Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used in an increasing number of industrial and commercial applications; this has resulted in an increased release of AgNPs into the environment. Understanding the interaction of AgNPs with biological surfaces is important, as such understanding will facilitate predictions of the further effects of nanoparticles on biological systems. This study highlights the interaction of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) with the biological surfaces of the nematode C. elegans. General toxicity, as proxied by factors such as mortality and reproduction, was evaluated in nematode growth medium (NGM), which provides a more homogeneous distribution of cAgNPs than in K-medium. The survival and reproduction of C. elegans evidenced a clear reduction in up to 100 mg/L and 10 mg/L of cAgNPs, respectively. We also noted significant interactions of cAgNPs with the biological surfaces of C. elegans. Severe epidemic edema and burst were detected in the exposure group, which may be associated with secondary infections in soil ecosystems. We observed no evidence of cAgNPs intake by C. elegans. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report to investigate the nanotoxicity of cAgNPs as related to biological surfaces of C. elegans; further research is needed to study the fate of cAgNPs inside of C. elegans.