Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


1,162 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stimulation of pulmonary vagal C-fibers by trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene induces bradycardiac and depressor reflex in rats: Role of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors

Authors: Teófilo, TM; Duarte, GP; Borges, RS; Santos, AA; Magalhães, PJC; Lahlou, S (2019) European Journal of Pharmacology 849:154-159. HERO ID: 5073910

[Less] Previously, we showed that the synthetic nitroderivative trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (T4MeN) induced . . . [More] Previously, we showed that the synthetic nitroderivative trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (T4MeN) induced vasorelaxant effects in rat isolated aortic rings. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of T4MeN in normotensive rats. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of T4MeN (0.03-0.5 mg/kg) induced a rapid (onset time of 1-2 s) and dose-dependent bradycardia and hypotension. These cardiovascular responses to T4MeN were abolished by bilateral cervical vagotomy or selective blockade of neural conduction of vagal C-fiber afferents by perineural treatment of both cervical vagus nerves with capsaicin. Hypotension and bradycardia were also recorded when T4MeN was directly injected in the right, but not into the left ventricle. Furthermore, they were significantly reduced by i.v. pretreatment with capsazepine but remained unaltered by ondansetron or suramin. In conscious rats, the dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia evoked by T4MeN were abolished by i.v. methylatropine pretreatment. In conclusion, bradycardiac and depressor responses induced by T4MeN has a vago-vagal reflex origin resulting from the vagal pulmonary afferents stimulation. The transduction mechanism seems to involve the activation of vanilloid TRPV1, but not purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on vagal pulmonary sensory nerves.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Draft genome of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii

Authors: Quan, Q; Hu, X; Pan, B; Zeng, B; Wu, N; Fang, G; Cao, Y; Chen, X; Li, X; Huang, Y; Zhan, S (2019) HERO ID: 5068524

[Less] The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, . . . [More] The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, and other landscape plants, causing a high level of economic loss. In addition to the common characteristics shared with other aphids, Ap. gossypii has evolved multiple biotypes that present substantial differences in host adaption. These intriguing biological features are of interest from both a fundamental and applied perspective. However, the molecular studies of Ap. gossypii have been restrained by the lack of a reference genome. Furthermore, in order to establish a platform for the development of novel and sustainable control methods, it is necessary to generate genomic resources for Ap. gossypii. Here, we present a 294 Mb draft genome sequence of Ap. gossypii, which consists of 4,724 scaffolds with an N50 size of 438 kb. Compared to other aphid species with published genomes, Ap. gossypii presents the most compact genome size. A total of 14,694 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated in the consensus gene set, 98.03% of CEGMA genes and 93.5% of BUSCO genes were captured respectively. Genome-wide selection analyses revealed that significantly evolving pathways in the genus Aphis are related to biological processes of detoxification, steroid biosynthesis, and ethylbenzene degradation. The acquisition of the genome of Ap. gossypii makes it possible to understand the molecular mechanism of intricate biological traits of this species, and will further facilitate the study of aphid evolution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quaternary polymeric coating as an alternative to minimize the use of costly or toxic solvents: Poly(styrene)-ethylbenzene-toluene-p-xylene system

Authors: Prashar, A; Sharma, J; Ahuja, S; Chandra, A; Arya, R (2019) Progress in Organic Coatings 127:319-329. HERO ID: 5074709

