Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


2,765 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of Energy Retrofits on Indoor Air Quality in Multifamily Buildings

Authors: Du, L; Leivo, V; Prasauskas, T; Täubel, M; Martuzevicius, D; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U (2019) HERO ID: 5077874

[Less] We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 from (96 apartments) Lithuania, . . . [More] We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 from (96 apartments) Lithuania, out of which 37 buildings in Finland and 15 buildings in Lithuania underwent energy retrofits. Building characteristics, retrofit activities, and energy consumption data were collected, and indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), formaldehyde (CH2 O), selected volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX)), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were measured before and after the retrofits. After the retrofits, heating energy consumption decreased by an average of 24% and 49% in Finnish and Lithuanian buildings, respectively. After the retrofits of Finnish buildings, there was a significant increase in BTEX concentrations (estimated mean increase 2.5 μg m-3 ), whereas significant reductions were seen in fungal (0.6-log reduction in cells/m2 /d) and bacterial (0.6-log reduction in gram-positive and 0.9-log reduction in gram-negative bacterial cells/m2 /d) concentrations. In Lithuanian buildings, radon concentrations were significantly increased (estimated mean increase 13.8 Bq m-3 ) after the retrofits. Mechanical ventilation was associated with significantly lower CH2 O concentrations in Finnish buildings. The results and recommendations presented in this paper can inform building retrofit studies and other programs and policies aimed to improve indoor environment and health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) toxicity in soil using sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) bioassay

Authors: Ahmed, N; Ok, YS; Jeon, BH; Kim, JR; Chae, KJ; Oh, SE (2019) Chemosphere 220:651-657. HERO ID: 5068522

[Less] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was . . . [More] The assessment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated soil toxicity was performed using a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) assay. The experiments were set up using an individual pollutant in a 25-mL bottle sealed with a rubber stopper and aluminum cap since BTEX are volatile. A large headspace volume (14 mL) was kept in the reactors to provide enough oxygen for the SOB. Soil samples were spiked with BTEX compounds in the concentration range of 1-1000 mg/kg. In reactors without BTEX compounds, approximately 85% of the theoretically required oxygen was consumed. Whereas, the reactors with benzene consumed in the range of 82-64% (5-100 mg/kg), those with toluene consumed 76-53% (1-50 mg/kg), those with ethyl-benzene consumed 44-71% (5-100 mg/kg), and those with xylene consumed 64-71% (1-10 mg/kg) of the theoretically required oxygen. The effective concentrations responsible for 50% growth inhibition (EC50) for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene detection were 130.2, 1.2, 15.2, and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that this SOB-based bioassay can detect BTEX pollutants in soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Does plant species selection in functional active green walls influence VOC phytoremediation efficiency?

Authors: Irga, PJ; Pettit, T; Irga, RF; Paull, NJ; Douglas, ANJ; Torpy, FR (2019) HERO ID: 5094790

[Less] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical . . . [More] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study assessed active botanical biofilters for their single-pass removal efficiency (SPRE) for benzene, ethyl acetate and ambient total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), at concentrations of in situ relevance. Biofilters containing four plant species (Chlorophytum orchidastrum, Nematanthus glabra, Nephrolepis cordifolia 'duffii' and Schefflera arboricola) were compared to discern whether plant selection influenced VOC SPRE. Amongst all tested plant species, benzene SPREs were between 45.54 and 59.50%, with N. glabra the most efficient. The botanical biofilters removed 32.36-91.19% of ethyl acetate, with C. orchidastrum and S. arboricola recording significantly higher ethyl acetate SPREs than N. glabra and N. cordifolia. These findings thus indicate that plant type influences botanical biofilter VOC removal. It is proposed that ethyl acetate SPREs were dependent on hydrophilic adsorbent sites, with increasing root surface area, root diameter and root mass all associated with increasing ethyl acetate SPRE. The high benzene SPRE of N. glabra is likely due to the high wax content in its leaf cuticles. The SPREs for the relatively low levels of ambient TVOCs were consistent amongst plant species, providing no evidence to suggest that in situ TVOC removal is influenced by plant choice. Nonetheless, as inter-species differences do exist for some VOCs, botanical biofilters using a mixture of plants is proposed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure and Function of an Inflammatory Cytokine, Interleukin-2, Analyzed Using the Bioinformatic Approach

