TPT sulfonate, a single, oral dose schistosomicidal prodrug: In vivo efficacy, disposition and metabolic profiling
Authors: Wolfe, AR; Neitz, RJ; Burlingame, M; Suzuki, BM; Lim, KC; Scheideler, M; Nelson, DL; Benet, LZ; Caffrey, CR
HERO ID: 5074939
Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search . . .
Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search for alternatives, 15 S-[2-(alkylamino)alkane] thiosulfuric acids were obtained from a previous research program and profiled in mice for efficacy against both mature (>42-day-old) and juvenile (21-day-old) Schistosoma mansoni using a screening dose of 100 mg/kg PO QDx4. One compound, S-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-phenylethane] thiosulfuric acid (TPT sulfonate), was the most effective by decreasing female and male worm burdens by ≥ 90% and ≥46% (mature), and ≥89% and ≥79% (juvenile), respectively. In contrast, PZQ decreased mature female and male worm burdens by 95% and 94%, respectively, but was ineffective against juvenile stages. Against 7-day-old lung-stage worms, TPT sulfonate was only effective at twice the dose decreasing female and male burdens by 95 and 80%, respectively. Single oral doses at 400 and/or 600 mg/kg across various developmental time-points (1-, 7-, 15-, 21- and/or 42 day-old) were consistent with the QD x4 data; efficacy was strongest once the parasites had completed lung migration, and female and male burdens were decreased by at least 90% and 80%, respectively. In vitro, TPT sulfonate is inactive against the parasite suggesting a pro-drug mechanism of action. In mice, TPT sulfonate is fully absorbed and subject to rapid, non-CYP-mediated, first-pass metabolism that is initiated by desulfation and yields a series of metabolites. The initially-formed free thiol-containing metabolite, termed TP thiol, was chemically synthesized; it dose-dependently decreased S. mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium motility in vitro. Also, when administered as a single 50 mg/kg IP dose, TP thiol decreased 33-day-old S. mansoni female and male burdens by 35% and 44%, with less severe organomegaly. Overall, TPT sulfonate's efficacy profile is competitive with that of PZQ. Also, the characterization of a parasiticidal metabolite facilitates an understanding and improvement of the chemistry, and identification of the mechanism of action and/or target.