Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


4,244 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prospective analyses of volatile organic compounds in obstructive sleep apnea patients

Authors: Aoki, T; Nagaoka, T; Kobayashi, N; Kurahashi, M; Tsuji, C; Takiguchi, H; Tomomatsu, K; Oguma, T; Kobayashi, N; Magatani, K; Takeda, S; Asano, K; Abe, T (2017) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 3491060

[Less] Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be toxic. Although exhaled VOC patterns change . . . [More] Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be toxic. Although exhaled VOC patterns change in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, individual VOC profiles are not fully determined. The primary outcome was VOC characterizations; secondary outcomes included their relationships with sleep and clinical parameters in OSA patients. We prospectively examined 32 OSA patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 by full polysomnography, and 33 age- and sex-matched controls without obvious OSA symptoms. Nine severe OSA patients were examined before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. By applying a method which eliminates environmental VOC influences, exhaled VOCs were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, and their concentrations were determined by GC. Exhaled aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations (toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, and phenylacetic acid) in the severe OSA groups (AHI ≥ 30) and exhaled saturated hydrocarbon concentrations (hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, and decane) in the most severe OSA group (AHI ≥ 60) were higher than those in the control group. Exhaled isoprene concentrations were increased in all OSA groups (AHI ≥ 15); acetone concentration was increased in the most severe OSA group. Ethylbenzene, p-xylene, phenylacetic acid, and nonane concentrations were increased according to OSA severity, and correlated with AHI, arousal index, and duration of percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 90%. Multiple regression analyses revealed these four VOC levels were associated with the duration of SpO2 ≤ 90%. Isoprene and acetone decreased after CPAP treatment. OSA increased some toxic VOCs, and some correlated with OSA severity. CPAP treatment possibly ameliorates these productions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reutilization of waste scrap tyre as the immobilization matrix for the enhanced bioremoval of a monoaromatic hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether, and chlorinated ethenes mixture from water

Authors: Lu, Q; de Toledo, RA; Xie, F; Li, J; Shim, H (2017) Science of the Total Environment 583:88-96. HERO ID: 3491051

[Less] BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta-, and para-xylenes), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), . . . [More] BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta-, and para-xylenes), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the major soil and groundwater contaminants frequently co-existing, as a result of their widespread uses. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was immobilized on waste scrap tyre to remove these contaminants mixture from synthetic contaminated water. The microbial activity was enhanced in the immobilized system, shown by the higher colony forming units (CFUs) (40%), while BTEX were used as growth substrates. The adsorption capacity of tyres toward contaminants reached a maximum within one day, with BTEX (76.3%) and TCE (64.3%) showing the highest sorption removal capacities, followed by cis-DCE (30.0%) and MTBE (11.0%). The adsorption data fitted the Freundlich isotherm with a good linear correlation (0.989-0.999) for the initial contaminants concentration range applied (25-125mg/L). The monoaromatic hydrocarbons were almost completely removed in the immobilized system and the favourable removal efficiencies of 78% and 90% were obtained for cis-DCE and TCE, respectively. The hybrid (biological, immobilization/physical, sorption) system was further evaluated with the contaminants spiked intermittently for the stable performance. The addition of mineral salt medium further enhanced the bioremoval of contaminants by stimulating the microbial growth to some extent.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multivariate optimization for the simultaneous bioremoval of BTEX and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida

Authors: Li, J; de Toledo, RA; Shim, H (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 321:238-246. HERO ID: 3491079

[Less] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of some major parameters on the cometabolic removal of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene . . . [More] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of some major parameters on the cometabolic removal of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), mixed with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, by an indigenous bacterial isolate Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. Such statistical methodologies as hierarchical cluster analysis heat map and principal component analysis were applied to better evaluate the effects of major parameters (soil pH, temperature, moisture, and cis-DCE/TCE concentrations) on the biological process. The bioremoval experiments were carried out in microcosms containing soil slurry, and the headspace concentrations of contaminants were analyzed by gas chromatography. The optimal bioremoval conditions for the mixture were soil water content >110%, pH 8-9, and temperature 15-20°C, while the cis-DCE/TCE concentration did not significantly affect the mixture bioremoval within the tested range (∼10mg per kg soil). Under the optimal conditions, benzene (97.7%), toluene (96.3%), and ethylbenzene (89.8%) were almost completely removed, while cis-DCE (24.5%), TCE (29.0%), m,p-xylene (36.3%), and o-xylene (29.6%) showed lower removal efficiencies. The obtained results would help to better design a remediation technology to be applied to the sites contaminated with mixed wastes, and the statistical methodologies used in this study appear to be very efficient and could serve as a template for optimization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Treatment of airborne BTEX by a two-stage biotrickling filter and biofilter, exploiting selected bacterial and fungal consortia

Authors: Raboni, M; Torretta, V; Viotti, P (2017) International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 14:19-28. HERO ID: 3491298

