Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


2,740 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure and Function of an Inflammatory Cytokine, Interleukin-2, Analyzed Using the Bioinformatic Approach

Author: Roy, U (2019) HERO ID: 5094676

[Less] The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), is an important regulator of cellular functions. This . . . [More] The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), is an important regulator of cellular functions. This relatively less studied member of the interleukin protein family is responsible for multiple immuno-modulatory and immuno-stimulatory tasks, like T cell activation, triggering of natural killer cells, inflammation, as well as proliferation and progression of autoimmune diseases and cancers. In this communication we report the temporally variant structural aspects of the IL-2 ligand and its receptor interfaces, based on the available crystal structures. The intended goal of this effort is to generate simulated results that could potentially aid the designs of novel structure based therapeutics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) toxicity in soil using sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) bioassay

Authors: Ahmed, N; Ok, YS; Jeon, BH; Kim, JR; Chae, KJ; Oh, SE (2019) Chemosphere 220:651-657. HERO ID: 5068522

[Less] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was . . . [More] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was performed using a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) assay. The experiments were set up using an individual pollutant in a 25-mL bottle sealed with a rubber stopper and aluminum cap since BTEX are volatile. A large headspace volume (14 mL) was kept in the reactors to provide enough oxygen for the SOB. Soil samples were spiked with BTEX compounds in the concentration range of 1-1000 mg/kg. In reactors without BTEX compounds, approximately 85% of the theoretically required oxygen was consumed. Whereas, the reactors with benzene consumed in the range of 82-64% (5-100 mg/kg), those with toluene consumed 76-53% (1-50 mg/kg), those with ethyl-benzene consumed 44-71% (5-100 mg/kg), and those with xylene consumed 64-71% (1-10 mg/kg) of the theoretically required oxygen. The effective concentrations responsible for 50% growth inhibition (EC50) for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene detection were 130.2, 1.2, 15.2, and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that this SOB-based bioassay can detect BTEX pollutants in soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of energy retrofits on indoor air quality in multifamily buildings

Authors: Du, L; Leivo, V; Prasauskas, T; Täubel, M; Martuzevicius, D; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U (2019) Indoor Air 29:686-697. HERO ID: 5077874

[Less] We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 from (96 apartments) Lithuania, . . . [More] We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 from (96 apartments) Lithuania, out of which 37 buildings in Finland and 15 buildings in Lithuania underwent energy retrofits. Building characteristics, retrofit activities, and energy consumption data were collected, and indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), formaldehyde (CH2 O), selected volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX)), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were measured before and after the retrofits. After the retrofits, heating energy consumption decreased by an average of 24% and 49% in Finnish and Lithuanian buildings, respectively. After the retrofits of Finnish buildings, there was a significant increase in BTEX concentrations (estimated mean increase 2.5 μg m-3 ), whereas significant reductions were seen in fungal (0.6-log reduction in cells/m2 /d) and bacterial (0.6-log reduction in gram-positive and 0.9-log reduction in gram-negative bacterial cells/m2 /d) concentrations. In Lithuanian buildings, radon concentrations were significantly increased (estimated mean increase 13.8 Bq m-3 ) after the retrofits. Mechanical ventilation was associated with significantly lower CH2 O concentrations in Finnish buildings. The results and recommendations presented in this paper can inform building retrofit studies and other programs and policies aimed to improve indoor environment and health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Does plant species selection in functional active green walls influence VOC phytoremediation efficiency?

Authors: Irga, PJ; Pettit, T; Irga, RF; Paull, NJ; Douglas, ANJ; Torpy, FR (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 5094790

[Less] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical . . . [More] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study assessed active botanical biofilters for their single-pass removal efficiency (SPRE) for benzene, ethyl acetate and ambient total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), at concentrations of in situ relevance. Biofilters containing four plant species (Chlorophytum orchidastrum, Nematanthus glabra, Nephrolepis cordifolia 'duffii' and Schefflera arboricola) were compared to discern whether plant selection influenced VOC SPRE. Amongst all tested plant species, benzene SPREs were between 45.54 and 59.50%, with N. glabra the most efficient. The botanical biofilters removed 32.36-91.19% of ethyl acetate, with C. orchidastrum and S. arboricola recording significantly higher ethyl acetate SPREs than N. glabra and N. cordifolia. These findings thus indicate that plant type influences botanical biofilter VOC removal. It is proposed that ethyl acetate SPREs were dependent on hydrophilic adsorbent sites, with increasing root surface area, root diameter and root mass all associated with increasing ethyl acetate SPRE. The high benzene SPRE of N. glabra is likely due to the high wax content in its leaf cuticles. The SPREs for the relatively low levels of ambient TVOCs were consistent amongst plant species, providing no evidence to suggest that in situ TVOC removal is influenced by plant choice. Nonetheless, as inter-species differences do exist for some VOCs, botanical biofilters using a mixture of plants is proposed.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nitric oxide-releasing semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers: preparation, characterization and application to devise anti-inflammatory and bactericidal implants

