Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


2,446 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Letter Health Consultation; Assessment of Cancer Incidence from the Louisiana Tumor Registry (1988-2008) Data for the Hwy 71/72 Refinery Site, Bossier City Parish, Lousiana, January 28, 2013

(2013) HERO ID: 2859581

[Less] In June 2000, the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals/Office of Public Health/Section of Environmental . . . [More] In June 2000, the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals/Office of Public Health/Section of Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicologys (LDHH/OPH/SEET) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) authored the Hwy 71/72 Public Health Assessment (PHA). As part of LDHH/OPH/SEETs environmental health investigation for the Hwy 71/72 site, and as follow-up to the recommendation made in the June 2000 PHA, LDHH has evaluated cancer incidence data (1988-2008) for the zip code areas 71111 and 71112 for types of cancers related to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene exposures. According to the PHA (June 2000), the Highway 71/72 site was classified as a public health hazard because the long term exposure to benzene levels in the indoor air would pose an unacceptable cancer risk for long term residents. The following letter provides the results of SEETs cancer incidence assessment.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Report on Carcinogens (RoC) Concept: Cumene

(2013) HERO ID: 2858986

[Less] Cumene (CASRN 98-82-8, isopropylbenzene) is an alkylated benzene found in fossil fuels, such as blended . . . [More] Cumene (CASRN 98-82-8, isopropylbenzene) is an alkylated benzene found in fossil fuels, such as blended gasoline and kerosene, and products of incomplete combustion (IARC2012). It has a gasoline-like odor and can exist as a vapor in ambient air. Cumene is structurally similar to benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene, and ethylbenzene. It is a high production volume chemical in the United States with the majority of its use in the synthesis of acetone and phenol. Cumene has been selected as a candidate substance for the RoC based on widespread current U.S. exposure and an adequate database of cancer studies. Exposure to cumene comes from the use of fossil fuels, solvents, and cigarette smoke. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) completed a series of cumene inhalation toxicology and carcinogenesis studies (NTP 2009) and disposition and metabolism studies in rats and mice.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Inhalation health effect reference values for ethylbenzene (CASRN 100-41-4)

Author: U.S. EPA (2012) (EPA/600/R-12/047F2). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 2446074

[Less] In general, inhalation health effect reference values have been included which have been developed and . . . [More] In general, inhalation health effect reference values have been included which have been developed and formally reviewed by an authoritative governing body (government agency or professional association) for use in assessments of risk to support regulatory decision-making. This is a review of existing reference values, including the basis for each of the reference values as provided in the available technical support documents for those values, along with some basic contextual references; this is not a comprehensive review of the health effects literature for ethyl benzene.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Metabolic Diversity for Degradation, Detection, and Synthesis of Nitro Compounds and Toxins

Authors: Nishino, SF; Spain, JC; Craven, SH; Husserl, J; Kurt, Z (2012) HERO ID: 2251718

Abstract: Final rept. 27 Mar 2007-26 Mar 2012.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1127

Authors: Falls, WF; Caldwell, AW; Guimaraes, WG; Ratliff, WH; Wellborn, JB (2012) (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1127). U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Geological Survey. HERO ID: 1788509

[Less] Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in . . . [More] Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (mg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 mg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 mg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Overview of Groundwater Quality in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado, 1946-2009

Authors: Thomas, JC; Mcmahon, PB (2012) (NTIS/11130150). HERO ID: 1788516

[Less] Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and . . . [More] Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Sites with Leaking Underground Storage Tank Systems

