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1,4-Dioxane - with inhalation update

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  • 1.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Health consultation. 1,4-Dioxane in private drinking water near Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Ault Field

    Author: ATSDR
    (2005) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation in response . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation in response to a request made in September 2005 by Navy officials associated with Naval Air Station (NAS), Whidbey Island to evaluate the safety of drinking water from off-base private wells. The Navy has been closely monitoring groundwater contamination plumes within NAS Whidbey Island and has been operating an air-stripping groundwater treatment system to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at this site since 1995.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 2.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for 1,4 dioxane

    Author: ATSDR
    (2012) Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. [ATSDR Tox Profile]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies. The complete list of topics covered (chapter titles) is shown at the left and in more detail further down this page. The focus of the profile is on health and toxicologic information. Therefore, each profile begins with a Public Health Statement that summarizes in nontechnical language, a substance's relevant properties. A useful two page information sheet, the ToxFAQs, is also available.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Differential expression of gender-dependent hepatic isoforms of cytochrome P-450 by pulse signals in the circulating masculine episodic growth hormone profile of the rat

    Authors: Agrawal, AK; Shapiro, BH
    (2000) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 292:228-237.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The masculine profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion characterized by episodic bursts ( approximately . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The masculine profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion characterized by episodic bursts ( approximately 200-300 ng/ml plasma) every 3.5 to 4 h, separated by interpulse periods devoid of detectable hormone, was restored at various peak heights to hypophysectomized, thyroxine-supplemented male rats to determine the minimum signaling amplitudes of the hormone pulse required to maintain male-like expression levels of gender-dependent hepatic cytochrome P-450s (CYP P-450s). Restoration of the pulse to as little as 2.5% of normal elevated CYP2C11 (the predominant isoform in male liver) protein and dependent catalytic activities to approximately 50% of normal, whereas transcript concentrations increased to 150% of physiologic. Renaturalizing the masculine plasma GH profile to 5% of normal was sufficient to increase CYP2C11 protein and catalytic activity to intact levels while further elevating mRNA to approximately 200% of normal (subsequently declining to intact concentrations with physiologic pulses). In dramatic contrast, CYP2C7 (mRNA and protein) declined to barely detectable levels following hypophysectomy and remained completely unresponsive to GH until replaced with the physiologic masculine profile. The repressive effects of the episodic GH profile on CYP2A2 and CYP3A2 expression similarly required replacement of near physiologic pulse amplitudes. Exhibiting an intermediate response to the masculine profile, restoration of 25% of the normal pulse amplitude was sufficient to significantly elevate CYP2A1 and CYP2C6 expression levels in hypophysectomized rats. These findings illustrate the importance of the pulse amplitudes (in addition to the interpulse periods) in the circulating masculine GH profile as differential signals regulating the expression and/or repression of each sex-dependent hepatic P-450 isoform in the rat.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 4.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    1,4-dioxane. Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices

    Author: ACGIH
    (2011)
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)

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  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and the risk assessment process for methylene chloride

    Authors: Andersen, ME; Clewell, HJ III; Gargas, ML; Smith, FA; Reitz, RH
    (1987) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 87:185-205.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane, DCM) is metabolized by two pathways: one dependent on oxidation . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane, DCM) is metabolized by two pathways: one dependent on oxidation by mixed function oxidases (MFO) and the other dependent on glutathione S-transferases (GST). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model based on knowledge of these pathways was used to describe the metabolism of DCM in four mammalian species (mouse, rat, hamster, and humans). Kinetic constants for the model were derived from in vivo experiments or the literature. The model was constructed to distinguish contributions from the two pathways of metabolism in lung and liver tissue, and to permit extrapolation from rodents to humans. Model validation was conducted by comparing predicted blood concentration time-course data in rats, mice, and humans with experimental data from these species. The tumor incidence in two chronic studies of DCM toxicity in mice was correlated with various measures of target tissue dose calculated with the PB-PK model. Tumor incidence correlated well with tissue AUC (area under the concentration/time curve) and amount of DCM metabolized by the GST pathway. However, tumor incidence did not correlate with the amount of DCM metabolized by the MFO pathway. Because of its low chemical reactivity, DCM is unlikely to be directly involved in carcinogenesis. Consequently, metabolism of DCM by GST appears to be important in carcinogenesis. The PB-PK model was used to estimate target doses of presumed toxic chemical species in humans exposed to DCM by inhalation or by drinking water. Target tissue doses in humans exposed to low concentrations of DCM are 140- to 170-fold lower (inhalation) or 50- to 210-fold lower (drinking water) than would be expected from the linear extrapolation and body surface area factors which have been used in conventional risk assessment methods (D. V. Singh, H. L. Spitzer, and P. D. White (1985). Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride). EPA/600/8-82/004F). The PB-BK analysis thus suggests that conventional risk analyses greatly overestimate the risk in humans exposed to low concentrations of DCM. PB-PK considerations provide a scientific basis for risk assessment, improve experimental design in chronic studies, and structure collection of quantitative metabolic constants required for risk assessment.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Studies on the carcinogenic activity of protein-denaturing agents: Hepatocarcinogenicity of dioxane

