Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


2,746 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure and Function of an Inflammatory Cytokine, Interleukin-2, Analyzed Using the Bioinformatic Approach

Author: Roy, U (2019) HERO ID: 5094676

[Less] The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), is an important regulator of cellular functions. This . . . [More] The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), is an important regulator of cellular functions. This relatively less studied member of the interleukin protein family is responsible for multiple immuno-modulatory and immuno-stimulatory tasks, like T cell activation, triggering of natural killer cells, inflammation, as well as proliferation and progression of autoimmune diseases and cancers. In this communication we report the temporally variant structural aspects of the IL-2 ligand and its receptor interfaces, based on the available crystal structures. The intended goal of this effort is to generate simulated results that could potentially aid the designs of novel structure based therapeutics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Does plant species selection in functional active green walls influence VOC phytoremediation efficiency?

Authors: Irga, PJ; Pettit, T; Irga, RF; Paull, NJ; Douglas, ANJ; Torpy, FR (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 5094790

[Less] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical . . . [More] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study assessed active botanical biofilters for their single-pass removal efficiency (SPRE) for benzene, ethyl acetate and ambient total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), at concentrations of in situ relevance. Biofilters containing four plant species (Chlorophytum orchidastrum, Nematanthus glabra, Nephrolepis cordifolia 'duffii' and Schefflera arboricola) were compared to discern whether plant selection influenced VOC SPRE. Amongst all tested plant species, benzene SPREs were between 45.54 and 59.50%, with N. glabra the most efficient. The botanical biofilters removed 32.36-91.19% of ethyl acetate, with C. orchidastrum and S. arboricola recording significantly higher ethyl acetate SPREs than N. glabra and N. cordifolia. These findings thus indicate that plant type influences botanical biofilter VOC removal. It is proposed that ethyl acetate SPREs were dependent on hydrophilic adsorbent sites, with increasing root surface area, root diameter and root mass all associated with increasing ethyl acetate SPRE. The high benzene SPRE of N. glabra is likely due to the high wax content in its leaf cuticles. The SPREs for the relatively low levels of ambient TVOCs were consistent amongst plant species, providing no evidence to suggest that in situ TVOC removal is influenced by plant choice. Nonetheless, as inter-species differences do exist for some VOCs, botanical biofilters using a mixture of plants is proposed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) toxicity in soil using sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) bioassay

Authors: Ahmed, N; Ok, YS; Jeon, BH; Kim, JR; Chae, KJ; Oh, SE (2019) Chemosphere 220:651-657. HERO ID: 5068522

[Less] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was . . . [More] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was performed using a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) assay. The experiments were set up using an individual pollutant in a 25-mL bottle sealed with a rubber stopper and aluminum cap since BTEX are volatile. A large headspace volume (14 mL) was kept in the reactors to provide enough oxygen for the SOB. Soil samples were spiked with BTEX compounds in the concentration range of 1-1000 mg/kg. In reactors without BTEX compounds, approximately 85% of the theoretically required oxygen was consumed. Whereas, the reactors with benzene consumed in the range of 82-64% (5-100 mg/kg), those with toluene consumed 76-53% (1-50 mg/kg), those with ethyl-benzene consumed 44-71% (5-100 mg/kg), and those with xylene consumed 64-71% (1-10 mg/kg) of the theoretically required oxygen. The effective concentrations responsible for 50% growth inhibition (EC50) for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene detection were 130.2, 1.2, 15.2, and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that this SOB-based bioassay can detect BTEX pollutants in soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of Energy Retrofits on Indoor Air Quality in Multifamily Buildings

Authors: Du, L; Leivo, V; Prasauskas, T; Täubel, M; Martuzevicius, D; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U (2019) Indoor Air. HERO ID: 5077874