Authors: Wang, X; Jolliffe, A; Carr, B; Zhang, Q; Bilger, M; Cui, Y; Wu, J; Wang, X; Mahoney, M; Rojas-Pena, A; Hoenerhoff, MJ; Douglas, J; Bartlett, RH; Xi, C; Bull, JL; Meyerhoff, ME (2018) HERO ID: 5092920

[Less] Semi-crystalline thermoplastics are an important class of biomaterials with applications in creating . . . [More] Semi-crystalline thermoplastics are an important class of biomaterials with applications in creating extracorporeal and implantable medical devices. In situ release of nitric oxide (NO) from medical devices can enhance their performance via NO's potent anti-thrombotic, bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic activity. However, NO-releasing semi-crystalline thermoplastic systems are limited and the relationship between polymer crystallinity and NO release profile is unknown. In this paper, the functionalization of poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA), Nylon 12, and polyurethane tubes, as examples of semi-crystalline polymers, with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) within, is demonstrated via a polymer swelling method. The degree of crystallinity of the polymer plays a crucial role in both SNAP impregnation and NO release. Nylon 12, which has a relatively high degree of crystallinity, exhibits an unprecedented NO release duration of over 5 months at a low NO level, while PEBA tubing exhibits NO release over days to weeks. As a new biomedical application of NO, the NO-releasing PEBA tubing is examined as a cannula for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The released NO is shown to enhance insulin absorption into the bloodstream probably by suppressing the tissue inflammatory response, and thereby could benefit insulin pump therapy for diabetes management.

Journal Article
Journal Article

TPT sulfonate, a single, oral dose schistosomicidal prodrug: In vivo efficacy, disposition and metabolic profiling

Authors: Wolfe, AR; Neitz, RJ; Burlingame, M; Suzuki, BM; Lim, KC; Scheideler, M; Nelson, DL; Benet, LZ; Caffrey, CR (2018) 8:571-586. HERO ID: 5074939

[Less] Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search . . . [More] Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search for alternatives, 15 S-[2-(alkylamino)alkane] thiosulfuric acids were obtained from a previous research program and profiled in mice for efficacy against both mature (>42-day-old) and juvenile (21-day-old) Schistosoma mansoni using a screening dose of 100 mg/kg PO QDx4. One compound, S-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-phenylethane] thiosulfuric acid (TPT sulfonate), was the most effective by decreasing female and male worm burdens by ≥ 90% and ≥46% (mature), and ≥89% and ≥79% (juvenile), respectively. In contrast, PZQ decreased mature female and male worm burdens by 95% and 94%, respectively, but was ineffective against juvenile stages. Against 7-day-old lung-stage worms, TPT sulfonate was only effective at twice the dose decreasing female and male burdens by 95 and 80%, respectively. Single oral doses at 400 and/or 600 mg/kg across various developmental time-points (1-, 7-, 15-, 21- and/or 42 day-old) were consistent with the QD x4 data; efficacy was strongest once the parasites had completed lung migration, and female and male burdens were decreased by at least 90% and 80%, respectively. In vitro, TPT sulfonate is inactive against the parasite suggesting a pro-drug mechanism of action. In mice, TPT sulfonate is fully absorbed and subject to rapid, non-CYP-mediated, first-pass metabolism that is initiated by desulfation and yields a series of metabolites. The initially-formed free thiol-containing metabolite, termed TP thiol, was chemically synthesized; it dose-dependently decreased S. mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium motility in vitro. Also, when administered as a single 50 mg/kg IP dose, TP thiol decreased 33-day-old S. mansoni female and male burdens by 35% and 44%, with less severe organomegaly. Overall, TPT sulfonate's efficacy profile is competitive with that of PZQ. Also, the characterization of a parasiticidal metabolite facilitates an understanding and improvement of the chemistry, and identification of the mechanism of action and/or target.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Directed Evolution of Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Improved Stereoselective Redox Transformations of 1-Phenylethane-1,2-diol and Its Corresponding Acyloin

Authors: Hamnevik, E; Maurer, D; Enugala, TR; Chu, T; Löfgren, R; Dobritzsch, D; Widersten, M (2018) Biochemistry 57:1059-1062. HERO ID: 4659305

[Less] Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers . . . [More] Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers with a vicinal 1,2-diol and its corresponding hydroxyketone. Crystal structure and transient kinetics analysis aids in rationalizing the new functions of these variants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Harmful Outcome of Occupational Exposure to Petrol: Assessment of Liver Function and Blood Parameters among Gas Station Workers in Kermanshah City, Iran

Authors: Zamanian, Z; Sedaghat, Z; Mehrifar, Y (2018) HERO ID: 5068543

[Less] Background: Petrol is an integral ingredient in industrial world. According to the . . . [More] Background: Petrol is an integral ingredient in industrial world. According to the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, there are typically more than 150 chemicals in petrol, including small amounts of benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl benzene, and trace amounts of some contaminants, such as lead. The aim of this study was to measure the possible deleterious effect of long-term exposure to petrol on blood parameters and liver function.