[Less] The pilot plant fed by a 600-Nm(3) h(-1) waste air flow rate consisted of a water scrubbing pre-treatment . . . [More] The pilot plant fed by a 600-Nm(3) h(-1) waste air flow rate consisted of a water scrubbing pre-treatment followed by a biotrickling filter and a biofilter, in series. The growth of selected bacterial and fungal consortia was promoted through the biotrickling filter and biofilter. Total BTEX levels were detected in a raw waste air stream at an average concentration of 39.07 mg Nm(-3). The whole treatment achieved an average of 96.1 % removal efficiency. This performance led to very low average concentrations of individual BTEX in the final air effluent: 1.07 mg Nm(-3) for benzene, 0.16 mg Nm(-3) for toluene, 0.22 mg Nm(-3) for ethylbenzene and 0.07 mg Nm(-3) for xylene (mix). The performance and stability of both biotrickling filter and biofilter confirmed the effectiveness of the treatment in achieving low concentrations of individual BTEX in the final air effluent, which fully comply with the most stringent toxicological standard and threshold odor concentrations, for the protection of workers and local residents. This result was possible by the complementary and synergistic action of the bacterial and fungal consortia in degrading BTEX.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The interaction of surfactants with plastic and copper plumbing materials during decontamination

Authors: Casteloes, KS; Mendis, GP; Avins, HK; Howarter, JA; Whelton, AJ (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 325:8-16. HERO ID: 3491029

[Less] The study goal was to examine the effectiveness of surfactants to decontaminate plastic and copper potable . . . [More] The study goal was to examine the effectiveness of surfactants to decontaminate plastic and copper potable water plumbing components. Several common potable water pipe and gasket plastics were examined as well as Alconox(®) detergent, Dawn(®) soap, and MAGIT-DG 100 surfactants. Results showed that the MAGIT-DG 100 solutions permeated all plastics within 3days, effectively compromising tensile strength (-82%), physical dimension (+43% volume, +45% weight), and oxidative resistance (-15%). A variety of MAGIT-DG 100 solution compounds permeated plastic samples, not just the declared major ingredient. PVC and cPVC pipes sorbed the least amount of this solution's components of all the plastic pipes tested. Alconox(®) and Dawn(®) solutions caused minimal changes to the physical and mechanical properties of all plastics examined. Crosslinked polyethylene type A (PEX-a) pipe was more susceptible to crude oil contamination than copper pipe. Flushing with a pure water Alconox(®) solution mixture removed all benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes (BTEX) from copper pipe. No decontamination method affected BTEX removal from PEX pipe. Under certain conditions surfactant solutions have the potential to alter material integrity and may not be a viable option in removing hydrophobic organic compounds from plastic pipe.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatial characteristics of urinary BTEX concentrations in the general population

Authors: Tsangari, X; Andrianou, XD; Agapiou, A; Mochalski, P; Makris, KC (2017) Chemosphere 173:261-266. HERO ID: 3491050

[Less] Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) are ubiquitous outdoor and indoor air pollutants . . . [More] Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) are ubiquitous outdoor and indoor air pollutants associated with both environmental and health effects. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine the magnitude and variability of urinary BTEX levels among residents of two areas located in the same city (Nicosia, Cyprus). The two areas differed with respect to their proximity to an industrial cluster and an intercity-highway. First morning urine voids were collected during a random campaign from selected households in the two urban areas (n = 48). Urinary BTEX measurements were obtained using headspace solid phase micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The majority of participants were females (65%) and non-smokers (85%) with a mean age of 49 years. Median urinary BTEX levels were: 118 ng L(-1), 124 ng L(-1), 9 ng L(-1), 29 ng L(-1) and 28 ng L(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, (p + m)-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. With the exception of benzene, participants from area 2 (closer to the industrial cluster and an intercity road than area 1) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher urinary BTEX levels than those from area 1 (regression analysis). The residence location (in area 2) was the sole significant (p < 0.05) predictor of urinary BTEX levels after adjusting for sex, smoking, age, body mass index, and educational level. This observational study showed differences in BTEX exposures between two urban areas of the same city. This baseline BTEX dataset may prove useful for future activities of natural gas extraction and handling nearby urban settings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early-life exposure to air pollution and greater use of academic support services in childhood: a population-based cohort study of urban children

Authors: Stingone, JA; Mcveigh, KH; Claudio, L (2017) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 16:2. HERO ID: 3491052

[Less] BACKGROUND: There is a growing literature showing associations between prenatal and . . . [More] BACKGROUND: There is a growing literature showing associations between prenatal and early-life exposure to air pollution and children's neurodevelopment. However, it is unclear if decrements in neurodevelopment observed in epidemiologic research translate into observable functional outcomes in the broader pediatric population. The objective of this study was to examine the association between early-life exposures to common urban air toxics and the use of academic support services, such as early intervention and special education within a population-based cohort of urban children.

METHODS: Data for 201,559 children born between 1994 and 1998 in New York City were obtained through administrative data linkages between birth, early intervention and educational records. Use of academic support services was ascertained from birth through attendance in 3(rd) grade. Census tract at birth was used to assign estimates of annual average ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) using the 1996 National Air Toxics Assessment. Discrete-time hazard models were fit to the data and adjusted for confounders including maternal, childhood and neighborhood factors.