[Less] We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 from (96 apartments) Lithuania, . . . [More] We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 from (96 apartments) Lithuania, out of which 37 buildings in Finland and 15 buildings in Lithuania underwent energy retrofits. Building characteristics, retrofit activities, and energy consumption data were collected, and indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), formaldehyde (CH2 O), selected volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX)), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were measured before and after the retrofits. After the retrofits, heating energy consumption decreased by an average of 24% and 49% in Finnish and Lithuanian buildings, respectively. After the retrofits of Finnish buildings, there was a significant increase in BTEX concentrations (estimated mean increase 2.5 μg m-3 ), whereas significant reductions were seen in fungal (0.6-log reduction in cells/m2 /d) and bacterial (0.6-log reduction in gram-positive and 0.9-log reduction in gram-negative bacterial cells/m2 /d) concentrations. In Lithuanian buildings, radon concentrations were significantly increased (estimated mean increase 13.8 Bq m-3 ) after the retrofits. Mechanical ventilation was associated with significantly lower CH2 O concentrations in Finnish buildings. The results and recommendations presented in this paper can inform building retrofit studies and other programs and policies aimed to improve indoor environment and health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nitric oxide-releasing semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers: preparation, characterization and application to devise anti-inflammatory and bactericidal implants

Authors: Wang, X; Jolliffe, A; Carr, B; Zhang, Q; Bilger, M; Cui, Y; Wu, J; Wang, X; Mahoney, M; Rojas-Pena, A; Hoenerhoff, MJ; Douglas, J; Bartlett, RH; Xi, C; Bull, JL; Meyerhoff, ME (2018) HERO ID: 5092920

[Less] Semi-crystalline thermoplastics are an important class of biomaterials with applications in creating . . . [More] Semi-crystalline thermoplastics are an important class of biomaterials with applications in creating extracorporeal and implantable medical devices. In situ release of nitric oxide (NO) from medical devices can enhance their performance via NO's potent anti-thrombotic, bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic activity. However, NO-releasing semi-crystalline thermoplastic systems are limited and the relationship between polymer crystallinity and NO release profile is unknown. In this paper, the functionalization of poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA), Nylon 12, and polyurethane tubes, as examples of semi-crystalline polymers, with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) within, is demonstrated via a polymer swelling method. The degree of crystallinity of the polymer plays a crucial role in both SNAP impregnation and NO release. Nylon 12, which has a relatively high degree of crystallinity, exhibits an unprecedented NO release duration of over 5 months at a low NO level, while PEBA tubing exhibits NO release over days to weeks. As a new biomedical application of NO, the NO-releasing PEBA tubing is examined as a cannula for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The released NO is shown to enhance insulin absorption into the bloodstream probably by suppressing the tissue inflammatory response, and thereby could benefit insulin pump therapy for diabetes management.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Behavioral responses of Holotrichia oblita larvae to root exudates from three host plants]

Authors: Ma, YH; Li, X; Cao, YZ; Yin, J; Zhang, S; Li, KB (2018) HERO ID: 5092910

[Less] The larva of Holotrichia oblita is a serious soil pest that feed with plant roots in north China. To . . . [More] The larva of Holotrichia oblita is a serious soil pest that feed with plant roots in north China. To explore the effects of host root exudates on the larva could provide theoretical basis for the development of green prevention and control methods. In order to elucidate the behavioral responses of Holotrichia oblita larva to the roots of peanut, soybean and maize, an experiment was conducted using the Y-olfactometers with the air as control. The constituents of the root exudates from the three host plants were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The olfactory responses of H. oblita larvae to the main components were tested. The results showed that H. oblita larvae had a significant behavioral preference toward the roots of peanut, soybean and maize than the control. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of volatile compounds in the three plants had more than twenty compounds, with only three shared ones, which was glycerol, dodecanol, ethyl benzene. The results of the Y-olfactometers showed that at low concentrations (40 to 80 μg·mL-1), the number of insects attracted by compound 2-butenoic acid, methylsuccinic acid, myristic acid, acetic acid and phthalate was significantly higher than that of control. At the concentrations of 100 μg·mL-1, 200 μg·mL-1, compound tetradecane and hexadecane were more attractive to the larvae than the control. The compounds p-xylene, o-xylene, and palmitic acid glycerol were found to significantly induce the larva at the concentration of 300 μg·mL-1 and 500 μg·mL-1. In summary, the main components of plant root exudates had a significant luring effect on H. oblita larvae.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Design and synthesis of sulfonamidophenylethylureas as novel cardiac myosin activator

Authors: Manickam, M; Jalani, HB; Pillaiyar, T; Boggu, PR; Sharma, N; Venkateswararao, E; Lee, YJ; Jeon, ES; Son, MJ; Woo, SH; Jung, SH (2018) European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 143:1869-1887. HERO ID: 4272021