[Less] A gravimetric study of quaternary polymeric coatings has been carried out. The effects of coating parameters, . . . [More] A gravimetric study of quaternary polymeric coatings has been carried out. The effects of coating parameters, namely, initial thickness and coating composition have been studied. The quaternary system of poly(styrene) - ethylbenzene - toluene - p-xylene has been considered for investigation. The residual solvent, average concentrations of polymer/solvent, and coating thickness of the quaternary coating system have been compared with corresponding binary and ternary coatings. The results indicate that the amount of any costly or toxic solvent can be reduced to a significant extent in quaternary coatings by using other cheaper or less toxic solvents, which give nearly the same drying rate. The use of these solvents can thus lead to lowering the material and energy costs of the drying operations.The binary coatings of poly(styrene) - toluene, poly(styrene) - ethylbenzene, and poly(styrene) - p-xylene have been compared with corresponding quaternary systems. The ternary coatings of poly(styrene) - toluene - ethylbenzene, and poly(styrene) - toluene - p-xylene, poly(styrene) - ethylbenzene - p-xylene have been compared with corresponding quaternary systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ethylbenzene and styrene exposure in the United States based on urinary mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid: NHANES 2005-2006 and 2011-2012

Authors: Capella, KM; Roland, K; Geldner, N; Rey deCastro, B; De Jesús, VR; van Bemmel, D; Blount, BC (2019) Environmental Research 171:101-110. HERO ID: 5068508

[Less] Ethylbenzene and styrene are air toxicants with widespread nonoccupational exposure sources, including . . . [More] Ethylbenzene and styrene are air toxicants with widespread nonoccupational exposure sources, including tobacco smoke and diet. Ethylbenzene and styrene (EB/S) exposure was quantified from their common metabolites measured in spot urine samples obtained from participants (≥6 years old) in the 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; N = 4690). EB/S metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) were measured using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). MA and PGA were detected in 98.9% and 90.6% of tested urine specimens, respectively. Exclusive smokers had 2-fold and 1.6-fold higher median urinary MA and PGA, respectively, compared with non-users. Sampleweighted regression analysis among exclusive smokers showed that smoking 0.5 pack cigarettes per day significantly increased MA (+97.9 μg/L) and PGA (+69.3 μg/L), controlling for potential confounders. In comparison, exposure from the median daily dietary intake of grain products increased MA by 1.95 μg/L and was not associated with statistically significant changes in urinary PGA levels. Conversely, consuming vegetables and fruit was associated with decreased MA and PGA. These results confirm tobacco smoke as a major source of ethylbenzene and styrene exposure for the general U.S. population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multienzymatic in situ hydrogen peroxide generation cascade for peroxygenase-catalysed oxyfunctionalisation reactions

Authors: Pesic, M; Willot, SJ; Fernández-Fueyo, E; Tieves, F; Alcalde, M; Hollmann, F (2019) Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung C 74:101-104. [Letter] HERO ID: 5068525

[Less] There is an increasing interest in the application of peroxygenases in biocatalysis, because of their . . . [More] There is an increasing interest in the application of peroxygenases in biocatalysis, because of their ability to catalyse the oxyfunctionalisation reaction in a stereoselective fashion and with high catalytic efficiencies, while using hydrogen peroxide or organic peroxides as oxidant. However, enzymes belonging to this class exhibit a very low stability in the presence of peroxides. With the aim of bypassing this fast and irreversible inactivation, we study the use of a gradual supply of hydrogen peroxide to maintain its concentration at stoichiometric levels. In this contribution, we report a multienzymatic cascade for in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide. In the first step, in the presence of NAD+ cofactor, formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (FDH) catalysed the oxidation of formate yielding CO2. Reduced NADH was reoxidised by the reduction of the flavin mononucleotide cofactor bound to an old yellow enzyme homologue from Bacillus subtilis (YqjM), which subsequently reacts with molecular oxygen yielding hydrogen peroxide. Finally, this system was coupled to the hydroxylation of ethylbenzene reaction catalysed by an evolved peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita (rAaeUPO). Additionally, we studied the influence of different reaction parameters on the performance of the cascade with the aim of improving the turnover of the hydroxylation reaction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lifestyle and occupational factors affecting exposure to BTEX in municipal solid waste composting facility workers

Authors: Rafiee, A; Delgado-Saborit, JM; Sly, PD; Amiri, H; Hoseini, M (2019) Science of the Total Environment 656:540-546. HERO ID: 5068533