Author: Roy, U (2019) HERO ID: 5094676

[Less] The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), is an important regulator of cellular functions. This . . . [More] The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), is an important regulator of cellular functions. This relatively less studied member of the interleukin protein family is responsible for multiple immuno-modulatory and immuno-stimulatory tasks, like T cell activation, triggering of natural killer cells, inflammation, as well as proliferation and progression of autoimmune diseases and cancers. In this communication we report the temporally variant structural aspects of the IL-2 ligand and its receptor interfaces, based on the available crystal structures. The intended goal of this effort is to generate simulated results that could potentially aid the designs of novel structure based therapeutics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of polymer aging on the uptake of fuel aromatics and ethers by microplastics

Authors: Müller, A; Becker, R; Dorgerloh, U; Simon, FG; Braun, U (2018) Environmental Pollution 240:639-646. HERO ID: 4729980

[Less] Microplastics are increasingly entering marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, where they . . . [More] Microplastics are increasingly entering marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, where they sorb hydrophobic organic contaminants. Here, the sorption behavior of the fuel-related water contaminants benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) and four tertiary butyl ethers to virgin and via UV radiation aged polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) pellets was investigated. Changes in material properties due to aging were recorded using appropriate polymer characterization methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy. Pellets were exposed to water containing BTEX and the ethers at 130-190 μg L-1 for up to two weeks. Aqueous sorbate concentrations were determined by headspace gas chromatography. Sorption to the polymers was correlated with the sorbate's Kow and was significant for BTEX and marginal for the ethers. Due to substantially lower glass transition temperatures, PP showed higher sorption than PS. Aging had no effect on the sorption behavior of PP. PS sorbed less BTEX after aging due to an oxidized surface layer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Insulin stimulus-secretion coupling is triggered by a novel thiazolidinedione/sulfonylurea hybrid in rat pancreatic islets

Authors: Mendes, CP; Postal, BG; Oliveira, GTC; Castro, AJG; Frederico, MJS; Moraes, ALL; Neuenfeldt, PD; Nunes, RJ; Menegaz, D; Silva, FRMB (2018) Journal of Cellular Physiology 234:509-520. HERO ID: 5068569

[Less] New compounds with promising antidiabetic activity were synthesized. For the first time, a portion of . . . [More] New compounds with promising antidiabetic activity were synthesized. For the first time, a portion of the glibenclamide molecule was bound to a part of the core structure of thiazolidinedione to evaluate insulin secretagogue activity. Following studies in our laboratory, 4-{2-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]ethyl}benzene-1-sulfonamide (DTEBS) was selected to evaluate glycemia using the glucose tolerance test and insulin secretagogue activity by E.L.I.S.A. The mechanism of action of this compound was studied by 45 Ca2+ influx and whole-cell patch-clamp in rat pancreatic isolated islets. Furthermore, AGE formation in vitro was investigated. We herein show that this novel hybrid compound (DTEBS) exhibits an insulinogenic index and a profile of serum insulin secretion able to maintain glucose homeostasis. Its mechanism of action is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) and by activating protein kinase C and A (PKC and PKA). In addition, the stimulatory action of the compound on calcium influx and insulin secretion indicates that the potentiation of voltage-sensitive K+ currents (Kv) is due to the repolarization phase of the action potential after secretagogue excitation-secretion in pancreatic islets. Furthermore, under these experimental conditions, the compound did not induce toxicity and the in vitro late response of the compound to protein glycation reinforces its use to prevent complications of diabetes. DTEBS exerts an insulin secretagogue effect by triggering KATP, VDCC, and Kv ionic currents, possibly via PKC and PKA pathway signal transduction, in beta-cells. Furthermore, DTEBS may hold potential for delaying the late complications of diabetes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Design and synthesis of sulfonamidophenylethylureas as novel cardiac myosin activator

Authors: Manickam, M; Jalani, HB; Pillaiyar, T; Boggu, PR; Sharma, N; Venkateswararao, E; Lee, YJ; Jeon, ES; Son, MJ; Woo, SH; Jung, SH (2018) European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 143:1869-1887. HERO ID: 4272021

[Less] To optimize the lead urea scaffold 1 and 2 as selective cardiac myosin ATPase activator, a series of . . . [More] To optimize the lead urea scaffold 1 and 2 as selective cardiac myosin ATPase activator, a series of urea derivatives have been synthesized to explore its structure activity relationship. Among them N,N-dimethyl-4-(2-(3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide (13, CMA = 91.6%, FS = 17.62%; EF = 11.55%), N,N-dimethyl-4-(2-(1-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido)ethyl)benzene sulfonamide (40, CMA = 52.3%, FS = 38.96%; EF = 24.19%) and N,N-dimethyl-4-(2-(3-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide (41, CMA = 47.6%, FS = 23.19%; EF = 15.47%) proved to be efficient to activate the cardiac myosin in vitro and in vivo. Further the % change in ventricular cell contractility at 5 μM of 13 (47.9 ± 3.2), 40 (45.5 ± 2.4) and 41 (63.5 ± 2.2) showed positive inotropic effect in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The potent compounds 13, 40, 41 were highly selective for cardiac myosin over skeletal and smooth muscle myosin, thus proving them these new urea derivatives is a novel scaffold for discovery of cardiac myosin activators for the treatment of systolic heart failure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Risk Assessment of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylene Concentrations from the Combustion of Coal in a Controlled Laboratory Environment

