients are 6.4-2.1 times larger and the elution temperatures are 39-92 °C lower than with pressurized GC with helium (at 30 psig) depending on the molecular structure, and we find a wide range of optimal linear velocities (up to 60 cm s-1) that are faster with broader tolerances than with pressurized-N2 GC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis of Porous Fe3 C-Based Composite Beads as Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalysts

Authors: Wang, Z; Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Huo, H; Zhao, T; Li, D; Lin, K; Xu, X (2019) HERO ID: 5068520

[Less] A series of multiscale cementite/iron/porous carbon (CIPC-T) composites with extremely low nitrogen . . . [More] A series of multiscale cementite/iron/porous carbon (CIPC-T) composites with extremely low nitrogen content and millimeter-size spherical morphology were prepared by simple carbothermal pyrolysis of resin spheres exchanged with ferric oxalate anions. CIPC-T materials are composed of highly disperse core-shell-structured Fe3 C/Fe@graphitic carbon (CI@GC) nanoparticles embedded in a porous amorphous carbon framework. A mechanism for the formation of the composites is proposed on the basis of the results of XRD, SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis. The Fe3 C content can be easily controlled just by using different carbothermal temperatures. The CIPC-T materials proved to be active as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of ethylbenzene to acetophenone and Fenton-like oxidation of methylene blue. For the first time, the role of Fe3 C in catalytic oxidation was confirmed. The spherical morphology of the composites and magnetic property facilitate separation of the catalyst from the reaction solution. More importantly, no leaching of iron active sites occurs during the reactions and the catalyst can be reused in continuous runs without obvious loss of activity. Such high stability of iron sites in the composites is ascribed to the protecting outer graphitic carbon shell of CI@GC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Explainable extreme gradient boosting tree-based prediction of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene wet deposition

Authors: Stojić, A; Stanić, N; Vuković, G; Stanišić, S; Perišić, M; Šoštarić, A; Lazić, L (2019) HERO ID: 5068526

[Less] Current research suggests that, apart from photochemical reactions, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene . . . [More] Current research suggests that, apart from photochemical reactions, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (TEX) removal from ambient air might be affected by atmospheric precipitation, depending on the concentrations and water solubility of the compounds, Henry's law, physico-chemical properties of the water, as well as the frequency and intensity of precipitation events. Nevertheless, existing knowledge of the role that wet deposition plays in biogeochemical cycles of volatile species remains insufficient, and this topic requires more scientific effort to be explored and understood. In this study, we employed the eXtreme Gradient Boosting tree ensemble for revealing TEX transfer from ambient air to rainwater, and applied a novel SHapley Additive exPlanations feature attribution framework to examine the relevance of the monitored parameters and identify key factors that govern wet deposition of TEX. According to the results, main impacts, including ambient air TEX concentrations, and rainwater and air temperatures, and occasional, but less important impacts, including wind speed, air pressure, turbidity, and total organic carbon, NO3-, Cl- and K+ rainwater concentration, shaped TEX partition between gaseous and aqueous phases during rain events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Draft genome of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii

Authors: Quan, Q; Hu, X; Pan, B; Zeng, B; Wu, N; Fang, G; Cao, Y; Chen, X; Li, X; Huang, Y; Zhan, S (2019) HERO ID: 5068524

[Less] The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, . . . [More] The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, and other landscape plants, causing a high level of economic loss. In addition to the common characteristics shared with other aphids, Ap. gossypii has evolved multiple biotypes that present substantial differences in host adaption. These intriguing biological features are of interest from both a fundamental and applied perspective. However, the molecular studies of Ap. gossypii have been restrained by the lack of a reference genome. Furthermore, in order to establish a platform for the development of novel and sustainable control methods, it is necessary to generate genomic resources for Ap. gossypii. Here, we present a 294 Mb draft genome sequence of Ap. gossypii, which consists of 4,724 scaffolds with an N50 size of 438 kb. Compared to other aphid species with published genomes, Ap. gossypii presents the most compact genome size. A total of 14,694 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated in the consensus gene set, 98.03% of CEGMA genes and 93.5% of BUSCO genes were captured respectively. Genome-wide selection analyses revealed that significantly evolving pathways in the genus Aphis are related to biological processes of detoxification, steroid biosynthesis, and ethylbenzene degradation. The acquisition of the genome of Ap. gossypii makes it possible to understand the molecular mechanism of intricate biological traits of this species, and will further facilitate the study of aphid evolution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to indoor endocrine-disrupting chemicals and childhood asthma and obesity

Authors: Paciência, I; Cavaleiro Rufo, J; Silva, D; Martins, C; Mendes, F; Farraia, M; Delgado, L; de Oliveira Fernandes, E; Padrão, P; Moreira, P; Severo, M; Barros, H; Moreira, A (2019) Allergy 74:1277-1291. HERO ID: 5068502

[Less] BACKGROUND: Indoor air contaminants may act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Indoor air contaminants may act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, to what extent these contaminants affect health is poorly known. We aimed to assess the association between EDCs exposure and asthma, respiratory symptoms and obesity in schoolchildren.

METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional analysis of 815 participants from 20 schools in Porto, Portugal, were analysed. Symptoms were assessed, asthma was defined on lung function, and airway reversibility and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. The concentrations of 13 volatile organic compounds and 2 aldehydes identified as EDCs were measured in 71 classrooms throughout 1 week. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the effect of co-exposure. Associations were estimated by regression coefficients using linear and logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Increased individual and combined EDCs levels were found in classrooms having more children with asthma and obesity. Higher levels of hexane, styrene, cyclohexanone, butylated hydroxytoluene and 2-butoxyethanol were associated with obesity, and higher levels of cyclohexanone were associated with increased child BMI. Toluene, o-xylene, m/p-xylene and ethylbenzene were significantly associated with nasal obstruction. A positive association was found between PC1 and the risk of obese asthma (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.01, 1.98) and between PC2 and overweight (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.28, 1.79). PC1 and PC2 were also associated with nasal obstruction, and PC2 was associated with breathing difficulties and lean body mass, although EDCs concentrations were low.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings further support the role of EDCs in asthma and obesity development. Moreover, even low levels of indoor exposure may influence the risk of asthma, respiratory symptoms and obesity.