[Less] Composting facilities workers are potentially exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). . . . [More] Composting facilities workers are potentially exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study aims to investigate the potential exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) compounds among workers of composting facilities by measuring un-metabolized BTEX in urine and to investigate the effect that several lifestyle factors (i.e. smoking and residential traffic), using personal protective equipment, and religious practices such as Ramadan fasting can have on the urinary BTEX concentrations. We assessed concentrations of BTEX in the urine of a composting facility workers. Samples were collected in May 2018. Overall, 25 workers chosen as the exposed group and 20 inhabitants living close to the composting facility as a control group. The urine samples were collected from studied subjects. Identification and quantification of un-metabolized BTEX was performed using a headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Detailed information of participants was gathered by a comprehensive questionnaire. The geometric mean levels of urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m‑p xylene, and o‑xylene in the exposed subjects were 1.27, 2.12, 0.54, 1.22 and 1.51 μg/L, respectively; 1.4 to 3.7-time higher than values in control group (p < 0.05). Post-shift levels were significantly higher than pre-shift for all chemicals (p < 0.05). Smoking habits, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and Ramadan fasting predicted urinary BTEX levels. Personal protective equipment which included a simple N95 mask did not protected workers from BTEX emissions. Composting facilities represent a significant source BTEX emissions and exposure for staff. More effective protective strategies are required to minimize exposure and related occupational hazards.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Direct methyl esterification with 2,2-dimethoxypropane for the simultaneous determination of urinary metabolites of toluene, xylene, styrene, and ethylbenzene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Authors: Takeuchi, A; Namera, A; Sakui, N; Yamamoto, S; Yamamuro, K; Nishinoiri, O; Endo, Y; Endo, G (2019) Journal of Occupational Health 61:82-90. HERO ID: 5068493

[Less] OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and accurate gas chromatography-mass . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and accurate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four urinary metabolites from four organic solvents, that is, hippuric acid (HA) from toluene, methylhippuric acid (MHA) from xylene, and mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) from styrene or ethylbenzene for biological monitoring.

METHODS: The four metabolites were directly methyl-esterified with 2,2-dimethoxypropane and analyzed using GC-MS. The proposed method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidance. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analyzing a ClinChek® -Control for occupational medicine (RECIPE Chemicals +Instruments GmbH).

RESULTS: Calibration curves showed linearity in the concentration range of 10-1000 mg/L for each metabolite, with correlation coefficients >0.999. For each metabolite, the limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The recovery was 93%-117%, intraday accuracy, expressed as the deviation from the nominal value, was 92.7%-103.0%, and intraday precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was 1.3%-4.7%. Interday accuracy and precision were 93.4%-104.0% and 1.2%-9.5%, respectively. The analytical values of ClinChek obtained using the proposed method were sufficiently accurate.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is a simple and accurate which is suitable for routine analyses that could be used for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to four organic solvents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of the Effect of Mid- And High-Level Ethanol Blends on the Particulate and the Mobile Source Air Toxic Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Flex Fuel Vehicle

Authors: Yang, J; Roth, P; Durbin, TD; Johnson, KC; Asa-Awuku, A; Cocker, DR III; Karavalakis, G (2019) Energy and Fuels 33:429-440. HERO ID: 5036696

