Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


3,979 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Trypanocidal activity of the compounds present in Aniba canelilla oil against Trypanosoma evansi and its effects on viability of lymphocytes

Authors: Giongo, JL; Vaucher, RA; Da Silva, AS; Oliveira, CB; de Mattos, CB; Baldissera, MD; Sagrillo, MR; Monteiro, SG; Custódio, DL; Souza de Matos, M; Sampaio, PT; Teixeira, HF; Koester, LS; da Veiga Junior, VF (2017) Microbial Pathogenesis 103:13-18. HERO ID: 3491061

[Less] Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez, popularly known as "casca-preciosa" (precious bark), is a plant . . . [More] Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez, popularly known as "casca-preciosa" (precious bark), is a plant of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in the Amazon region. Its major constituent is 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, a rare molecule in plants which is responsible for this plant's cinnamon scent. The present study aimed to report the chemical characterization of the oil extracted from Aniba canelilla using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and to assess its in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma evansi, a prevalent haemoflagellate parasite that affects a broad range of mammal species in Africa, Asia and South America. The oil presented 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (83.68%) and methyleugenol (14.83%) as the two major components. The essential oil as well as both major compounds were shown to exert trypanocidal effect. Methyleugenol was slightly more active than 1-nitro-2-phenylethane. In vitro studies showed that the oil extracted from the stems of A. canelilla may be regarded as a potential natural treatment for trypanosomosis, once proven their in vivo action, may be an interesting alternative in the treatment of infected animals with T. evansi.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Degradation of polystyrene and selected analogues by biological Fenton chemistry approaches: Opportunities and limitations

Authors: Krueger, MC; Seiwert, B; Prager, A; Zhang, S; Abel, B; Harms, H; Schlosser, D (2017) Chemosphere 173:520-528. HERO ID: 3491049

[Less] Conventional synthetic polymers typically are highly resistant to microbial degradation, which is beneficial . . . [More] Conventional synthetic polymers typically are highly resistant to microbial degradation, which is beneficial for their intended purpose but highly detrimental when such polymers get lost into the environment. Polystyrene is one of the most widespread of such polymers, but knowledge about its biological degradability is scarce. In this study, we investigated the ability of the polymer-degrading brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum to attack polystyrene via Fenton chemistry driven by the redox-cycling of quinones. Indications of superficial oxidation were observed, but the overall effects on the polymer were weak. To assess factors constraining biodegradation of polystyrene, the small water-soluble model compounds ethylbenzene and isopropylbenzene (cumene) were also subjected to biodegradation by G. trabeum. Likewise, ethylbenzene sulfonate, cumene sulfonate and the dimer 1,3-diphenylbutane sulfonate were used as model compounds for comparison with polystyrene sulfonate, which G. trabeum can substantially depolymerise. All model compounds but cumene were degraded by G. trabeum and yielded a large variety of oxidised metabolites, suggesting that both the very poor bioavailability of polystyrene and its inert basic structure play important roles constraining biodegradability via biologically driven Fenton chemistry.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In Situ Generation of Pd-Pt Core-Shell Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide (Pd@Pt/rGO) Using Microwaves: Applications in Dehalogenation Reactions and Reduction of Olefins

Authors: Goswami, A; Rathi, AK; Aparicio, C; Tomanec, O; Petr, M; Pocklanova, R; Gawande, MB; Varma, RS; Zboril, R (2017) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9:2815-2824. HERO ID: 3491057

[Less] Core-shell nanocatalysts are a distinctive class of nanomaterials with varied potential applications . . . [More] Core-shell nanocatalysts are a distinctive class of nanomaterials with varied potential applications in view of their unique structure, composition-dependent physicochemical properties, and promising synergism among the individual components. A one-pot microwave (MW)-assisted approach is described to prepare the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported Pd-Pt core-shell nanoparticles, (Pd@Pt/rGO); spherical core-shell nanomaterials (∼95 nm) with Pd core (∼80 nm) and 15 nm Pt shell were nicely distributed on the rGO matrix in view of the choice of reductant and reaction conditions. The well-characterized composite nanomaterials, endowed with synergism among its components and rGO support, served as catalysts in aromatic dehalogenation reactions and for the reduction of olefins with high yield (>98%), excellent selectivity (>98%) and recyclability (up to 5 times); both Pt/rGO and Pd/rGO and even their physical mixtures showed considerably lower conversions (20 and 57%) in dehalogenation of 3-bromoaniline. Similarly, in the reduction of styrene to ethylbenzene, Pd@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (without rGO support) possess considerably lower conversion (60%) compared to Pd@Pt/rGO. The mechanism of dehalogenation reactions with Pd@Pt/rGO catalyst is discussed with the explicit premise that rGO matrix facilitates the adsorption of the reducing agent, thus enhancing its local concentration and expediting the hydrazine decomposition rate. The versatility of the catalyst has been validated via diverse substrate scope for both reduction and dehalogenation reactions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Classification of nine malathion emulsion samples by using carbon isotope ratios and the ratio of organic solvents