[Less] To optimize the lead urea scaffold 1 and 2 as selective cardiac myosin ATPase activator, a series of . . . [More] To optimize the lead urea scaffold 1 and 2 as selective cardiac myosin ATPase activator, a series of urea derivatives have been synthesized to explore its structure activity relationship. Among them N,N-dimethyl-4-(2-(3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide (13, CMA = 91.6%, FS = 17.62%; EF = 11.55%), N,N-dimethyl-4-(2-(1-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido)ethyl)benzene sulfonamide (40, CMA = 52.3%, FS = 38.96%; EF = 24.19%) and N,N-dimethyl-4-(2-(3-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide (41, CMA = 47.6%, FS = 23.19%; EF = 15.47%) proved to be efficient to activate the cardiac myosin in vitro and in vivo. Further the % change in ventricular cell contractility at 5 μM of 13 (47.9 ± 3.2), 40 (45.5 ± 2.4) and 41 (63.5 ± 2.2) showed positive inotropic effect in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The potent compounds 13, 40, 41 were highly selective for cardiac myosin over skeletal and smooth muscle myosin, thus proving them these new urea derivatives is a novel scaffold for discovery of cardiac myosin activators for the treatment of systolic heart failure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Directed Evolution of Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Improved Stereoselective Redox Transformations of 1-Phenylethane-1,2-diol and Its Corresponding Acyloin

Authors: Hamnevik, E; Maurer, D; Enugala, TR; Chu, T; Löfgren, R; Dobritzsch, D; Widersten, M (2018) Biochemistry 57:1059-1062. HERO ID: 4659305

[Less] Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers . . . [More] Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers with a vicinal 1,2-diol and its corresponding hydroxyketone. Crystal structure and transient kinetics analysis aids in rationalizing the new functions of these variants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A conceptual study on the formulation of a permeable reactive pavement with activated carbon additives for controlling the fate of non-point source environmental organic contaminants

Authors: Huang, S; Liang, C (2018) Chemosphere 193:438-446. HERO ID: 4167703

[Less] To take advantage of the road pavement network where non-point source (NPS) pollution such as benzene, . . . [More] To take advantage of the road pavement network where non-point source (NPS) pollution such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) from vehicle traffic exhaust via wet and dry atmospheric deposition occurs, the asphalt pavement may be used as a media to control the NPS pollution. An experiment to prepare an adsorptive porous reactive pavement (PRP) was initiated to explore the potential to reduce environmental NPS vehicle pollution. The PRP was prepared and studied as follows: various activated carbons (AC) were initially screened to determine if they were suitable as an additive in the porous asphalt mixture; various mixtures of a selected AC were incorporated with the design of porous asphalt concrete (PAC) to produce PRP, and the PRP formulations were tested to ensure that they comply with the required specifications; qualified specimens were subsequently tested to determine their adsorption capacity for BTEX in aqueous solution, as compared to conventional PAC. The PRP08 and PRP16 samples, named for the design formulations of 0.8% and 1.6% of AC (by wt. in the formulation), exhibited low asphalt drain-down and low abrasion loss and also met all regulated specifications. The BTEX adsorption capacity measurements of PRP08 and PRP16 were 33-46%, 36-51%, 20-22%, and 6-8% respectively, higher than those obtained from PACs. Based on the test results, PRPs showed good physical performance and adsorption and may be considered as a potential method for controlling the transport of NPS vehicle pollutants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Experimental Evaluation of Preservation Techniques for Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Total Xylenes in Water Samples

Authors: Arnold, R; Kong, D; Douglas, G; Hardenstine, J; Rouhani, S; Gala, W (2018) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 100:54-58. HERO ID: 4271932

[Less] An experiment was designed to address the validity of the prescribed maximum allowable holding-time . . . [More] An experiment was designed to address the validity of the prescribed maximum allowable holding-time limit of 14 days when acidified at < 2 pH and maintained at 4°C to prevent significant loss of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in preserved water samples. Preservation methods prescribed by the United State Environmental Protection Agency were used as well as adaptions of that procedure to determine stability between 3 and 21 days. Water samples preserved at 4°C and pH of < 2 with hydrochloric acid did not result in unacceptable (> 15%) BTEX losses during the study as defined by procedures and statistical methods described by the American Society for Testing and Materials International. In addition, water samples preserved only with acid (pH < 2) at ambient temperatures (20-27°C) also provided acceptable results during the 21-day study. These results have demonstrated the acceptability of BTEX data derived from water samples exceeding the standard holding-time and/or temperature limits.