    Authors: Argus, MF; Arcos, JC; Hoch-Ligeti, C
    (1965) Journal of the National Cancer Institute 35:949-958.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The carcinogenic activity of diethylformamide, diethylacetamide, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dinitrosophthalamide, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The carcinogenic activity of diethylformamide, diethylacetamide, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dinitrosophthalamide, heptylamine, and dioxane, compounds selected both because of their potency to denature proteins and their structural resemblance to nitrosamine derivatives, was investigated. Dioxane, when administered orally, was found to be a hepatic carcinogen, producing hepatomas in 6 of 26 rats. Diethylacetamide ingestion produced a transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney in 1 of 30 rats. Dioxane, diethylacetamide, and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dinitrosophthalamide caused severe kidney damage. The possible relationship between the carcinogenic activity of dioxane and its capacity to alter cellular metabolic control sites by virtue of its protein-denaturing ability is discussed.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Dose-response and ultrastructural alterations in dioxane carcinogenesis. Influence of methylcholanthrene on acute toxicity

    Authors: Argus, MF; Sohal, RS; Bryant, GM; Hoch-Ligeti, C; Arcos, JC
    (1973) European Journal of Cancer 9:237-243.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A dose-response study with dioxane revealed the hepatocarcinogenicity of this compound in male rats . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A dose-response study with dioxane revealed the hepatocarcinogenicity of this compound in male rats to be a function of the total oral dose administered. The progressive development of these tumors was studied histopathologically, and detailed electronmicroscopy was carried out on precancerous liver tissue and on hepatocellular carcinoma produced by dioxane. The LD50 dose of dioxane in male rats (5•60 g/kg body weight) is significantly decreased (5•18 g/kg) in animals pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. This suggests that a metabolite is involved in the toxicity and possibly carcinogenicity of dioxane, and that both may be potentiated by enzyme inducers. Because certain hydroperoxides are known to be carcinogenic, it was shown by micro-iodimetric titrations that the dioxane used does not contain a dioxane hydroperoxide and that no peroxide is formed under the conditions of administration.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    The genotoxicity of 1,4-dioxane

    Author: Ashby, J
    (1994) Mutation Research 322:141-142.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds

    Author: Atkinson, R
    (1989) Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 1:1-246.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The literature kinetic and mechanistic data for the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with organic . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The literature kinetic and mechanistic data for the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with organic compounds (through 1988) have been tabulated, reviewed and evaluated over the entire temperature ranges for which data are available.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Comments on R. Karbe and R.L. Kerlin (2002) Cystic degeneration/spongiosis hepatis (Toxicol Pathol 30 (2), 216-227)

    Author: Bannasch, P
    (2003) Toxicologic Pathology 31:566-570. [Letter]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Karbe and Kerlin have questioned the classification of spongiosis hepatis as a preneoplastic lesion . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Karbe and Kerlin have questioned the classification of spongiosis hepatis as a preneoplastic lesion or even a benign neoplasm, designated as spongiotic pericytoma, and have proposed to use the term cystic degeneration for this lesion in rats and fish. However, the reclassification of spongiosis as cystic degeneration is unwarranted for several reasons. In the rat, spongiosis hepatis represents a specific pathomorphologic entity, originating from the perisinusoidal (Ito) cells; it may occur spontaneously in aged animals but its number and size increases significantly after exposure to various (hepato)carcinogens. Comparative morphological, immunohistochemical, and autoradiographic studies in rats exposed to N-nitrosomorpholine revealed that spongiosis hepatis is an integral part of larger proliferative Ito-cell aggregates showing an autonomous, progressive growth. The classification of spongiosis hepatis as a benign neoplasm is based on these findings that endorse and extend previous considerations on the preneoplastic or neoplastic nature of this lesion. Irrespective of the classification of spongiosis hepatis as a benign neoplastic or a preneoplastic lesion, there is compelling evidence for its reliability as a sensitive marker for (hepato)carcinogenic effects in rats and fish. The data collected by Karbe and Kerlin support rather than contradict the reliability of spongiosis hepatis as an effect marker for carcinogens.
    Tagged With: External Review Draft (2011), Final (2013)
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Final (2013) (219)
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