Authors: Suto, N; Kawashima, H (2017) Science and Justice 57:1-5. HERO ID: 3491054

[Less] The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental . . . [More] The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental and forensics field. On November 2013, Aqli Foods Corporation in Japan dealt with complaints about stench from frozen foods produced. Subsequently, very high concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide as malathion, ethylbenzene and xylene were detected in recovered frozen foods. In particular case, we present the method to measure the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) to identify the source. The δ(13)C values of malathion ranged from -30.6‰ to -29.5‰. Because malathion used in all malathion emulsions sold in Japan is imported from the same overseas company, Cheminova, Denmark. The δ(13)C values of ethylbenzene ranged from -28.2‰ to -20.8‰ and those of m,p-xylene from -28.7‰ to -25.2‰. The differences in the δ(13)C values may be because of the material itself and chemical processing. We also determined the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene and finally categorized the nine malathion samples into five groups on the basis of this ratio and the δ(13)C values of ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene. The results of isotopic fractionation during volatilization (refrigerate, room temperature and incubator) was negligible small.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Intoxication and biochemical responses of freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa to ethylbenzene

Authors: Zheng, S; Zhou, Q (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:189-198. HERO ID: 3491107

[Less] No acute toxic data of ethylbenzene on gastropod is available in literature. In the present study, the . . . [More] No acute toxic data of ethylbenzene on gastropod is available in literature. In the present study, the acute toxicity of ethylbenzene was assessed on a freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa, which was exposed to ethylbenzene concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L for 96 h. No mortality occurred, but a manifestation of intoxication (distress syndrome) was observed in part of exposed snails, and meanwhile, another part was moved normally. The distress syndrome showed clear dose- and time-dependent effects, and the 96-h EC50 value for distress syndrome was 13.3 mg/L in snail. The biochemical responses induced by ethylbenzene to the snail, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the whole body and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the hepatopancreas, were evaluated both for distressed snail and moved snail. The AChE activity of distressed snail was all inhibited more than 45 %, and the inhibition of AChE activity in the moved snail was all less than 30 % and more than 20 %, demonstrating that ethylbenzene exerted nervous toxicity to both distressed snail and moved snail. Meanwhile, the difference for AChE activity between the two different response snails was significant. Among the antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH), only GST displayed significant difference between the distressed snail and moved snail. However, the activities of enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GST) in the moved snail were greater than those in the distressed snail, no matter significantly or insignificantly, which indicated that the ability of antioxidant defense in the distressed snail was weaker than that in the moved snail. The findings here reported manifest that ethylbenzene exerted nervous toxicity to snail, and the snail with intoxication response (distress syndrome) presented larger inhibition on AChE activity and weaker antioxidant ability in comparison with the moved snail.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene containers and discrimination of these two kinds of polystyrene by principal component analysis

Authors: Lin, QB; Song, XC; Fang, H; Wu, YM; Wang, ZW (2017) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34:126-132. HERO ID: 3491064

[Less] The migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) containers . . . [More] The migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) containers into isooctane was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EPS containers were in two-sided contact with isooctane at temperatures of 25 and 40°C. It was shown that recycled EPS gave greater migration ratios compared with virgin EPS, which indicated that styrene and ethylbenzene migrated more easily from recycled EPS. In addition, an analytical method to distinguish between virgin and recycled EPS containers was established by GC-MS followed by principal component analysis (PCA). The relative peak area of the identified compounds was used as input data for PCA. Distinct separation between virgin and recycled EPS was achieved on a score plot. Extension of this method to other plastics may be of great interest for recycled plastics identification.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mutagenic products are promoted in the nitrosation of tyramine

Authors: González-Jiménez, M; Arenas-Valgañón, J; García-Santos, M; Calle, E; Casado, J (2017) Food Chemistry 216:60-65. HERO ID: 3491292

[Less] Tyramine is a biogenic compound derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, and is . . . [More] Tyramine is a biogenic compound derived from the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, and is therefore present at important concentrations in a broad range of raw and fermented foods. Owing to its chemical properties, tyramine can react with nitrite, a common food additive, in the acidic medium of stomach to form N- and C-nitroso compounds. Since toxicology studies have shown that the product of C-nitrosation of tyramine is mutagenic, in the present article tyramine nitrosation mechanisms have been characterized in order to discern which of them are favoured under conditions similar to those in the human stomach lumen. To determine the kinetic course of nitrosation reactions, a systematic study of the nitrosation of ethylbenzene, phenethylamine, and tyramine was carried out, using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that, under conditions mimicking those of the stomach lumen, the most favoured reaction in tyramine is C-nitrosation, which generates mutagenic products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicity of acidization fluids used in California oil exploration

Authors: Abdullah, K; Malloy, T; Stenstrom, MK; Suffet, IHMel (2017) Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 99:78-94. HERO ID: 3491297