[Less] This study examined the influence of low-, mid-, and high-ethanol fueling, as well as the influence . . . [More] This study examined the influence of low-, mid-, and high-ethanol fueling, as well as the influence of the aromatic hydrocarbons in the fuel blend, on the regulated and greenhouse gas emissions, the mobile source air toxic pollutants, and the particulate emissions from a current model flexible fuel vehicle equipped with a gasoline direct injection engine. This study utilized a total of four fuels, including a baseline U.S. EPA Tier 3 E10 fuel, one E10 fuel with higher aromatics content than the baseline E10, an E30 fuel that was splash-blended with the Tier 3 E10, and an E78 fuel. Testing was conducted over triplicate cold-start and hot-start LA92 cycles. The findings of this study showed that the higher ethanol blends, namely, the E30 and E78, led to statistically significant reductions of 9%-13% for total hydrocarbon (THC), 13%-44% for non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), 20%-35% for carbon monoxide (CO), and 17%-36% for nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions compared to the high-aromatics E10 fuel. The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) for the high-aromatics E10 were higher than the Tier 3 E10, E30, and E78 blends. A fuel economy penalty was also observed for lower energy content E30 and E78 blends compared to both E10 fuels. Particulate matter (PM) mass, black carbon, and total and solid particle number emissions showed statistically significant reductions for the E30 and E78 fuels compared to both E10 fuels. Results also showed that the high PM index/high-aromatics E10 produced more particulate emissions than the low PM index E10, as well as higher populations of accumulation (soot) mode particles. Acetaldehyde formation was favored by the higher ethanol content in the fuel, resulting in significant increases compared to both E10 fuels. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) emissions enhanced their formation with the high-aromatics E10, whereas the use of E30 and E78 fuels showed important reductions in BTEX emissions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) toxicity in soil using sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) bioassay

Authors: Ahmed, N; Ok, YS; Jeon, BH; Kim, JR; Chae, KJ; Oh, SE (2019) Chemosphere 220:651-657. HERO ID: 5068522

[Less] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was . . . [More] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was performed using a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) assay. The experiments were set up using an individual pollutant in a 25-mL bottle sealed with a rubber stopper and aluminum cap since BTEX are volatile. A large headspace volume (14 mL) was kept in the reactors to provide enough oxygen for the SOB. Soil samples were spiked with BTEX compounds in the concentration range of 1-1000 mg/kg. In reactors without BTEX compounds, approximately 85% of the theoretically required oxygen was consumed. Whereas, the reactors with benzene consumed in the range of 82-64% (5-100 mg/kg), those with toluene consumed 76-53% (1-50 mg/kg), those with ethyl-benzene consumed 44-71% (5-100 mg/kg), and those with xylene consumed 64-71% (1-10 mg/kg) of the theoretically required oxygen. The effective concentrations responsible for 50% growth inhibition (EC50) for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene detection were 130.2, 1.2, 15.2, and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that this SOB-based bioassay can detect BTEX pollutants in soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Kinetic analysis and degradation mechanism for natural attenuation of xylenes under simulated marine conditions

Authors: Duan, W; Meng, F; Peng, X; Lin, Y; Wang, G; Wu, J (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 168:443-449. HERO ID: 5073927

[Less] Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the attenuation of selected chemicals, i.e. m-xylene . . . [More] Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the attenuation of selected chemicals, i.e. m-xylene (MX), o-xylene (OX) and p-xylene (PX), under simulated marine conditions. Natural attenuation and the contribution of oxidation, photodegradation, biodegradation and volatilization to total attenuation were evaluated. The development of attenuation was in agreement with pseudo-first-order kinetics for all xylenes. The half-lives of MX, OX, and PX under optimal conditions were 0.76, 0.74 and 0.88 days, respectively. Attenuation kinetics were proposed to analyze the natural attenuation of xylenes. The leading attenuation type of MX, OX, and PX was volatilization, and the attenuation rate constants (KV) were 0.5587, 0.6733, and 0.4821 d-1, respectively. Biodegradation of OX (Kb: 0.0003 d-1) was extremely inhibited. The attenuation kinetics presented the attenuation of xylenes in microcosm. The reaction kinetics could be applied to analyze the natural attenuation of chemicals. MX and OX can be converted to one another under certain conditions. Toluene and ethylbenzene were detected for OX in the OP (oxidation and photodegradation) experiment under simulated marine conditions. 4-Methylbenzyl alcohol, p-methyl benzaldehyde and p-toluic acid, as the major intermediates, were identified during the natural attenuation of PX using GC/MS.