Authors: Masekameni, MD; Moolla, R; Gulumian, M; Brouwer, D (2018) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16. HERO ID: 5068516

[Less] A D-grade type coal was burned under simulated domestic practices in a controlled laboratory set-up, . . . [More] A D-grade type coal was burned under simulated domestic practices in a controlled laboratory set-up, in order to characterize the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); namely, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Near-field concentrations were collected in a shack-like structure constructed using corrugated iron, simulating a traditional house found in informal settlements in South Africa (SA). Measurements were carried out using the Synspec Spectras GC955 real-time monitor over a three-hour burn cycle. The 3-h average concentrations (in µg/m³) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, and o-xylene were 919 ± 44, 2051 ± 91, 3838 ±19, 4245 ± 41 and 3576 ± 49, respectively. The cancer risk for adult males and females in a typical SA household exposure scenario was found to be 1.1 and 1.2 respectively, which are 110- and 120-fold higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated risk severity indicator (1 × 10-6). All four TEX (toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and o-xylene) compounds recorded a Hazard Quotient (HQ) of less than 1, indicating a low risk of developing related non-carcinogenic health effects. The HQ for TEX ranged from 0.001 to 0.05, with toluene concentrations being the lowest, and ethylbenzene the highest. This study has demonstrated that domestic coal burning may be a significant source of BTEX emission exposure.

Journal Article
Journal Article

TPT sulfonate, a single, oral dose schistosomicidal prodrug: In vivo efficacy, disposition and metabolic profiling

Authors: Wolfe, AR; Neitz, RJ; Burlingame, M; Suzuki, BM; Lim, KC; Scheideler, M; Nelson, DL; Benet, LZ; Caffrey, CR (2018) 8:571-586. HERO ID: 5074939

[Less] Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search . . . [More] Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search for alternatives, 15 S-[2-(alkylamino)alkane] thiosulfuric acids were obtained from a previous research program and profiled in mice for efficacy against both mature (>42-day-old) and juvenile (21-day-old) Schistosoma mansoni using a screening dose of 100 mg/kg PO QDx4. One compound, S-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-phenylethane] thiosulfuric acid (TPT sulfonate), was the most effective by decreasing female and male worm burdens by ≥ 90% and ≥46% (mature), and ≥89% and ≥79% (juvenile), respectively. In contrast, PZQ decreased mature female and male worm burdens by 95% and 94%, respectively, but was ineffective against juvenile stages. Against 7-day-old lung-stage worms, TPT sulfonate was only effective at twice the dose decreasing female and male burdens by 95 and 80%, respectively. Single oral doses at 400 and/or 600 mg/kg across various developmental time-points (1-, 7-, 15-, 21- and/or 42 day-old) were consistent with the QD x4 data; efficacy was strongest once the parasites had completed lung migration, and female and male burdens were decreased by at least 90% and 80%, respectively. In vitro, TPT sulfonate is inactive against the parasite suggesting a pro-drug mechanism of action. In mice, TPT sulfonate is fully absorbed and subject to rapid, non-CYP-mediated, first-pass metabolism that is initiated by desulfation and yields a series of metabolites. The initially-formed free thiol-containing metabolite, termed TP thiol, was chemically synthesized; it dose-dependently decreased S. mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium motility in vitro. Also, when administered as a single 50 mg/kg IP dose, TP thiol decreased 33-day-old S. mansoni female and male burdens by 35% and 44%, with less severe organomegaly. Overall, TPT sulfonate's efficacy profile is competitive with that of PZQ. Also, the characterization of a parasiticidal metabolite facilitates an understanding and improvement of the chemistry, and identification of the mechanism of action and/or target.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Directed Evolution of Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Improved Stereoselective Redox Transformations of 1-Phenylethane-1,2-diol and Its Corresponding Acyloin

Authors: Hamnevik, E; Maurer, D; Enugala, TR; Chu, T; Löfgren, R; Dobritzsch, D; Widersten, M (2018) Biochemistry 57:1059-1062. HERO ID: 4659305

[Less] Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers . . . [More] Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers with a vicinal 1,2-diol and its corresponding hydroxyketone. Crystal structure and transient kinetics analysis aids in rationalizing the new functions of these variants.