Methods: This is a case-control study conducted on 160 participants. Among them, 80 participants worked in a gas station for at least 4 years and 80 participants appeared with no history of occupational exposure to petrol. Blood sample was taken at the time of admonition to the tardive office at each station at 10 AM to measure the association of number of total and differential leukocyte and liver functions.

Results: Based on the results, significant reduction in total leukocyte numbers was found in exposed group compared to unexposed group (1347 ± 4.59, <0.001). However, there was a significant increase in neutrophil (75.9 ± 3.50 in exposed group compared with 58.9 ± 3.15 among unexposed group, P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in liver enzymes between both groups.

Conclusions: Long-term exposure to petrol fumes has deleterious effect on white blood cells. A significant reduction in the number of total and differential lymphocyte seems to be attributed to the toxic effect of petrol ingredients.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Behavioral responses of Holotrichia oblita larvae to root exudates from three host plants]

Authors: Ma, YH; Li, X; Cao, YZ; Yin, J; Zhang, S; Li, KB (2018) HERO ID: 5092910

[Less] The larva of Holotrichia oblita is a serious soil pest that feed with plant roots in north China. To . . . [More] The larva of Holotrichia oblita is a serious soil pest that feed with plant roots in north China. To explore the effects of host root exudates on the larva could provide theoretical basis for the development of green prevention and control methods. In order to elucidate the behavioral responses of Holotrichia oblita larva to the roots of peanut, soybean and maize, an experiment was conducted using the Y-olfactometers with the air as control. The constituents of the root exudates from the three host plants were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The olfactory responses of H. oblita larvae to the main components were tested. The results showed that H. oblita larvae had a significant behavioral preference toward the roots of peanut, soybean and maize than the control. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of volatile compounds in the three plants had more than twenty compounds, with only three shared ones, which was glycerol, dodecanol, ethyl benzene. The results of the Y-olfactometers showed that at low concentrations (40 to 80 μg·mL-1), the number of insects attracted by compound 2-butenoic acid, methylsuccinic acid, myristic acid, acetic acid and phthalate was significantly higher than that of control. At the concentrations of 100 μg·mL-1, 200 μg·mL-1, compound tetradecane and hexadecane were more attractive to the larvae than the control. The compounds p-xylene, o-xylene, and palmitic acid glycerol were found to significantly induce the larva at the concentration of 300 μg·mL-1 and 500 μg·mL-1. In summary, the main components of plant root exudates had a significant luring effect on H. oblita larvae.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Optimization, validation and application of headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography for the determination of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane and methyleugenol from Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez essential oil in skin permeation samples

Authors: Kreutz, T; Lucca, LG; Loureiro-Paes, OAR; Teixeira, HF; Veiga, VF; Limberger, RP; Ortega, GG; Koester, LS (2018) Journal of Chromatography A 1564:163-175. HERO ID: 5092931

[Less] Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez is an aromatic plant from the Amazon region whose essential oil has 1-nitro-2-phenylethane . . . [More] Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez is an aromatic plant from the Amazon region whose essential oil has 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (NP) and methyleugenol (ME) as major compounds. Despite of the scientifically proven antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities for these compounds, there is no report up to date about the topical permeation or quantification of NP and ME on skin samples. The aim of this study was the validation of an optimized bioanalytical method by solid-phase microextraction in headspace mode in gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (HS-SPME-GC-FID) for the determination of NP and ME from the oil in different samples from permeation study, such as porcine ear skin (PES) layers (stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis) and receptor fluid (RF). For this propose polydimethylsiloxane fibers (100 μm) were used and HS-SPME extraction condition consisted of 53 °C, 21 min, and 5% w.v-1 NaCl addition. The wide range of the calibration curve (2.08-207.87 μg mL-1 for NP and 0.40-40.41 μg mL-1 for ME), the presence of matrix interferences and the intrinsic characteristics of HS-SPME required a data linearization using Log10. Thereby, data and the gained results presented homoscedasticity, normalization of residues and adequate linearity (r2 > 0.99) and accuracy for both compounds. In order to verify the applicability of the validated method, the HS-SPME-GC-FID procedure was performed to determine the amount of NP and ME permeated and retained in samples after Franz diffusion cell study from different dosages (20, 100 and 200 μL) of A. canelilla oil. Compounds permeation showed a progressive increase and penetration dependence based on the dosage applied. Furthermore, retention was in order receptor fluid > dermis > epidermis > stratum corneum for both compounds, suggesting NP and ME could penetrate deep tissue, probably due to the partition coefficient, mass, size, and solubility of these compounds. In conclusion, the proposed method by HS-SPME-GC-FID to quantify 1-nitro-2-phenylethane and methyleugenol from Aniba canelilla essential oil was able to determine selectively, precisely and accurately these main compounds in skin permeation samples.