RESULTS: Children with higher exposures to BTEX compounds were more likely to receive academic support services later in childhood. For example, the adjusted hazard ratio comparing children exposed to the highest decile of benzene to those with lower exposure was 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.13). Results were consistent across individual BTEX compounds, for exposure metrics which summarized exposure to all four BTEX pollutants and for multiple sensitivity analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest urban air pollution may affect children's neurodevelopment and educational trajectories. They also demonstrate the use of public health data systems to advance children's environmental health research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a wide range of polarities in urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Authors: Song, HN; Kim, CH; Lee, WY; Cho, SH (2017) Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 31:613-622. HERO ID: 3491053

[Less] RATIONALE: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants . . . [More] RATIONALE: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that have a high vapor pressure at room temperature. Some VOCs have been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), because they can bind to DNA and cause cell mutations. Therefore, monitoring of VOCs in human urine is very important to evaluate the correlation between exposure to VOCs and human disease.

METHODS: We have developed an improved analytical method for the simultaneous determination of VOCs with a wide range of polarities in human urine samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the improved method, a bi-polar carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for the optimized extraction of 15 VOCs with a wide range of polarities, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), alkylbenzenes, cresols, and naphthalene, in human urine samples.. Extracted VOCs from the human urine were effectively separated by GC using a mid-polarity column (DB-35, 35% phenylmethylpolysiloxane) and monitored by mass spectrometry using extracted ion monitoring (EIM) mode.

RESULTS: Under the optimized method, the linearity of the calibration curves was greater than 0.993. The limits of detection (LODs) at a signal to noise (S/N) ratio of 3 were 0.3-0.6 ng/mL. The coefficients of variation were in the range of 0.1 - 9.7 % for within-day variation and 0.2 - 14.2 % for day-to-day variation.

CONCLUSIONS: The method was shown to be rapid and simple for the simultaneous determination of VOCs with a wide range of polarities in human urine and it could be applied to monitoring and to biomedical investigations to check exposure of VOCs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Classification of nine malathion emulsion samples by using carbon isotope ratios and the ratio of organic solvents

Authors: Suto, N; Kawashima, H (2017) Science and Justice 57:1-5. HERO ID: 3491054

[Less] The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental . . . [More] The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental and forensics field. On November 2013, Aqli Foods Corporation in Japan dealt with complaints about stench from frozen foods produced. Subsequently, very high concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide as malathion, ethylbenzene and xylene were detected in recovered frozen foods. In particular case, we present the method to measure the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) to identify the source. The δ(13)C values of malathion ranged from -30.6‰ to -29.5‰. Because malathion used in all malathion emulsions sold in Japan is imported from the same overseas company, Cheminova, Denmark. The δ(13)C values of ethylbenzene ranged from -28.2‰ to -20.8‰ and those of m,p-xylene from -28.7‰ to -25.2‰. The differences in the δ(13)C values may be because of the material itself and chemical processing. We also determined the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene and finally categorized the nine malathion samples into five groups on the basis of this ratio and the δ(13)C values of ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene. The results of isotopic fractionation during volatilization (refrigerate, room temperature and incubator) was negligible small.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In Situ Generation of Pd-Pt Core-Shell Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide (Pd@Pt/rGO) Using Microwaves: Applications in Dehalogenation Reactions and Reduction of Olefins

Authors: Goswami, A; Rathi, AK; Aparicio, C; Tomanec, O; Petr, M; Pocklanova, R; Gawande, MB; Varma, RS; Zboril, R (2017) 9:2815-2824. HERO ID: 3491057

[Less] Core-shell nanocatalysts are a distinctive class of nanomaterials with varied potential applications . . . [More] Core-shell nanocatalysts are a distinctive class of nanomaterials with varied potential applications in view of their unique structure, composition-dependent physicochemical properties, and promising synergism among the individual components. A one-pot microwave (MW)-assisted approach is described to prepare the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported Pd-Pt core-shell nanoparticles, (Pd@Pt/rGO); spherical core-shell nanomaterials (∼95 nm) with Pd core (∼80 nm) and 15 nm Pt shell were nicely distributed on the rGO matrix in view of the choice of reductant and reaction conditions. The well-characterized composite nanomaterials, endowed with synergism among its components and rGO support, served as catalysts in aromatic dehalogenation reactions and for the reduction of olefins with high yield (>98%), excellent selectivity (>98%) and recyclability (up to 5 times); both Pt/rGO and Pd/rGO and even their physical mixtures showed considerably lower conversions (20 and 57%) in dehalogenation of 3-bromoaniline. Similarly, in the reduction of styrene to ethylbenzene, Pd@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (without rGO support) possess considerably lower conversion (60%) compared to Pd@Pt/rGO. The mechanism of dehalogenation reactions with Pd@Pt/rGO catalyst is discussed with the explicit premise that rGO matrix facilitates the adsorption of the reducing agent, thus enhancing its local concentration and expediting the hydrazine decomposition rate. The versatility of the catalyst has been validated via diverse substrate scope for both reduction and dehalogenation reactions.