[Less] There has been considerable public interest regarding the toxicity of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, . . . [More] There has been considerable public interest regarding the toxicity of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, but little is known about its sister technique, acidizing. Little to no research has been done on what the chemicals of acidization are and what impact they could have on humans and the environment. This paper discusses the differences between three acidizing techniques (acid maintenance, matrix acidization, and acid fracturing) and quantifies the amounts of the chemicals used for each. Washington State's Quick Chemical Assessment Tool is used to identify F-graded toxins, which are known carcinogens, mutagens, reproductive toxins, developmental toxins, endocrine disruptors, or high acute toxicity chemicals. The analysis of the present data shows that there have been over 600 instances of acidizing in urbanized Southern and Central California from April 2013 to August 2015. Although most of the chemicals of acidizing are similar to hydraulic fracturing, those used most frequently are different. There are close to 200 specific chemicals used in acidization, with at least 28 of them being F-graded hazardous chemicals. Some are used frequently in the range of 100-1000 kg per treatment, such as hydrofluoric acid, xylene, diethylene glycol, and ethyl benzene. Close to 90 more chemicals are identified using non-specific names as trade secrets or reported with no quantity. Unlike hydraulic fracturing the chemical concentrations in acidizing are high, ranging from 6% to 18%, and the waste returns can be highly acidic, in the range of pH 0-3. With this paper it is hoped that acidization becomes part of the larger discussion on concerns with oil exploration and be evaluated by appropriate authorities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In situ chemical oxidation of BTEX and MTBE by ferrate: pH dependence and stability

Authors: Pepino Minetti, RC; Macaño, HR; Britch, J; Allende, MC (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 324:448-456. HERO ID: 3491036

[Less] Gasoline spills from underground storage tanks are a worldwide environmental problem. BTEX and MtBE . . . [More] Gasoline spills from underground storage tanks are a worldwide environmental problem. BTEX and MtBE are the compounds of gasoline that present the highest degree of migration due to their chemical properties, and are therefore able to impact groundwater reservoirs. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an emerging technology for groundwater remediation. Several compounds such as permanganate and hydrogen peroxide among others have been used as oxidants, a strong impact of pH on the relative stabilities and reduction potentials having been in each case determined. This paper presents a study of stability and degradation of BTEX and MtBE at different pH ranges of a novel oxidant for ISCO, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4). To carry out this study, BTEX and MtBE solutions were prepared in different phosphate buffers (pH 5,8; 7; 9; 10 and 11) in concentration ratio of (FeO4(-2))/(BTEX+MtBE)=100:1. Each solution was analyzed at different times by gas chromatography with photoionization and tandem mass spectrometer detector. The results show a higher degree of degradation at pH 7 for Benzene and Toluene, and at pH 9 for Ethyl benzene and Xylenes, while MtBE proved recalcitrant to degradation by ferrate. The most favorable pH for stability of FeO4(-2) solution was confirmed in 9-10.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

VOC characteristics and inhalation health risks in newly renovated residences in Shanghai, China

Authors: Dai, H; Jing, S; Wang, H; Ma, Y; Li, L; Song, W; Kan, H (2017) Science of the Total Environment 577:73-83. HERO ID: 3453725

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposure to indoor VOCs is expected to link to a variety of negative health . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Exposure to indoor VOCs is expected to link to a variety of negative health outcome. The popularity of decorations and refurbishment in homes in China has given rise to indoor elevated VOC levels, potentially posing health threats to residents.

METHODS: In this study, concentrations of 101 VOC compounds and associated health risks were investigated in newly renovated homes in Shanghai. The potential excess inhalation health risks from home exposure of 17 health-related VOCs were estimated by the Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) and Reference Concentration (RfC) proposed by US EPA. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were used to assess the uncertainty associated with the estimates of health risks.

RESULTS: The dominant groups by mass concentration were oxygenated VOCs (o-VOCs), aromatics, alkanes and halogenated VOCs (x-VOCs) .12 VOCs with IARC's confirmed or probable carcinogens ratings were detected with a >60% detection frequency in the total samples. The mean concentrations of BTEX (benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene) were 2.32μg/m(3), 200.13μg/m(3), 39.56μg/m(3), 32.59μg/m(3) and 26.33μg/m(3) respectively, generally higher than those in older homes reported in previous studies except benzene. The mean concentration of methylene chloride (47.43μg/m(3)) and 1,2-dichloroethane (33.83μg/m(3)) were noticeably higher than the levels reported in previous studies in Hong Kong, Japan and Canada. Whereas the mean concentration of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (5.53μg/m(3)) were similar to the results of Canadian national survey but lower than those in Japan. The concentrations of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and methylene chloride, ethylbenzene presented a mean cancer risk at 7.39×10(-6), 1.95×10(-6), 1.62×10(-6), 1.04×10(-6) respectively, above the US EPA proposed acceptable risk level of 1×10(-6). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the VOC exposure concentration have a greater impact than the IUR values on the risk assessment.

CONCLUSION: This study highlights the characteristics of VOCs in recently renovated homes and has implications for the adverse health effects that result from exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons in indoor air.