(2011) GRA and I:6. HERO ID: 1579665

[Less] Almost 495,000 releases of petroleum from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) have . . . [More] Almost 495,000 releases of petroleum from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) have been reported to EPA as of September 2010. Of these, over 93,000 UST site cleanups remain. The Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) estimates that cleaning up UST system releases costs the states approximately $700 million each year, in addition to federal expenditures under the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust fund and costs paid by responsible parties. State agencies maintain responsibility to implement and oversee corrective actions at UST sites, with the exception of federal authority for UST site cleanup in Indian country. The majority of these actions involve UST systems for petroleum fuel rather than chemicals containing hazardous substances and most involve retail fueling stations. Common contaminants associated with fuel releases include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and sometimes other chemicals of concern such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol, or lead scavengers (ethylene dibromide and 1,2 dichloroethane). Releases of petroleum, used oil, or chemicals can result from problems such as corrosion of the tank or attached pipes, structural failure, or faulty installation. In addition to the tank, components of an UST system include connected underground piping, underground ancillary equipment, and the containment system, if any.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation Exposure to Jet Fuel (JP8) Among U.S. Air Force Personnel

Authors: Smith, KW; Proctor, SP; Ozonoff, A; Mcclean, MD (2010) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 7:563-572. HERO ID: 1471078

[Less] As jet fuel is a common occupational exposure among military and civilian populations, this study was . . . [More] As jet fuel is a common occupational exposure among military and civilian populations, this study was conducted to characterize jet fuel (JP8) exposure among active duty U.S. Air Force personnel. Personnel (n = 24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Questionnaires and personal air samples (breathing zone) were collected from each worker over 3 consecutive days (72 worker-days) and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and naphthalene. Air samples were collected from inside the fuel tank and analyzed for the same analytes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Our results show that the correlation of THC (a measure of overall JP8 inhalation exposure) with all other analytes was moderate to strong in the a priori high and moderate exposure groups combined. Inhalation exposure to all analytes varied significantly by self-reported JP8 exposure (THC levels higher among workers reporting JP8 exposure), a priori exposure group (THC levels in high group > moderate group > low group), and more specific job task groupings (THC levels among workers in fuel systems hangar group > refueling maintenance group > fuel systems office group > fuel handling group > clinic group), with task groupings explaining the most between-worker variability. Among highly exposed workers, statistically significant job task-related predictors of inhalation exposure to THC indicated that increased time in the hangar, working close to the fuel tank (inside > less than 25 ft > greater than 25 ft), primary job (entrant > attendant/runner/fireguard > outside hangar), and performing various tasks near the fuel tank, such as searching for a leak, resulted in higher JP8 exposure. This study shows that while a priori exposure groups were useful in distinguishing JP8 exposure levels, job task-based categories should be considered in epidemiologic study designs to improve exposure classification. Finally, the strong correlation of THC with naphthalene suggests that naphthalene may be an appropriate surrogate of JP8 exposure. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a pdf file containing a table detailing concentrations of JP8 components.].

Technical Report
Technical Report

Assessment of Soil-Gas, Surface-Water, and Soil Contamination at the Installation Railhead, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2008-2009

Authors: Landmeyer, JE; Harrelson, LG; Ratliff, WH; Wellborn, JB (2010) (NTIS/11020129). HERO ID: 1485920

[Less] The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural . . . [More] The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, assessed soil gas, surface water, and soil for contaminants at the Installation Railhead (IR) at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from October 2008 to September 2009. The assessment included delineation of organic contaminants present in soil-gas samples beneath the IR, and in a surface-water sample collected from an unnamed tributary to Marcum Branch in the western part of the IR. Inorganic contaminants were determined in a surface-water sample and in soil samples. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Soil-gas samples collected within a localized area on the western part of the IR contained total petroleum hydrocarbons; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes (referred to as BTEX); and naphthalene above the method detection level.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Letter Health Consultation: Evaluation of Domestic Well Water Samples, Board Camp, Board Camp, Arkansas

(2009) HERO ID: 2858875

[Less] In response to a request from the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Regulated Storage . . . [More] In response to a request from the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Regulated Storage Tanks Division (RSTD), the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) Epidemiology Division has evaluated domestic water well samples from Board Camp, AR, taken in June 2009. The elevated contaminants of concern (COCs) identified in this domestic well data are benzene, ethylbenzene, and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), ADH has prepared this letter to determine if a public health hazard exists due to the levels of COCs detected.